Hidden and intermediate states of nucleons

by
U.V.S. Seshavatharam
DIP QA Engineer, Lanco Industries Ltd, Srikalahasti-517641, A.P, India
E-mail: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com

Prof. S. LAKSHMINARAYANA
Department Of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Vizag-530003, AP, India.
E-mail: lnsrirama@yahoo.com


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Abstract
Nuclear planck energy is given by

where Gs is the strong nuclear gravitational constant [1, 2, 3] and is equal to N²Gc.
Here N is Avagadro number and GC is the classical gravitational constant.
In the previous paper [1] it is suggested that there exists 2 kinds of mass units.

They are observed and hidden mass units and their mass ratio is XE = 295.0606338.
XE can be called as the lepton-quark mass generator [1 – 4].
In this paper this idea is applied to the nucleons.

Hidden mass unit of nucleon can be given as

It is noticed that there exists an intermediate hidden mass state in between neutron and proton.
If nuclear stability factor is defined as

hidden mass of the intermediate state can be given as

Observable mass of this hidden intermediate state can be given as

If mec² is the rest energy of electron, this observable intermediate state gains a mass-energy of ½mec²  and transforms to neutron.
By loosing a mass-energy of 2mec²  transforms to proton.

Error is related with

Here Ec and Ea are the semi emepirical mass formula [1, 3, 15, 16, 17] coulomb and asymmetry energy constants.
Finally it is suggested that pairing energy constant of the semi empirical mass formula is

Asymmetry energy constant

Ec, Ea are related with XE as

Volume and surface energy constants are related as

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346 comments to Hidden and intermediate states of nucleons

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Where the energy of Figueiredo Motor comes from?

    I made a Figueiredo Motor somes years ago.
    The motor uses only a magnetic loadstone (it is not used any electric source suply).

    Here is the motor working:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Foi4tNdAgcU&feature=relmfu

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=br3jqrhyzYQ

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VOK3ZtpTkw&feature=relmfu

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7gYP2O9GUUc&feature=relmfu

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Er-BmzbeWec&feature=relmfu

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHyFh0IaAvk&feature=relmfu

    Here is the theory by Antonio Figueiredo (inventor of the motor), according to which the motor works:

    http://peswiki.com/index.php/Article:_How_magnet_motors_work

    In the Peswiki article I also show how to make it yourself.

    Regards
    WLAD

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels,
    You are right, but we will employ experts of the field: my task will finish with the reactor, then the steam guys will get the lead.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco:
    We will produce steam and electricity after we will have finished the tests and the R&D with the Hot Cat.
    We are still working on it, measuring, testing, testing and measuring again…but we are making dramatic improvements.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Markus K.:
    The mormal E-Cat has not lost my interest, the problem is that I have to focus on the hot cat because it is from it that we will get electric power, which will give us a pwermanent self sustaining mode. We are selling the 1 Thermal MW plants right now, they are very important. But I am structurally an inventor: for me the most important thing is the next, the one that has not been born yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Despite the pleas of my fellow enthusiasts to immediately see electricity production, I would urge you to proceed slowly. It is one thing to demonstrate the necessary high temperatures for commercial electric steam generation and another to build and to test the resulting high pressure steam. At 600C, steam is under significant pressure and your containment mechanisms must support that pressure and temperature or bad things will happen. Please remember, safety first.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luca Salvarani:
    We are not yet working with turbines, we are still working with the reactors to be sure of their reliable performance. I think that soon we will be able to start the work with the turnbines, making high temperature and pressure steam. When we will arrive to that point we will have a tremendous work made.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Herb Gillis wrote in September 24th, 2012 at 5:29 PM

    “Andrea Rossi:
    So; are we talking about a nuclear phenomenon at all? Can you be sure its nuclear? If its not nuclear then we have a very deep question as to where the excess energy is coming from! Nothing comes from nothing.

    Dear Herb,
    I suggest you to read two itens in the paper How repulsive gravity contributes for cold fusion occurrence in Rossi-Focardi experiment
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/How%20repulsive%20gravity%20contributes%20for%20cold%20fusion%20occurrence.pdf

    published in Rossi’s JNP:

    7- How it would work Rossi-Focardi experiment without additives

    8- How H-Ni reaction occurs in presence of additives

    regards
    WLAD

  • Luca Salvarani

    Dear Andrea

    How’s going your work on the turbine for the electric conversion? How much efficiency are you able to reach and at what temperature? Is still a work in progress or you already have a reliable definitive turbine? It seems to me a very important issue, as much as the COP.
    Thank you very much for your great work!

