Some experiments that shook the World

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by
Sankar Hajra
Calcutta Philosophical Forum, Salt Lake,
AC -54, Sector-1, Calcutta – 700 064, INDIA
E-mail: sankarhajra@yahoo.com
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To know whether a fuel isp roper fuel or not is to determine whether the fuel gives off greater amount of energy when it is used than the energy involved in making the fuel from raw natural materials.
A huge amount of energy is obtained when Hydrogen or thermite (a mixture of powdered Aluminium and oxide of iron) is burned.
But energy obtained from combustion of those fuels is not greater than the energy spent to make them from natural resources.
Therefore, Hydrogen and thermite cannot be treated as proper fuels.
Electricity could be readily generated from combustion of those fuels, but, electricity made from those fuels must be more expensive than electricity made from coal or petroleum.
According to Einstein’s  E=mcˆ2  formula, 1Kg of any material (preferably Uranium) will give 9×10ˆ16  joules, or  2×10ˆ16  calories, of  heat energy through complete nuclear reaction.
[E = mcˆ2 = 1 x (3 x 10ˆ8)ˆ2 joules = 20 x 10ˆ12 kilocals = 20 trillion kilocals]
If that would be true, then powerful states around the world would not compete for oil in the deserts of Arabia.
If one ton of Uranium of someton ‘Little Boy’ bomb could take part in the so-called nuclear reaction, then some million of square miles of the world would burn, instead of only 1.7 square miles of Hiroshima.
It not at all possible to give supply of electricity to the people from so-called nuclear fuels at a cost lower than fossil-fuel electricity for the reasons stated above.
However, it is possible to give ontological lectures on nuclear fission/fusion or to earn immense money from so-called nuclear projects.
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307 comments to Some experiments that shook the World

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Neri B.:
    Yes, I did, and now we are no more a small armed boat, as we were, but a Carrier.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rosemary Ainslie:
    Thank you very much for your precious support, Merry Christmas and a peaceful 2013 to you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rosemary Ainslie

    Dear Andrea,

    It is just so HEARTENING to read the good will on your blogs. And encouraging to see the steady path to a successful launch of your products. I am lined up and ready to buy and I’ve bullied my children to join that list of buyers. We support you on our own blog and all that is just a small echo of the HUGE support and following that you have globally. Truly well done. I wish I were half as effective at bringing our own small contribution to anyone’s notice.

    Have a wonderful Christmas Andreas – and God Speed on that production line.

    With the very best wishes for Christmas and the New year. We shall all be lifting our glass to toast you and your sterling efforts.

    Rosemary Ainslie

  • Neri B.

    Dear Andrea,
    i am glad to hear about the end of validation tests on 16th December…i can’t wait for the report from third party..
    I must say i am really stunned by your reply to Bernie stating your partner has access to knowledge catalyst and so on….maybe this is something related to your statement about 1,5 month ago ” Leonardo Corp is no longer the same….” .
    Did you sell your invention perhaps?
    Thank you for your kind attention
    Neri B.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- yes
    4- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Does your USA partners have access and knowledge of your E-Cat intellectual property….. the catalyst and your research? Are they helping with patent processing? I love your answer to the skeptics, “the market will decide”. Keep up the good work. Thanks

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    1- We did not yet determine the price and we do not have yet the maintainance costs of the Hot Cat.
    2- The industrialization will reduce strongly the costs, but we do not have yet the numbers. In any case, this issue will be dealt with by our USA Partners, not by me.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear ing. Rossi just how expansive the first Hot-Cat? and how much will cost expected after industrialization? As has estimated the cost of annual maintenance? thanks

    Gentile ing. Rossi quanto costeranno i primi Hot-Cat? e quanto prevede costeranno dopo l’industrializzazione?? quanto ha stimato il costo di manutenzione annuo? grazie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brian:
    The publication does not depend on me. I suppose that to write the report will take at least 2 weeks and that the peer reviewing will take at least other 2-3 weeks.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.:
    The tests have been made indipendently from me. The results will be reported and published. It will take some time to collect the papers and the data and more time for the peer reviewing. My opinion is that the publication will be made not before January, considering the mole of the papers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, finally you have said:

    “…Now I can say that the third party tests will finish on Dec. 16th…”

    Can you please tell us something (also generically) about what they have found?

