Classical Interpretations of Relativistic Phenomena

by
Sankar Hajra
Indian Physical Society, Calcutta, India
Email: sankarhajra@yahoo.com
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Introduction
Important observations on the behavior of light waves began to be performed from the time of Roemer (1670) and important experiments on electricity and magnetism began to be conducted from the time of Coulomb (1783). Maxwell (1865) tried to unify both streams of knowledge and dared to realize what light was. There were numerous experiments to demonstrate that Maxwell’s theory was correct, though some might argue that the theory was inadequate.
In the Maxwell’s theory, if c is considered to be the speed of light in free space, Maxwell’s equations are then valid in free space where the earth is obviously moving with an appreciable velocity. Therefore, the Maxwell’s equations should be affected on the surface of the moving ear- th. But curiously, all electromagnetic phenomena as observed on the surface of the moving earth are independent of the movement of this planet. To dissolve this problem, Einstein (1905) assumes that Maxwell’s equations are invariant to all observers in steady motion which acts as the foundation of Special Relativity. In the second place, the relativistic mass formula is routinely confirmed in particle accelerators. Therefore, Special Relativity is held to be more acceptable than Classical Electrodynamics. In the second decade of the past century, Einstein extended his special relativity to General relativity, a space-time curvature physics wherein he explained many puzzling gravitational phenomena with the application of his space-time curvature proposition.
From the days of inception of the theory of relativity (1905), numerous physicists like Paul Ehrenfest (1909), Ludwig Silberstein (1920), Philipp Lenard (1920), Herbert Dingle (1950), F. R. Tangherlini (1968), T. G. Barnes et al. (1976), R. Tian & Z. Li (1990) and many others have doubted (fully or partially) over the foundation of the theory of relativity and many of them have proposed alternative approaches.
In the period between the last decade of the last century and the first decade of the present century (1991-2010), C. A. Zapffe, Paul Marmet, A. G. Kelly, N. Hamdan, R. Honig and many others have made important contributions in this direction.
In the first part of this paper, we have shown that the mass of a point charge as per Classical Electrodynamics is the same as that of Special Relativity and the foundation of both the deductions lies in Classical Electrodynamics of Heaviside (1988). Therefore, mass formula confirmed by the particle accelerators is fully consistent with Classical Electrodynamics too.
In the second part, we have shown that the consideration of the effects of gravitational field of the earth on electromagnetic entities easily explains classically those puzzling gravitational phenomena (explained by Einstein) as well as why all electromagnetic phenomena as observed on earth’s surface are independent of the movement of the earth; and this elucidates that both the invariant proposition and the space-time curvature proposition of Einstein are unnecessary.
Our goal is to show here the efficacy of the classical physics to interpret relativistic phenomena rationally and easily. In this study we have only used Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations, Newton’s equations of motions and his theory of gravitation. We have used no theory of our own.
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173 comments to Classical Interpretations of Relativistic Phenomena

  • drew

    Dear Andrea,
    Have the certificators given you an indication as to how long they want to watch the 1Mw plants in operation until they say yes to a ‘home’cat…6 months..12…..18…?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    http://www.nist.gov/pml/div683/helium_090308.cfm

    http://patapsco.nist.gov/ImageGallery/details.cfm?imageid=578

    The above link is a description of the Helium Ion Microscope facility at NIST. The device is from the Carl Zeiss Company and is called Orion or Orion Plus. You will probably need to sell several 1 MW plants to buy an instrument – but that should not be too difficult. One of your partners may be able to share an existing facility.

    I don’t have access to a Helium Ion Microscope but would let you use one if I could.