  • Markus K.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    i don’t understand why has the normal 1MW E-Cat lost your interest?
    I mean this product is already the energy revolution and you are not pushing it, selling it, promoting it, not even showing it.

    The world needs the E-Cat urgently and you are only handcrafting it with 1 or 2 units in a year? This doesn’t make any sense to me.

    And even more from a business point of view this doesn’t seem to be a good strategye, since the 1 MW units could create CASHFLOW. E.g. to kpay teh bill for your fully robotized manufacturing plant for the home E-Cat and pay back the huge investment costs.

    Best regards,
    Markus

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Hank Mills,
    The concept of vacuum energy is very interesting. I have been thinking of how we could extract thermic energy from a gas that has the same temperature as the environment. This idea comes up:
    In a gas, there is a Maxwell-Bolzmann distribution on the kinetic energy of all the particles. When exposed suddenly to a vacuum, the “hottest” particles enter faster in the zone that was previously vacuum. The coldest, slower particles stay behind. That way, the vacuum is filled with particles with “more than average” energy. So the first moments after the creation of the vacuum (or collaption of the pressure field, you name it) in a random distributed system with collisions gives advantage to the fastest particles to fill the empty space, and so concentrating or “filtering” the entropy in a higher and lower temperature zone. We have to find a way to tap in that higher energy zone, to create a usefull energy flow Q towards the environment BEFORE the normal gas laws apply. Energy conversion allways needs a flow Q. With classical gas-laws on expansion of gasses, every particle looses a proportional part of its energy. But with fast expansions towards a vacuum, you get separation

    With magnetics it is probably the same, but that I do not understand.

    So the energy that comes from nowhere, seems to come from the entropy of the environment that was “filtered” at the moment of the collapse of the field/vacuum.

    With plasma we have the capabilities to create vacuums when the plasma collapses, and doing so we can filter the levels of entropy in a gas. If we take a look at the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, there might be very very fast particles.

    For doing this with magnetic energy, I will have to think a little longer. Sorry if this is not always very understandable, I am very tired because of some medication I took.

    Maybe these “collapse of field and concentration of energies from the environment”- things are also possible on sub-atomic level. A very normal thing, it seems. Nothing exotic.

    Best Regards,
    Koen

  • Steven N. Karels

    Speculation on Hot eCat Testing

    Based on previous comments, let us assume a Hot eCat unit was tested in Miami, FL with the following assumptions and then derive the results of those assumptions.

    Dimensions: 33cm in length, 9 cm outside diameter, no exposed inner diameter but assume an internal cavity 3cm inside diameter containing the fuel and two resistive heaters with an effective resistance of 6 ohms.

    Outside Temperature: 1,050C

    Orientation: Horizontal cylinder, no conduction to speak of, convection and radiation heat transfer only, room temperature 20C

    Surface emissivity: 0.96

    Total Heat Transfer: 14.7 kW (convective: 786 W; radiative: 13.9 kW)

    Inner temperature: (assuming Nickel cylinder: 1,135C)

    Electrical Power input: 120VAC @ 6 ohms = 2.4 kW

    COP: 6.125

  • SpinDoctor

    @Herb Gillis, Hank Mills:
    how about thermal hard x-ray?

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    when do you plan to perform a test producing actual steam?
    And when a test using this steam to drive a turbine?

    Regards,
    Marco.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hank Mills:
    As you correctly write, I cannot give this kind od information, even if by exclusion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco:
    Yes, the heat exchange will be through the external surface.
    No, we didn’t yet make steam.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.:
    Please see the answer to Frank Acland,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland:
    I meant that we are very close to make a plant able to make electric power, because the high temperature prototype is going extremely well.
    So far…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Manuel Cilia:
    We are delivering only industrial plants, therefore not for hotels. The heating up time for the industrial plants is about 1-2 hours.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr Rossi,
    Thank you for all your hard work. How long does it take to get the ecats(hot and warm) to operating temperature from a cold start. e.g for heating hot water in a large hotel where peak hot loads are very high and quick response times are needed.

    Thank you

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Many people are wondering about the phrase “We have the electric power”. Does this mean you have already produced electricity with the hot cat, or you will now be able to produce electricity?

    Many thanks!

    Frank acland

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, it seems that things are going wery well, and we hope that soon we will read more exciting news about.