    Best regards
    Italo R.

  • Brian

    Dr. Rossi

    I hope that you are having a pleasant winter. I am excited to hear that the third party tests will be completed soon. Is there any sense of when or where the third party test results will be publicly available?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    Now I can say that the third party tests will finish on Dec. 16th.
    I have been informed of this fact few minutes ago.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Pietro F.
    Buongiorno Ing. Rossi,
    prima di tutto buon Natale,

    un chiarimento senza polemica:
    il 21 novembre ha detto che la verifica effettuata da terzi era terminata, il 30 novembre ha fatto sapere che a causa di un imprevisto la verifica si sarebbe conclusa entro un paio di settimane, oggi ci parla della terza parte del test di valutazione finirà probabilmente prima di natale.

    …. dobbiamo preoccuparci!!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mark Saker:
    Merry Christmas to you and to all our Readers.
    By Christmas will be completed surely the third party evaluation tests.
    The final work is going on in these days.
    As for the 1 MW plant of the Hot Cat we are on schedule to complete the plant in February.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark Saker

    Dear Andrea,

    Merry Christmas! Good news you are still on track for delivery of the hot cat in February.

    You mentioned a few days ago the possibility of a Christmas present for us all from you. Could this be a new picture or video of a cat working? I’m sure I can speak for us all we would love to see that and it would make our Christmas :)

    How soon do you think the 100/1 hotcat will be a physical reality undergoing testing before delivery? I am guessing you have set aside some time in the schedule to test before delivery in February?

    Is there anything you would like for Christmas?

    Thanks

    Mark

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brian:
    Yes, so far…fingers crossed ( and foreheads wet).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    In the USA we make the production.
    In Italy is made the R&D.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: I am confused about your operations in US and Italy, are they duplicate facilities or is one a research facility and the other a production facility? Why have two facilities? Thanks.

  • Brian

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I am curious if there has been any progress on the hot-cat plant you are planning to deliver to a customer. Is it still on schedule to be delivered in February 2013?

    Thank you
    Brian

  • Eric Ashworth

    Wladimir,

    Correction when I said curvature flows are creator forces I should have said curvature forces with the same spin. Also with regards to this 60% weaker in scattering, could this be because there is an attractive force between the proton and neutron but the opposite spin force partially negates the ability to scatter due to interactive distance created by the opposite spins. A curious bystander. Regards Eric Ashworth.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dave K:
    You can contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    1. Even if you are using the concept of friction as an analogy only, it still does not explain why a spin 0 deuteron is only 60% weaker in scattering experiments than a spin 1 deuteron. The spin 0 deuteron should actually be 100% weaker than the spin 1 deuteron since there is no “friction” between the fields of 2 opposite-spin particles. Yet, you claim that a “little” friction – a “very soft” friction – does indeed exist. But how so?

    2. When you state that this “friction” is actually the “strong force interaction”, are you referring to the force that binds quarks together, or to the force that binds nucleons together?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Eric Ashworth

    Wladimir,

    I find your conversation with Joe interesting with regards spin between proton and neutron. Same spin ‘sliding friction between wheels’. Opposite spins, zero spin (60% weaker, little friction). I have done some interesting work with regards spins. My subject is with regards flow control and it may have no bearing on your work but I shall share what I know. From my own findings when two spinning vortexes meet that spin in the same direction they compliment each other and between each a third vortex is formed. This third vortex formed on the periphery of each vortex is tighter than its two parent vortexes i.e. it contains more density and is able to flow by means of penetration of its helical trajectory through both of its parents flow i.e. inflow of their vortex. I have mentioned this before and I refer to this third flow as ‘an economy flow system’ of its creator force. When two vortexes spin in opposite directions there is no harmony only repulsion i.e. no creativity. Also when two flowing curvature vortexes spin in the same direction they also compliment one another from further within their peripheries by cancellation to form a linear flow a product of two curvature flows. thereby I believe that curvature flows are creator forces by means of what they are able to achieve. Hope you find this information interesting. Eric Ashworth.

