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Some experiments that shook the World

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by
Sankar Hajra
Calcutta Philosophical Forum, Salt Lake,
AC -54, Sector-1, Calcutta – 700 064, INDIA
E-mail: sankarhajra@yahoo.com
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To know whether a fuel isp roper fuel or not is to determine whether the fuel gives off greater amount of energy when it is used than the energy involved in making the fuel from raw natural materials.
A huge amount of energy is obtained when Hydrogen or thermite (a mixture of powdered Aluminium and oxide of iron) is burned.
But energy obtained from combustion of those fuels is not greater than the energy spent to make them from natural resources.
Therefore, Hydrogen and thermite cannot be treated as proper fuels.
Electricity could be readily generated from combustion of those fuels, but, electricity made from those fuels must be more expensive than electricity made from coal or petroleum.
According to Einstein’s  E=mcˆ2  formula, 1Kg of any material (preferably Uranium) will give 9×10ˆ16  joules, or  2×10ˆ16  calories, of  heat energy through complete nuclear reaction.
[E = mcˆ2 = 1 x (3 x 10ˆ8)ˆ2 joules = 20 x 10ˆ12 kilocals = 20 trillion kilocals]
If that would be true, then powerful states around the world would not compete for oil in the deserts of Arabia.
If one ton of Uranium of someton ‘Little Boy’ bomb could take part in the so-called nuclear reaction, then some million of square miles of the world would burn, instead of only 1.7 square miles of Hiroshima.
It not at all possible to give supply of electricity to the people from so-called nuclear fuels at a cost lower than fossil-fuel electricity for the reasons stated above.
However, it is possible to give ontological lectures on nuclear fission/fusion or to earn immense money from so-called nuclear projects.
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299 comments to Some experiments that shook the World

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fibb:
    1- no
    2- no, but I suggest to be very cautious until many plants will be in operation.
    By the way: it will not be a revolution, but an evolution through series of integrations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fibb

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    Most of the eggheads that ask you questions want to know about the technical aspects of you work. That is all very interesting of course, but I’m also wondering about the macro economic and sociopolitical implications of your products coming to market.

    EVERY major petroleum producer’s value is going to necessarily take a MAJOR hit (perhaps in a big hurry depending on the speed of your roll out), during the early to middle stages of the commercial LENR revolution. This is because their “reserves” will need to be written down some, and perhaps quite a lot. This will affect their balance sheets and therefore share prices. Trillions of dollars of financial derivatives dependent on these company’s stock would certainly also be affected. Then there are governments such as Canada and Russia that are strongly dependent on short to long term oil industry royalties and capital investment.

    My questions:

    1) Have you been in talks with any governments about how this revolution should be managed to minimize the turmoil (and potential collapse) in the energy/financial markets?

    2) Do you have any advice on how a middle-class, retail investor might play for profit the commercial LENR revolution?

    Thank you

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luca Salvarani:
    Please contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    We will address you to the Russian Licensee.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear A.Louis Tengzelius:
    Good Luck!
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Joseph Fine:
    As usually, another important information from you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    Are you, perhaps, doing something like this?

    ( There is always something new to learn…)

    Best regards,

    Joseph Fine

    Power Spintronics: converting magnetic energy to electric voltage efficiently and directly

    Technical
    Researchers are suggesting a new application for Spintronics – a highly efficient and direct conversion of magnetic energy to electric voltage by using magnetic nanostructures and manipulating the dynamics of magnetization. This conversion could be the foundation for future development of spin-based power electronics. The researchers call this “power spintronics”.

    Using an experimental model, it was found that a power spintronics-based device may one day be a promising approach to obtaining alternating current (AC) voltages from direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The researchers demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of a device that generates a voltage based on manipulating an effective magnetic field within a nanowire that arises from width modulation.