    Among the other things, you have said that: “…We have the electric power, this is the truth….”

    What does it mean? Are you already producing electricity with the Hot-Cat or is it the next near step?

    Electric Regards,
    Italo R.

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    having removed the internal cylinder means that the water/steam must pass outside the cylinder, so the actual reactor should not have the putty and must be enclosed in a (slightly?) larger tube acting as water/steam container.
    Have you reached this stage of test, namely water/steam flowing outside the hot cat?
    If yes, what is the temperature?
    If not, when you foresee to do this test?

    Best Regards,
    Marco.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    If Herb Gills answered his own question, I take that to imply the power produced by the ECAT may come from the zero point energy field, or what some researchers just call vacuum energy. That is the only way something can come from, apparently, nothing at all — even if it is really coming from another realm or dimension of some sort. Of course, this could be totally incorrect, and I admit I should not be reading too much into comments you need to keep vague to protect your intellectual property. However, it was the first thing that came to mind.

    Hank

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    We are making in Miami a wonderful work. We are raching tremendous results with the High temperature reactors. We will give the results as soon as possible, but I, honestly, think we are working well. The measurements are taken by the peer reviewers of the formers Testers. The results are the same, but we made substantial improvenents. We have been able to eliminate the internal cylinder without melting the reactor, so now the measurements are easier. We have the electric power, this is the truth.
    Andrea Rossi, from Miami, Florida, USA.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hermano Tobia:
    When a product will exist, we will test it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco:
    No, I did not.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    You are right, this is one of the major sectors to take advantage of the E-Cats, once we will be able to make electric power.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Avi:
    Just write to
    infoleonardocorp1996.com
    explaining well who you are, where you want to put the plant.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gills:
    You answered to yourself in the last 2 lines.
    I already gave all the information I could about the charge and the catalyst and can’t give more.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    Having read the extensive discussion of what defines a catalyst, I would like now to ask what defines a fuel. Since it now appears that the nickel charge is not being consumed in significant amounts (ie. being transmuted permanently to another element or another nickel isotope), in what sense can it be considered the fuel? Can you be certain the nickel is not just a catalyst, and some other element is the fuel (ie. perhaps what you think is the catalyst is really the fuel)? Over the past several days you seem to have ruled out deuterium and helium as ultimate products of the LENR reaction. This seems to indicate hydrogen is not the true fuel either (unless the ultimate reaction products are heavier than helium). So; are we talking about a nuclear phenomenon at all? Can you be sure its nuclear? If its not nuclear then we have a very deep question as to where the excess energy is coming from! Nothing comes from nothing.

  • Avi

    Hi
    What is the procedure for buying 1MW plant of the ecat?
    (Can i get phone number or email?)

    Thanks

  • Steven N. Karels

    Use of Hot eCat Technology in Aluminum Smelter Industries

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    When you move into Hot eCat applications, I believe one area that makes sense is Aluminum Smelting plants. These are electrical energy intensive operations. Currently, Aluminum smelting operations consume 3% of the global electrical production.

    Over the last decade, Aluminum prices have dropped while electrical power costs have increased. I suspect that major Aluminum production companies would love to have a dedicated Hot eCat Electrical production on their planet property that they can control and exploit the low cost of a Nickel-Hydrogen fuel process.

    Worldwide, Aluminum smelters pay an average cost of between $29USD and $55USD per MegaWatt-Hour (MWH). The exception being Russia where Aluminum smelters are co-located with Hydro-Electric dams. A previous posting suggested that the fuel cost of a Hot eCat should be around $9USD per MWH. A typical Aluminum smelting operation requires around 15 MWH of electricity to produce 1 metric ton of Aluminum. Typical plants produce 100,000 to 300,000 tonnes per year. So a 500MW electrical production facility in an Aluminum smelting plant’s facility makes sense. Non-recurring cost for a coal-fired 500MW plant runs about $650M. I suspect Hot eCat based plants could be made for less than that value. (I would hope a Hot eCat electrical plant could be turn-keyed for less than $1MUSD per MW when in the 300MW to 1000MW range).

    This has multiple benefits — (1) decreases the cost of Aluminum and/or improve profitability; (2) reduce the use of coal-fired electric plants (or decrease the need for new ones); (3) Release more hydro-ectric power generation for other uses and (4) reduction in the carbon impact on the plants.

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    Have you tried to put a sample of Ni nanopowder, charged with H, with or without the secret catalysts, into an MRI scanner (perharps in a bowl of water) and perform an MRI scan, to see if the RF pulse at the Larmour frequency is sufficient to start the reaction?