  • Dave K

    I will soon take early retirement as an engineer. I have done many things, but I always enjoyed automation design (including numerous robotic work cells deployed in the US and Italy). I am interested in joining the LENR effort. Any suggestions?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gillis:
    The competitivity of a technology can be measured only on the market, not in the parlors. We need to see real products on the real market to see which one is competitive, which is not.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Neri B.:
    The tests will be finished very soon.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giuliano Bettini:
    Oue cooperation with Universities is under NDA.
    We are manufacturing plants for industries, we ask to University Professors specific issues, also upon theoretical problems.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Per:
    Point 2 still to resolve. We got the safety certification only for the industrial plants, for which so far a robotized line is not necessary. But we foresee that also for the industrial plants thie robotized line can get useful.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:

    A start-up company called “Joule Unlimited” claims to be able to produce biodiesel fuel for as little as $50/bbl (at full scale production), without a subsidy.

    http://www.jouleunlimited.com/

    Their technology does not use biomass and requires only sunlight, non-potable water, and CO2. Only marginal land is required, to produce 15,000 to 25,000 gal. of liquid fuel per acre per year (at full scale). Considering the fact that LENR produces only heat, which would have to be used in downstream processing to make liquid fuels; do you think that Ecat technology could ever compete with Joule for the production of liquid fuels?
    Regards; HRG.

  • Per

    In march you wrote the statement below Andrea. What is the current status of the robotized production line? It has been very quiet since March.

    Kind regards,

    Per


    Andrea Rossi
    March 23rd, 2012 at 8:13 PM

    Dear Philippe George:
    I want also to add that:
    1- the robotized line to produce the E-Cats is already in production
    2- the programs of the robots will be adjusted as soon as we will have the requirements from the certificators
    3- we already got the green light from all the competent Authorities, so far the certifications are in course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Andrea Rossi.
    For the “cats-followers” would be interesting if you can tell something more, about the “ongoing LENR research cooperations” with Universities in both Europe and the USA.
    Please note this is not curiosity, but it is the desire that the University finally decide to study about this. So I mean:
    theoretical research? measurements? what in USA? what in Europe?
    (of course without incurring any incorrect attitude on your part). :)
    Best regards
    Giuliano Bettini

  • Neri B.

    Dear Andrea,
    could you please give us a little update on the ongoing third party validation tests?
    More or less 10 days ago you said that they would end in about 2 weeks…
    Thank you for your attention.
    Neri B.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    To the readers of the Rossi’s JNP:

    Email sent to Dr. John Arrington:

    Dr. John Arrington
    Argonne National Laboratory

    Cc:
    Dr. Martin Freer
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham

    Dr. Wilfried Nörtershäuser
    Institute of Nuclear Chemistry – Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz

    Dear John

    It is ready the paper PART FOUR on the carbon isotopes, and it can be find in the Peswiki link

    http://peswiki.com/index.php/PowerPedia:_Stability_of_Light_Nuclei_%E2%80%93_PART_FOUR

    The paper presents the calculations for the magnetic moments of the STABLE, NO STABLE, and EXCITED carbon isotopes.

    Very intriguing is the excited isotope 6C12: it has nuclear spin i=2 and magnetic moment ZERO!!!

    It’s IMPOSSIBLE to explain those two incompatible nuclear properties of the excited 6C12 by considering the current nuclear models of the Standard Nuclear Physics. There is no way to conciliate a nuclear spin i=2 with a magnetic moment zero, if we try to find a solution from the current nuclear models .
    Do you know any explanation for this mystery ?