    Testing a one-dimensional model, it was shown that DC magnetic field characteristics such as magnitude, and design parameters such as wire width, can be used to control, or “tune,” the frequency and amplitude of AC current. A variable frequency ranging from megahertz to gigahertz can be achieved.

    http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-01/aiop-psp010313.php

    Contact: Charles Blue
    cblue@aip.org
    301-209-3091
    American Institute of Physics

    Power spintronics: Producing AC voltages by manipulating magnetic fields

    Scientists are putting a new spin on their approach to generating electrical current by harnessing a recently identified electromotive force known as spinmotive force, which is related to the field of spintronics that addresses such challenges as improving data storage in computers. Now, a novel application of spintronics is the highly efficient and direct conversion of magnetic energy to electric voltage by using magnetic nanostructures and manipulating the dynamics of magnetization. According to a report published in the American Institute of Physics’ (AIP) journal Applied Physics Letters, this conversion could be the foundation for future development of spin-based power electronics, a field the authors call “power spintronics.” Their newly published results of an experimental model suggest that a power spintronics-based device may one day be a promising approach to obtaining alternating current (AC) voltages from direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The researchers demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of a device that generates a voltage based on manipulating an effective magnetic field within a nanowire that arises from width modulation. Technically such a field is not a true magnetic field, but it can be viewed as such. The team tested a one-dimensional model. It showed that DC magnetic field characteristics such as magnitude, and design parameters such as wire width, can be used to control, or “tune,” the frequency and amplitude of AC current. Importantly, their results showed that a variable frequency ranging from megahertz to gigahertz can be achieved. Control and range in tuning ability are highly desirable management features in generating current. The team’s results suggest that applying their spintronics approach may one day meet a variety of commercial energy demands due to control and scalability.

    ###
    Article: “Magnetic power inverter: AC voltage generation from DC magnetic fields” is published in Applied Physics Letters.

    Link: http://apl.aip.org/resource/1/applab/v101/i25/p252413_s1

    Jun’ichi Ieda and Sadamichi Maekawa
    Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0075, Japan

    (Received 2 November 2012; accepted 10 December 2012; published online 21 December 2012)

    Abstract References (18)
    We propose a method that allows power conversion from DC magnetic fields to AC electric voltages using domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic nanowires. The device concept relies on spinmotive force, voltage generation due to magnetization dynamics. Sinusoidal modulation of the nanowire width introduces a periodic potential for a DW, the gradient of which exerts variable pressure on the traveling DW. This results in time variation of the DW precession frequency and the associated voltage. Using a one-dimensional model, we show that the frequency and amplitude of the AC outputs can be tuned by the DC magnetic fields and wire-design.
    © 2012 American Institute of Physics

    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1211.0372v1.pdf

  • A. Louis Tengzelius

    Dr. Rossi,
    May God continue guiding you toward even more astonishing discoveries. Another humble experimenter is shown here: http://www.youtube.com/embed/TEceEHgaXoU?version=3
    The presentation is spectacular.
    Regards,
    A. Louis Tengzelius

  • Luca Salvarani

    X Andrea

    Just a curiosity: I’m wondering what plans do you have specifically for Russia, a country that I care very much.
    It’s surely a great potential market for your technology mainly in terms of termal energy which is you primary and so far most developed application, but also for electricity generation.. On the other hand there could also be problems for contract law enforcement and intellectual property, not to speak about vested interests because oil and gas export is very important for its economy… it would really be a shame if you operations there will star only in some years… And by the way there are many countries with the very same problems and potentials such as much of eastern europe… Anyway good new year and super-good luck and work!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nixter:
    Exotic materials can interest us only when and if they are products ready to be tested.
    We did not observe other phenomenons except what published here.
    To silence the critics is not an issue, to satusfy the Customers yes. We are totally not interested to any problem of the critics, whose discussions are useful, sometime, anyway.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Caroly Witkowsky:
    The so called “gravitons” cannot have any effect: it’s too low a force upon the E-Cat !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Caroly Witkowsky

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    It is very interesting to hear that you have detected electromagnetic activity caused by the fusion reactions in your Hot Cat.

    This comes as a complete surprise, but so does the fusion reaction itself. Considering the fact that we see new physics at work we should not have any preconceptions about what to expect by the way of new physical phenomena. In other words, we should be open-minded.

    To cover up another possible physical aspect of this unknown reaction the following experiment would be very interesting. Put the cold Hot Cat on an accurate balance and take a reading. Then you power it up and see if the fusion reaction has any effect on the force of gravity that Earth exerts on the Hot Cat.