  • Hermano Tobia

    Dear Andrea,
    as for thermoelectric conversion, maybe this link is of yout interest, as authors claim 15% efficiency. Anyway the material is still in R&D phase, and optimisitically will be commercially available in 2-3 years:

    http://www.nature.com/news/out-of-disorder-comes-electricity-1.11445

    Best regards
    Hermano Tobia

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Hank Mills wrote in September 21st, 2012 at 4:09 PM

    “Hello Andrea,
    You stated today that you are not using a chemical catalyst. In the past you have confirmed that the catalyst is one or more chemical elements placed into the reactor core in addition to nickel and hydrogen. Were such elements, in addition to nickel and hydrogen, ever used? Are you using such chemical catalysts now? Did something change, or did you never really use them in the first place?
    I am very confused.”

    Andrea Rossi replied in September 23rd, 2012 at 3:09 AM

    “Dear Hank Mills:
    In our case we have a chemical product that acts as a “catalyst” of our process, which is not chemical; as a matter of fact, the definition “catalyst” is anomalous in our case, it is used in its original semantic meaning, not in the meaning that it normally has in chemical reactions.

    Dear Andrea,
    I think we could explain it as follows:

    a) a chemical catalyst helps chemical reactions. It is not consumed in the chemical process (it is not formed any new substance in which chemical structure the element used as catalyst is present).

    b) a nuclear catalyst (used in the eCat) helps nuclear reactions. It is not consumed in the nuclear process (the element used as catalyst do not suffer nuclear transmutation).

    regards
    WLAD

  • Hank Mills

    Hello Everyone,

    I will try to keep this as brief as possible, because do to computer problems I do not have access to a regular computer and writing this without a real keyboard is really tedious and time consuming.

    First, to answer a question, I am certain that in the past Adrea Rossi, when questioned, reconfirmed that one or more chemical elements in addition to nickel and hydrogen were used as catalysts. It may be in the JONP or elsewhere, but I am sure he confirmed it. In addition, he has used the term additives and other descriptive terms that indicate physical elements are placed in the reactor core in addition to nickel and hydrogen.

    Now, the question is if the substances are chemical catalysts in the truest sense of the word. A true chemical catalyst speeds up a chemical – not nuclear – reaction. One possible function of the catalysts is to break apart Molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. If the catalysts are helping or accelerating this process, they would be acting like a chemical catalyst. However, by doing so they may also be helping create the fuel needed for the nuclear reactions — atomic hydrogen. Also, they may help allow the atomic hydrogen to be utilized properly in the nuclear reactions, or to stay in the atomic hydrogen form long enough to participate in the nuclear reactions. These functions would be something more than a chemical catalytic process.

    So depending on their function, the elements (that can be found on the periodic table) may both have a function as a chemical catalyst and as cold fusion or LENR facilitators. The full explanation maybe even more complex.

    Finally, some individuals have stated that various processes or methods such as radio frequency stimulation, pressure application, heat application, or geometric modification of the nickel may be considered as catalysts. While these processes would not be accurately defined as true chemical catalysts, they obviously have a roll to play in making the tech work. I am not sure what the best term for them would be.

    In conclusion, there are many fascinating aspects of NI-H fusion that make it work and produce excess heat. From chemical catalytic processes (atomic hydrogen production), nuclear facilitating substances that are not true chemical catalysts, and everything else, we have a lot to ponder until the full theory can safely be disclosed. Hopefully, by then data from the hot cat in self sustain mode can be released.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lucio Martini:
    1- For the domestic plants we need specific certification, we do not have it yet. We can only sell our plants to industrial applications.
    2- The Seebeck effect has still a too low efficiency, but if somebody will offer us a thermoelectric couple able to give at least 20% of efficiency we will buy immediately an apparatus to make tests.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joe:
    Of course yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Dr Rossi,

    Does the hydrogen in the Hot Cat ever actually make contact with the nickel?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Italo R.

    @ all readers:

    This is the recent interview given by Dr. Rossi (it’s in italian).