    The explanation for this mystery of excited 6C12 according to my new nuclear model is given in the Figures 17-AB, 17-A, C-12A, and 17-AC, in the present article PART FOUR.

    The results of the calculations on the magnetic moments are the following:

    Excited 5B10:
    Experiments: +0,63
    My theory: +0,597

    6C11
    Experiments: -0,964
    My theory: -0,767

    Excited 6C12
    Experiments: spin i=2, mag mom= 0 (IMPOSSIBLE according to Standard Nuclear Physics)
    My theory: spin i=2, mag mom = 0

    6C13
    Experiments: +0,7024
    My theory: +0,993

    Exceited 6C13
    Experiments: 1,40
    My theory: 1,20

    Excited 6C14
    Experiments: 0,82
    My theory: 0,645

    6C15
    Experiments: 1,72
    My theory: 1,879

    Excited 6C15
    Experiments: -1,92
    My theory: -2,075

    6C17
    Experiments: 0,758
    My theory: 0,669

    Best wishes
    WLADIMIR GUGLINSKI

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe wrote in December 9th, 2012 at 2:37 AM
    Wladimir,

    For the spin 0 deuteron, you say that “the only friction that exists is that which transmits the rotation of the wheel A to the wheel B”. But why must there be any transmission of spin angular momentum at all since the neutron and proton arrive at each other already carrying an inherent spin as part of their nature?

    Dear Joe,
    the example given by me (on the two wheels with friction) is only didactic, but it seems you did not understand it.

    The question is not of transmission of spin. When a proton and a neutron (both with spin in the same directino) have interaction, the interaction of their fields occurs very strongly than when they have oppose spins.
    Of course there is no “friction” between the neutron and the proton, in the sense we know the classic friction.
    But their interaction occurs as it should be a “friction” between their fields.

    This friction is actually the strong force interaction.

    In the spin 0 deuteron such “friction” is very soft, compared with the “friction” of the spin 1 deuteron

    regards
    wlad

  • Tim

    Dear Julian Becker:

    The reason that people will use a gas fired e-cat is that it will be cheaper to use. In the northeastern US heat from electricity is almost four times more expensive than heat from natural gas. Even if it cost nothing to generate the electricity, the retail delivery charges for electricity would make it twice the cost of natural gas. I would expect that it will be cheaper to run an e-cat on fossil fuel in most of the world for quite some time.

  • Dear Sankar Hajra

    A liquid flouride thorium reactor is capable of producing energy (electricity) cheaper than coal.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Julian Becker:
    I am sure that all the energy sources will integrate. I am also convinced that our technology will be used in mixed solutions ( hybrid, as you say). You are not wrong in this sense.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    For the spin 0 deuteron, you say that “the only friction that exists is that which transmits the rotation of the wheel A to the wheel B”. But why must there be any transmission of spin angular momentum at all since the neutron and proton arrive at each other already carrying an inherent spin as part of their nature?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • julian_becker

    Mr. Rossi, what do you think about these thoughts?

    I think powering the E-Cat though gas could be a good way to avoid a global economic shock when the price of oil will fall due to the upcoming LENR technology. It will be a hybrid between the old fossil-fueled society and the new bright LENR future.

    Therefore it is a good idea to slowly get mankind used to this new form of energy through creating this hybrid technology. Once research is far enough (I think 10 years is a good transition period) the gas-cat can be fully replaced by the ECat-powered Ecat.

    Kind regards,

    Julian Becker

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe wrote in December 3rd, 2012 at 3:04 PM
    Wladimir,

    Your statement that the interaction between neutrons and protons of opposite spin in scattering experiments is 60% weaker than when they are of same spin tells us that QRT allows both types of spin – same and opposite – in its deuterons. If that is so, how does QRT prefer one type (same) to the other (opposite)?

    Hi, Joe, I am working in my paper PART FOUR, where I calculate the magnetic moments of carbon isotopes, and had no time to coming here. Sory the delay to respond you.