    Ionic and iconic regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Steven N. Karels

    Koen,

    I would say it depends on market conditions. If the residential eCat is cheap enough to buy and to run, then possibly yes. If it is cheaper than oil, than a new construction home will want one for heating and for power. If the residential home is remote, yes. If you wish independence from infrastucture failure (think of Hurricane Sandy), then yes. If you are remotely located, then yes. So there will be a marketplace if the install/operate costs are right. Then the question for Andrea Rossi will be if there is sufficient projected demand, can the install/operate costs be obtained with sufficient profitability to justify the expenditure in capitol and manpower.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    In the short term you are right. In the long term I hope not, because statistics with the industrial plants will open the gate to the certification of the domestic apparatuses.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    derived from all questions and answers, I’m ready to believe that there will be no home-ecats. Affordable electricity will be good enough.
    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Steven N Karels, Dear Orsobubu,
    Very interesting discussion you have: Will free energy solve the problems of our world ?
    I often make an analogy with something that is (theoretically) really possible:
    Tonight, when everybody sleeps, the central banking system can decide to give for free, ten million “money”, to every single person on the planet. Money is a concept of trust, but completely virtual. So this can be done.
    Will the mail-man still come ? Will there be bread and meat ? Who will sell it ? Are there any shops open anyway ? Will the mechanic still repair your car ? Will the truck driver still provide fuel to the gas stations ? Will the operator of the refinery do continue his job ? And the operators of the power plants ? And even if some people do continue to “work”, then how much will it cost ? I shall stop here, but you can think about as many variations as you want.

    The point is: too much money in the world, makes that people do no longer want to work for it. So money, or value is very important to make the world go round.

    Now, here’s the problem: energy has huge value in our modern economy. It is the n°1 leverage of allmost every highly classified job. The computer without electric power.
    If all of a sudden, energy becomes very cheap or too abundant, there will be too much money available and the whole economy may destabilize. It is not sure that humanity will use this for the good. Some reactions here make me think of starting a luxury resort with restaurants, bars and swimming pools on the moon…. because it can be very boring in space, and travel alone might not be exciting enough after some time (lightYEARS of distance).

    At the best, free energy will change limits and scales, but it will not solve by itself hunger and poverty. The society has to solve these problems, and cheap energy can help thereby, because, without more and cleaner energy than today, hunger and poverty will increase. But We will also have to civilize a bit (a lot) more. But with cheap energy, more countries or tribes can afford to go to war too. The outcome is not sure.

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    1- Yes
    2- Not yet: it is not easy to have one and we cannot give information to others. Do you know where is it available? I did not find it for sale.
    3- you are right, but the 6 mo replace will be extended to a longer time as soon as we will get enough experience. It is a conservative choice. By the way, we would arrive to a time extension that will allow us to replace the whole module and sell as scrap the old one, after recovering the charge to recycle.
    4- for proprietary reasons
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Ing. Andrea Rossi,

    Some time ago, I discussed Helium Ion Microsopy (“HeIM”) and how it might be useful, with other tools, to help analyze the charge – before and after operation.

    http://www.nist.gov/pml/div686/ultrasmall.cfm

    1) Have you decided a HeIM would be useful in your experiments?

    2) If so, have you purchased one yourself or used a Helium Microscope owned by one of your partners?

    3) You recommend charges should be replaced every six months, but since transmutations to other elements are not significant, it may be possible to operate for 8 months or longer. Can you discuss why the charge has to be replaced after six months if there is little, if any, transmutation?

    4) Do structural or material changes degrade performance after six months or is the charge replacement for proprietary reasons?

    Isotopic regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Yes, in time we will know better, having more mass to analyse.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The mass defect suggested approach is likely to fail. It is extremely difficult to measure 1/6000 change when the scales are only good to 1/10,000. That is why I suggested a control mass of the same mass as the eCat sub-unit and stored in a temperature controlled, low humidity environment. You would reference the eCat mass against the control mass to attempt to eliminate changes in the weighing scale. Maybe worth trying though. Alternatively, perhaps you could run it at a higher output or for a much longer time period to maximize the mass defect change.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Avi:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gian Luca,
    You are right, but remember that first cars have been produced and distruibuted, eventually roads and gas station, mechanics have been born from specific local necessities.
    We are organizing the assistance where we know it will be necessary, and so we will continue to make.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • GianLuca

    Mr. K.D.

    of course. When I talk about E & H CAT mean that at 120 ° C (E) and above 1000 ° C (H). I think we all identify so the two objects of AR
    Thanks