    Kind regards, Caroly

  • Nixter

    Engineer Rossi,

    Watching the development of your E-Cat technology has captured my imagination, as a Science Fiction and Star Trek fan for a very long time I find myself enamored by leading edge technological advances such as 3D printing, metamaterials, Stem Cell research and of course LENR derived technologies like your E-Cats. Knowing this about me, you will perhaps understand why I must bother you with questions while you are busy trying to get some important work done. The next big thing coming from the Laboratories of Leonardo Corporation to me, is not the independent report or even the E-Cat plant that may be observed by qualified persons, no, for me the most exciting event will be the unveiling of an E-Cat powered turbine Electrical Generator set that will run continuously, making electrical power while standing alone, not connected to any external power supply whatsoever. The independent report and the E-Cat plant are important, but I think they will not silence the critics, a self contained, E-Cat powered generator set may finally give the skeptics something to think about. Can you hint at the timeline of this possibly pending development?

    Many think that the key to your technology is based on the topology of matter at the atomic scale, for instance, cracks being necessary to work properly, if this is true, then advanced metamaterials will have a use in your work, I read things like, “Photonic Metamaterials: Science Meets Magic”, Photonics Journal, IEEE. It seems that Photons are not the only particles to be altered and manipulated by these “magical” engineered materials. Can you foresee the use of these materials in your technologies?

    Have you seen any other interesting effects besides direct EMF, like superconductivity or unusual changes is resistance that you can talk about?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jouni Toumela:
    No, we never noticed any correlation between our tech and the Sun activity.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jouni Tuomela

    Dear Mr. Rossi.
    All the best for this year also,
    Have you ever noticed any correlations in our Suns activity and the activity of the reactions you have discovered?

    For me it seems our sun is quite a furnace, from what we now can use only visible light and vaporization etc, not EMF fluctuations.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ecco Liberation:
    We received requests from the naval sector. I think our technology will be useful in future for ships, but now we are focused on thermal and electric power generators.
    I think anyway that trains and ships will be more close to our tech than cars, trucks, let alone aircrafts.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Daniel G. Zavela:
    1- matter of serendipity
    2- I prefer not to give precise data until we have not understood well the “strange power”
    3- confidential
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Dr. Rossi:

    An electrical engineer friend of mine found your EMF discovery fascinating.
    He had a few questions for you, if your research has found the answers yet?

    1. If this is not a temperature-dependent phenomenon, why wasn’t it detected earlier? (it is quite unexpected, so perhaps no one was looking for it, and the recent discovery was merely a fortunate accident, as often happens in Science).

    2. What is the strength of the EMF? Milligauss? Dozens of Gauss? That makes a difference in (a) whether it might be due to something else going on in the lab, or from the reactor core itself, and (b) whether there is enough energy in the EMF to provide useful levels of output power.

    3. What is the internal physical arrangement of the nickel and other elements in the eCat? I ask this, because I speculate that if there is some kind of circular layout, it is conceivable that some subatomic effect has set up a circular electron flow that would produce an EMF.

    Once again, Dr. Rossi has astounded us, and we eagerly await substantial information :-)

    Best of Luck in 2013!

    Daniel G. Zavela

  • Ecco Liberation

    Dott. Rossi,

    We already know that probably automotive applications for your E-Cat technology are not feasible for several reasons at the moment or in the foreseeable future. What about Naval applications instead? While probably not suited for small private ships due to power density, safety issues and maybe response time, medium and heavy ships for passenger and cargo transportation look like the ideal practical application for this technology, even if just for heating purposes.

    Have you already received requests on this regard?
    Ecco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Morrissey:
    Nothing is shattered: we will get the certification for the domestic E-Cats after good Industrial statistics and your pre-order will be followed by our offer. The price will not change in real value.
    Obviously, the certification does not depend on us, but we will do all the possible. In the meantime also the Intellectual Property issue will be resolved. That’s easier.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Morrissey