    In order to understand your question, the best would be to show you the Figure 2 in the page 207 of the book Quantum Ring Theory. Unfortunatelly there it seems there is no way to upload the figure here in Rossi’s blog.

    Imagine that you lift a car with a jack.

    We call one of the wheels by A, and suppose that it is spinning clockwise.
    If you touch another wheel B in it, the wheel B will rotate in the counterclockwise. The two wheels form a set with zero spin.
    And the only friction that exists is that which transmits the rotation of the wheel A to the wheel B.

    But imagine that, with the twoo wheels towching each other, you try to force B spinning in the same clockwise direction of the wheel A. The spin ensemble is 1.
    In this case there will be a tremendous sliding friction between the wheels.
    This is what happens between a neutron and a prton when they form the deuteron. If the proton and neutron rotate in the opposite direction (spin zero), the interaction between them is weak (little “friction”). If they turn in the same direction, there is a strong interaction between them (spin 1).

    regards
    wlad

  • Rosemary Ainslie

    Dear Sankar Hajra

    I read your entire article with much interest and, unfortunately, only a little understanding. What I do understand from it is that standard measurements related to E=mc^2 are far from proven – within the standard model. May I say that I was not only blown away by your breadth of knowledge – but that you are prepared to confront our science community with facts that rather confront their reliance on standard references and standard measurements. It is a brave thing that you do to question scientific ‘assumptions’.

    I have sent you an email. May I impose on you to tolerate my obvious lack of qualifications – to read that email and – hopefully – answer some of the points. I apologise, in advance, for intruding on your subject – and trust that you may see some correspondence in our perspectives.

    With the very best of intentions and kindest of regards
    Rosemary Ainslie

  • K. D.

    Prof. Sankar Hajra:
    >>>>>It not at all possible to give supply of electricity to the people from so-called nuclear fuels at a cost lower than fossil-fuel electricity for the reasons stated above.<<<<<<

    I don't agree with this statement. Just we need to find way to get the energy from "nuclear fuels" different way, than it is in nuclear explosion.
    I think, Mr. Rossi is doing this.
    KD

  • K. D.

    Dear Adrian Monk.
    >>>>“Noble Gas Plasma Engine to be Revealed at Power-Gen Conference, Orlando Florida, Dec 11, 2012<<<<

    So far, Mr. Rohner of "Inteligentry" is profiting by selling lies all the way.

    Three years ago he told to his readers that he have working engine. He have nothing, but he is collecting nonrefundable application fee to get the right to buy licence, to try develop "Noble Gas Plasma Engine".
    If this is possible to achieve, it is a question.

    But Mr. Rohner for many year is scaming naive investors from theirs money, just playing on an idea of the inventor J. Papp.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Prof. Sankar Hajra:
    You are kindly requested to answer to the questions of the Readers regarding your article, of which, obviously, you are the sole responsible.
    Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guest:
    Yes, both in the USA and in Europe.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Giovanni,

    I agree. Apparently, during a 1960’s public demonstration, a Caltech scientist interrupted power to the engine being demonstrated and it exploded killing a nearby engineer. The “fuel” is a mixture of nobel gases with “special” treatment and ignited by a spark plug. It makes no sense what is happening. At least eCat technology seems plausible and it hasn’t killed anyone.

  • Guest

    Dear mr Rossi,

    Do have at this point in time any ongoing LENR research cooperations with any universities in US or in Europa?

    regards
    Lande

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Adrian,I don’t understand from where it takes energy.

    G G

  • Adrian Monk

    Speaking of “Experiments that shook the World”, what do you think about this one?

    “Noble Gas Plasma Engine to be Revealed at Power-Gen Conference, Orlando Florida, Dec 11, 2012

    … The engine on display will be a two cylinder noble gas plasma engine and possibly a prototype four cylinder engine. Researchers think it will run for at least 1 1/2 years 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, on one noble gas fill, maybe even longer.”

    http://www.seri-worldwide.org/id839.html

    If this is real (we will soon know), will this overshadow LENR benefits?

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