  • orsobubu

    Steve, I agree with you almost at all. Previously, I only tried warning who believes technique can fix all and forever. The current imperialistic phase of capitalism is a social relationship that remains the same while technologic progress draws mankind toward freeing itself from wage slavery by automation, organization and productivity. But social relationships are dialectical, ever-changing factors and dramatic energy production changes will deepen this contradiction; they won’t eliminate the need to fight, to the contrary will make it even more urgent. Obviously, I disagree with you where I say that capitalism and poverty will not stay forever, as people will become aware of the need to organize the revolution in the same way bourgeoisie did centuries ago, when development of productive forces called for a society reversal, resolving the contradiction.

  • K. D.

    Mr. Gian Luca
    You may confuse Mr. Rossi using name, E & H CAT.
    The name E-Cat what I think is “Energy Catalyzer” in general.

    But there is low temperature or “Warm E-Cat” with 120-200*C temp. of steam and “Hot E-Cat” with temp. under control at around 1030-1070*C at tests.
    KD

  • Gian Luca

    Dear A.R.
    just a few minutes ago I was thinking that one of important problem after had sold your E & H CAT is field service. One half ECAT on order should make us think, though perhaps premature, the scenario connected. Or. How will it be organized maintenance and control in the field? As you can imagine, the interest is very high for possible economic development and employment. Think about it. In every home there will be a LENR device. This means that, like the current domestic boilers there will be an EH CAT. For a time, both systems will necessarily be parallel. At the end devices (boilers), which currently is run on GAS or oil, will be dubbed by LENR devices that will surely reach places and locations that with normal boilers before they agreed to achieve the high cost (think of pleasant resort in the mountains / islands / deserts).
    The organizational aspect of the technical assistance will be very important for the insertion of LENR devices within the existing structures and installations for refills and repairs (mechanical, hydraulic, computer and electronic equipment).
    Leonardo Corp. will have a lot to do in this area, despite the indispensable help of the Licensees.
    Sorry for my English that I necessarily had to go through the google translator.
    Greetings to all “believers”.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Recall the one gram difference in your published test results for the Hot eCat? You contributed that loss to humidity (water) release? Perhaps Dr. Joseph Fine’s mass difference was in there also?

    I would assume the most of the moisture (water) loss occurred within the first few days. When you run the next, long term test with your Hot eCat, perhaps you could run at high temperature for a few days, cool off in a dry place, re-weigh the unit under test, and then re-start for continuous operation and then repeat the weighing process at the end?

    Some bench scales have a precision of 1 part in 10,000 or better. You might be able to get a detectable mass loss in this manner. (I’d keep an object of similar mass available and stored in a pristine place to valiadate the bench scale has not changed.) A suggestion.

  • Avi

    Dear Andrea Rossi
    Is the location of the factory where you produce the
    1MW ECAT secret?

    Warm Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    While detecting 175 milligrams of mass loss seems simple, I would estimate that you have 100 10kW eCat units (or more) within your 1 MW system. If you have 10 to 16 “mini-eCats” within one 10kW eCat, then there are between 1000 and 1600 “mini-eCats” in the 1 MW system. So the mass loss per “mini-eCat” would be 175 micrograms. If there is 5 – 10 grams of “fuel” in each mini-eCat, you are looking at a relative mass change of 1 part in about 6000 change. I think it would be difficult to detect.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    First of all, I hope you have not been damaged from that Sandy-bitch.
    ANSWERS:
    1- NO
    2- NO
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi, Steve Karels

    http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=4380+MW-Hrs+to+grams

    Using Wolfram Alpha, I estimate the mass consumed/converted to energy in a 1 MW plant in 6 months to be about 175 milligrams. My rationale is there are 8,760 hours in a year (excluding leap year) so there are 4,380 hours in a half-year. 4,380 MW-Hrs converts to 175 milligrams. The question of course if which mass is disappearing! It should be possible to detect which components are missing if 10’s to 100’s of milligrams of mass have been depleted. If transmutations of the Nickel atoms (to Copper or Zinc) are an insignificant part of the energy contribution, what seems to be happening is that a) Some Hydrogen is being consumed b) Some Nickel mass is consumed, or c) Both are happening.