    Andrea,
    Your answer to Frank Acland about no certificator in the world willing to take the liability to certify a LENR device just shattered my hope of getting the home unit I ordered. I have followed you progress since your story came on Peswiki and this is the first time that I have negative feelings.
    Bernie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland:
    Absolutely yes, provided we resolve the certification and intellectual property issues. The certification, in particular, is absolutely necessary ( I mean safety certification) and, believe me, there is no certificator in the world that will take the liability to certify a LENR device for domestic utilization. It is necessary that a history of safe and reliable industrial plants makes up a lattice of good statistics before this certification becomes possible. This is the truth, who says the contrary does not know the issue.
    Happy new Year to all your Readers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Your consideration is correct, and I agree with you. Nevertheless we got evidence of this generation of power, that at the moment we call ” strange power”. We are researching on it, we are not ready for definite opinions. It’s interesting, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pekka Janhunen:
    We are working also on it, in our R&D program. But our focus now is on the industrial plants.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Valac:
    Not a wrong consideration: there are around clowns, who are saying they have been able to copy our tech, and those clowns have only one hope, upon which they have prepared a structure of mock ups to be ready for the market : their hope is to buy a cheap apparatus, copy it, and proclaim:” Here is the competitor of the E-Cat that we always said we had: the ‘Pipperion’!”
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Valac

    Dear Engineer Rossi,

    I wish you, obtaining your international patent on the ECAT this year. without full IP protection, I can not see how the domestic Ecat being commercialized anytime soon.

    Kind regards

    Valac

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,
    In August 2012 you wrote: “we will test soon reactors very small (200-300 watts of power). For the future, not for short term sales.” Any news about those small reactor tests?
    regards, pekka

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I would be surprised if your can extract sufficient “diect EMF” from an eCat to either sustain itself or provide a reasonable amount of electricity. The current nuclear reactors essentially are huge Carnot cycle machines. Admitted they are fission and your eCat is a “LENR” device but I would guess they would have extracted “direct EMF” energy if it were plentifully available. Do you think this is a low-probability path to electrical energy generation or even COP enhancement?

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Some people have surmised that since you are now in partnership with a large manufacturer of power generation equipment, that they may not have an interest in providing home-based E-Cat units which could affect the economic interests of large power producers.

    Is your new as partner committed as you are to manufacturing the domestic e-cats?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brian:
    1- yes
    2- they manufacture plants
    3- yes
    4- not just, but also.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Renzo:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- depends from the certification times, longer than expected for domestic E-Cats
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Brian

    Mr. Rossi

    Happy New Year to You

    I was wondering if you were at liberty to explain more about the collaboration that is occurring with your partner. I understood from one of your previous responses that the partner has access to the key IP for the E-cat. Is this correct? What exactly is the nature of their contribution? Are they working internally on their own E-Cats based upon the information you have given them? Are they just providing technical suggestions and manpower?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my question

  • Renzo

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    I would like to know about the reservations of the E-Cat:
    1) still valid?
    2) The price promise will be kept?
    3) how soon I can warm up with the E-Cat booked?
    I wish that 2013 will achieve its business and even our dreams ….
    Renzo

    Caro dott. Rossi,
    vorrei sapere circa le prenotazioni degli E-Cat:
    1) sono ancora valide?
    2) il prezzo promesso verrà mantenuto ?
    3) fra quanto tempo potrò riscaldarmi con l’E-Cat prenotato?
    Le auguro che il 2013 possa realizzare i suoi affari ed anche i nostri sogni….
    Renzo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefano:
    Yes, it is necessary.
    Max duration ssm: 3 hours, but in laboratory, not for commercial use.
    Forget clowneries of they who say they are going with longer ssm or with higher COPS: the more they talk, the less they have: just mock ups.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Stefano

    Dear Dr Rossi.
    Thank you very much for your previous replays.I need to ask more about the self s.m.
    Is the driver an absolute needing? Is there a way to renounce to use any driver after the ignition of the reaction? And how long lasted the longest ssm without driver?
    Kind regards.
    Stefano

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Thank you with all my heart,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: I second Giovanni Guerrini’s comment of, January 1st, 2013 at 11:48 AM. Good luck and take care of yourself.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven Karels:
    Yes, that is exactly the path we are walking through. Too soon to give precise info, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Your previous postings mentioned “direct EMF” coming from the reactor core. Could you please clarify? I have heard of possible direct conversion to electricity by coupling the energy from a charged moving particle into a “transformer”. In general, is this the approach by which you are able to extract “direct EMF”?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefano:
    With the drive the E-Cat is absolutely stable and safe.
    The reason for which the drive is necessary is confidential, because connected with the internal operation of the reactor.
    Happy New Year to you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Stefano

    Dear Rossi,

    I would like to undersand a bit better the issue about the need of the drive. Somewhere I read that every now on the ecat needs “energy” (electric power or gas heating). This means to me that the self sustaining mode is lasting only for some of the time and then it faints. Did you find a way to have a longer lasting ssm? Is there some reason that explains this phenomenon? I understand the ecat cannot explode (melting the nickel it shut down itself) but it seems that the ecat is not very stable (although not dangerous). Could you please give some more explanation on the needing of the driver?