    It is really interesting:

    http://radio.rcdc.it/archives/fusione-fredda-andrea-rossi-e-il-sogno-di-tesla-105847/

  • Lucio Martini

    Estimated Eng Rossi
    Two questions for you:

    1) With regard to the safety certifications I would hazard a guess:
    -If several people (20/50 or more) agree to use the domestic E-Cat, in their homes, accepting “the risks” possibly after a “course” at Leonardo Corp or any of its licensees to be able to intervene in case of failure or incidents, maybe “turning off” the apparatus. After an adequate trial (ono / two or more months), people presenting the proper relationship about use “de facto” to the e-cats to the responsible for certification, should take note of the situation and finally release the document, or not?
    But may be bureaucracy = burreaucrazy? (Or maybe I’m too naive?)

    2) On ABC Science on Sptember 20th you can read
    “Scientists in the United States have developed a material that beats the record for converting waste heat into power.
    The compound is a doped-up derivative of lead telluride, a semiconductor first used in the Apollo moon landings to provide astronauts with a renewable, thermoelectric power source.”
    And about COP
    “The new material has a ZT rating of 2.2, outstripping the previous record reached earlier this year of 1.7”
    If this is a true piece of information is possible think about domestic e-cat like electric power source (with doped-up derivative of lead telluride)?

    Warm regards.
    In bocca al lupo! E … il lupo.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Joseph Fine:
    Of course we are encompassed in the circle #2.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Hank, Koen, Monti, Andrea Rossi:

    Definition of catalyst:

    http://cougar.eb.com/dictionary/catalyst

    Main Entry: cat·a·lyst
    Function: noun
    1 : a substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a usually faster rate or under different conditions (as at a lower temperature) than otherwise possible
    2 : an agent that provokes or speeds significant change or action

    The Energy Catalyzer will be a catalyst for the Energy Revolution.

    Best regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    We still depend on the Einstein equation, from which derives that 1 g of mass is worth 23 thousand MWh. We have anyway to change the charges every 6 months, for many reasons and for safety.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Monti:
    Done: please see the last answer to Hank Mills.
    Thank you for the advise.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hank Mills:
    The high percentage of Cu found 2 years ago was probably due to impurities and to the difficulty to take, at those quantities, samples actually representative of the mass.
    Let me also return to the issue of the catalysts, because I have been advised ( see the comment of Monti) that it has been misunderstood the difference between a chemical catalyst and a chemical product that in our case acts as a “catalyst”. In the first case we have a chemical reaction, catalyzed from some chemical product. In our case we have a chemical product that acts as a “catalyst” of our process, which is not chemical; as a matter of fact, the definition “catalyst” is anomalous in our case, it is used in its original semantic meaning, not in the meaning that it normally has in chemical reactions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Hello Andrea,

    There is one additional issue that is lingering in my mind that I need to ask you about. Recently, if my memory serves, you stated only tiny amounts of copper are produced in the reactor core of an ECAT. If I remember correctly, you used the term picograms to describe the tiny ammount of copper produced. However, one of the early ECATs was said to have transmuted thirty percent of the nickel charge into copper. This is a large ammount of copper, because back then an ECAT might use a hundred grams of charge. Also, this copper produced had to come from transmutation, because you specified that the stainless steel used for the reactor core did not contain any copper.

    So my question is why do ECATs now only produce picograms of copper, but back then produced multiple grams? Were only tiny ammounts of copper ever produced, or has there been some change that now reduces the amount of nickel transmuted into copper? It seems like some change that reduces the number of transmutations must have been made, because all those grams of copper in the early ECATs had to come from somewhere.

    Thank you for any information you can provide. I totally realize that to protect your intellectual property you cannot give lots of details.

    One day when the theory is released I’ll be in ECAT-geek nervana.

    Thank you.

    Hank

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Andrea,
    Does the fact that transmutation is only a side effect make that the reactors can last much much longer than 6 months ? Near infinity ?
    Only Hydrogen needs to be added from time to time because of the diffusion ?
    Will your theory be understandable by ordinary people (non-nuclear and/or non-scientists)?
    Kind Regards
    Koen

    PS: I wrote this from another mailaccount, the previous still is blocked.

  • Monti

    Rossi, faccia attenzione: Hank Mills le ha chiesto se adopera un “catalizzatore chimico”; lei ha risposto “no, dei prodotti chimici”. E Mills: “ah bene, sono contento che mi conferma nuovamente (ma quando mai?) che usa un catalizzatore chimico”.

    L’incomprensione, se di questo si tratta, viene gia’ cavalcata dai suoi detrattori. Le consiglio di spiegare a Mills la differenza tra chemical catalyst e chemical element/chemical product .

    La prego di non pubblicare. In bcca al lupo.

    Monti

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