    1) Is any of the catalyst mass depleted? ( If catalyst is depleted, then it would not be a catalyst! )

    I think both Hydrogen and Nickel mass are depleted. If Hydrogen is not depleted, energy would have to come entirely from the Nickel nuclei. (Which seems unlikely.)
    That leaves open the possibility of isotope transmutations. I presume you will not discuss this topic.

    2) Can Nickel mass increase (?) if the Hydrogen mass decreases by a greater amount than 175 milligrams?

    Sorry for not being on JONP recently. I have been preoccupied with effects of the recent Hurricane SANDY in New Jersey.

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mark Saker:
    1- The prototype we are making, fueled by gas, will weight about 1 tonn (I hope).
    2- If we will be able to make 1 MW/tonn I will be very happy.
    3- The prototype we are making will be (gas fueled) 2 meters long, 1 meter wide, 1 meter hight (I hope). These dimensions will enclose the primary fluid ready to go to the heat exchanger to heat the secondary circuit’s fluid.
    That’s what I hope and to make the hope reality we are working like Americans in the Navy’s factories in the year 1942, after Pearl Harbour.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark Saker

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    I understand LENR in space is quite a long way in the future but it’s fun to speculate :) VASIMR would need 200MW to power a 39day trip to mars. A couple of quick questions if you please.

    1: What is the approximate weight of a 1MW thermal hotcat?
    2: Do you have any thoughts as to how it could be made lighter?
    3: Is it possible to shrink the 1MW hotcat further or is there a limit as to how much heat you can output in a given space?
    4: Any new E-CAT news?

    thanks

    Mark

  • Lucio Martini

    eCat-ering
    We are, unfortunately, a lot of people in Italy with the convoys to cry with a government of “technicians” with feet of lead and back bottom in the stone but in their eyes come tears out.
    We just have to imitate the Minister Forleo and ask Mercy to God.
    God bless Italy

  • Steven N. Karels

    Orsobubu,

    Many of my previous posting dealt with how eCat technology, especially Hot eCat technology, can be used to displace coal-based fuels for electrical production. Yes, there will be an impact on existing energy source industries and their workers. But the benefits of the eCat technology potential is so great and the reduction of CO2 potential is so high, that it is worth the pain to society.

    The downside I see if eCat technology is widely accepted and implemented, is that energy becomes so cheap, that we as a society and world become wasteful. But I believe the benefits highly outweigh the difficulties.

    I do not believe that eCat technology will eliminate capitalism as an economic engine. If that occurs, I believe it will be independent of eCat. I can only hope that as energy become cheaper and more plentiful, wide-spread use around the world will have a positive impact on people throughout the world. There will always be the poor — but maybe they wil not suffer as they currently do.

    My Thoughts, Steve

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    We noted traces, but very difficult to measure due to the tiny amounts, close to the variation range.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • orsobubu

    This article clearly shows why a technology producing energy at lower and lower costs is a blessing for mankind, but a terrible nightmare in an enduring capitalistic economy. It will speed the race that – anyway – will bring the world to protectionism. And then, the war my friends. In this perspective, Andrea Rossi could not only be a pioneer in energy research and technology, but also a revolutionary hero. I hope he will contribute to inspire all the workers of the world to unite and fight as he did in his life.

    http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ilsole24ore.com%2Fart%2Fimpresa-e-territori%2F2012-10-04%2Fcina-raddoppia-solare-102905.shtml%3Fuuid%3DAb8Xr9nG

    http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/impresa-e-territori/2012-10-04/cina-raddoppia-solare-102905.shtml?uuid=Ab8Xr9nG

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Perhaps you can confirm that after a long (6 months or greater) period of continuous operation of an eCat, you were able to observe:

    (a) A change in the “fuel” isotopic distribution
    (b) A change in the “ash” level or isotopic distribution

    In other words, did you see a measureable change in something as “fuel” was consumed into energy?