    Best regards and Happy new year.

    Stefano.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Eric Ashworth:
    Thank you for your interesting comment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Eric Ashworth

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    With regards the antenna information provided by Joe Dec 27th on the work of Konstantin Meyl I too have had some thoughts with regards resonance and its requirement in the evolutionary scheme of the physical world. My own thoughts are that the fission dimension of a system is the transmitter and the subsequent ‘black hole’ the receiver of the long wave between which on the return path back with regards the physical material of the system are various zones of resonance. According to the info., Tesla estimated the Earth is in a 12hz resonance zone. If so, as the Earth evolves it could in theory enter zones of greater resonance and thereby undergo greater degrees of fusion with a consequence of more fission. Uranium could be a very old atom that has become radioactive because of present day environmental resonance. What I am suggesting is that if you apply resonance above 12hz directly to a metal and thereby as it were tuning it to a particular element, for instance copper, then maybe copper isotopes will react like nickel to provide a higher temperature range with regards LENR. Maybe nickel is suited to around 12hz resonance. My own thoughts on hydrogen are that because hydrogen is unique in its single proton/electron structure it is this duality that provides it with a mechanism that prevents its components from coming into contact i.e. they can get very close but they will always repel by continually becoming, at some time, of the same potential in their oscillating orbits. Also I believe that when a fission dimension provides/donates by concentric helical wavest it creates a vortex of positive gravity by its loss, that subsequently creates a ‘black hole’ on the opposite side of the periphery to that of the point of absolute fusion that results in a highly negative environment, this being a receptacle able to recieve and thereby able to achieve a degree of potentiality. Hydrogen I believe has no permanent vortex because the single proton travels as does its electron around a central position on a helical trajectory. Thereby its centre of positive gravity is in a state of constant flux allowing its structure to be broken easily. I mention these points as mere considerations as I am aware that they could be deemed irrelevant or something you consider obvious.
    All the best in the new year. Regards, Eric Ashworth

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nixter:
    1- directly from the reactor core
    2- still under probe
    3- yes
    4- possibly
    5- I hope too
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Nixter

    Engineer Rossi,

    With the greatest anticipation I wait for your invention to arrive into the factories and laboratories around the world, proving their usefulness through practical application.

    I received your words with great enthusiasm regarding the findings of measuring direct EMF from your LENR devices. Were you referring to converting heat to electricity, or were you able to detect EMF coming directly from the reactor core? Is the amount of EMF seen moderated or controlled by the temperatures made by the Hot Cat? Will you next try to increase the effect to be able to produce power/energy directly without the need to convert heat to energy?
    Will it ever be possible to have a “Cold Cat” make energy without heat? Or with less heat?

    I see everyone wishing you a good New Year, I also wish you well in the New Year, but do you feel that you will have a good 2013? I hope so!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear psi:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Domenico Canino:
    I am convinced my work is useful to God: until I am sincerely convinced of this my strength is endless. My next objective: start up the series of industrial E-Cats in construction. My dreams are very limited: strictly bound to the real objective I have to reach at any cost: dreams and objectives are bound in my brain like quarks are bound by gluons in the atomic nuclea.
    Happy New Year!
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    Thank you with my heart, and thanks to all the persons like you.
    Same wishes to you all,
    Andrea

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dear Andrea,
    after three years from the beginning of this adventure,your friends are here with you,like a family with a common object.
    Thank you,again.
    Happy 2013 to you,your family and to all friends of this blog.

    Giovanni

  • domenico canino

    dear Andrea Rossi,
    i’m not a technician, i like to understand facts looking at the people behind the facts, so my question is: How do you feel, how strong you are to fight next battles, how your human factor can influence your next works. I’m interested to your
    present thoughts, and to offer a penny for your next dream,
    warm regards

  • psi

    Ing. Rossi:

    Congratulations on your continued progress towards commercialization. Like many others I anxiously await more concrete and detailed revelations in the new year. God Bless, and don’t forget how many of us there are who are only hoping for the best for you and the whole litter of e-cats. : )

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