  • eCat-ering

    dear Andrea,
    it seems that from the month of August, President Obama has issued a decree very interesting for renewable energy sources. This confirms, once again, that the U.S. really believe on new energy(even at LENR), while others (such as Italy) expect. As Italian I was almost crying! How sad, in any case!

    http://energycatalyzer3.com/news/new-obama-energy-strategy-could-boost-lenr

    greetings
    ECAT team

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    I am not yet allowed to publish the theory.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear JYD:
    No, it will remail a cylinder. The dimensions of the module are:
    Length mm 350
    Diameter mm 90
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Luciano Saporito

    la Free Energy
    “rimossa”
    di Nikola Tesla

    una rivoluzione energetica sarebbe forse possibile anche ai giorni nostri !

    a cura di: Luciano Saporito

    articolo completo al link:

    http://alessandrosicurocomunication.wordpress.com/2012/11/14/nikola-tesla-la-free-energy-rimossa/

  • JYD

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    Your internal report about the Hot cat mentioned :”The internal cylinder has been eliminated” so -(a)-is a “flat” hot cat imaginable ? and -(b)- if yes, of what dimensions ?

    Good luck for your wonderful work.
    JYD

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    So if Nickel going to Copper is a “side reaction”, what is the majority reaction?

    Best Regards, SNK

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gills:
    Good question: we are studying this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    If transmutation of the heavy isotopes of Ni (ie. to copper) is only a “side effect”, can you give us an idea what percentage of the excess heat (LENR effect) is due to these side transmutations?
    Regards; HRG.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gillis:
    Both work, both essential, some transmutes in copper as a side effect.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    Do you think it is possible that just one of the isotopes 62 and 64 of Ni are involved, and not both? Or, are both of these isotopes (together) essential? Also; do you have evidence that either (or both) of these heavy isotopes are being consumed (transmuted to something else) in the reaction?
    If not, then they must be acting as catalysts in some way.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob:
    Yes, we have developed a formula, and it is, obviously, confidential.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    An aspect of your discovery that I have found fascinating is the fact that the addition of energy from an outside source is required from time to time. Have you developed a formula which describes the intervals when and for what duration external energy is required? If you have, can you reveal whether the formula works for the ecat and the newer hot cat?

    Kind regards,

    Bob

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels,
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Can you tell us if you believe only 62Ni and 64Nickel are actively involved in the eCat reaction? Are the other stable isotopes of Nickel not in the reaction?

  • Spett. ing. Rossi

    New News site “self service” on the E-Cat’s world
    Nuovo sito di notizie scritte da te sul mondo E-Cat:

    http://www.ecatforum.it

    Cordiali Saluti
    D.Monterisi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven Karels:
    You are right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    From msnbc.com “The United States will overtake Saudi Arabia and Russia as the world’s top oil producer by 2017, the West’s energy agency said on Monday, predicting Washington will come very close to achieving a previously unthinkable energy self-sufficiency.”

    This is primarily from oil shale production.

    From Wikipedia “Most conversion technologies involve heating shale in the absence of oxygen to a temperature at which kerogen decomposes (pyrolyses) into gas, condensable oil, and a solid residue. This usually takes place between 450 °C (842 °F) and 500 °C (932 °F).”

    This sounds like an excellent application for your Hot eCat.

  • Marco Serra

    Orsobubu,
    I’m very sure that a machine self-producing its requested energy will be the solution to the most important problems of current world.
    Free energy will give us the possibility of:

    – Food: irrigate all the currently desertic regions and to heat or cool greenhouses.

    – Ecology: No more polluting fuels for travel, for domestic usage, for industrial usage. Human discharges can be easily degraded. (I think that world as we know today could last no more the year 2100)

    .. and when you give a man (almost) free food and warm you already get a result that even Karl Marx never dared to hope. Man still miss one thing but that’s beyond the scope of ECat 😉

    Free food and warm are just the beginning. Consider free travels for example. Even long term space travels will be possible. Moon and Mars permanent stations and colonies ….. and so on.

    A new era is starting that will bring us lot of good things.

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