Electrical catalyst

.
by
Tadej Bajda a.k.a.Tamal Krishna
das Krsko, Slovenia
.
.
Abstract
Description of a fictional device, cylindrical in shape, for starting a low energy nuclear reaction. Using an environment of hydrogen and nickel charecteristics, similiar to one in an E-Cat. Imagining hydrogen molecul as a spring resonant system and simply using frequency and power of electricity as a catalyst.
.
.

862 comments to Electrical catalyst

  • That was quick!
    On June 10. Hydro Fusion announced on their web that they were looking for Pilot customer, and on June 12. Rossi writes that Hydro Fusion has proposed to use a customer he likes. Maybe the customer was chosen before the announcement?

  • Gian Luca

    Andrea,
    therefore, if there was an Italian customer, everything will be in Sweden, it will be possible also in Italy and around the world? How to buy a tailored suit!
    officially started selling to the public of ECAT?
    Thanks

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian Luca:
    The Swedish formula depends on the Licensees, not from us. Leonardo Corp sells the 1 MW plants, and the owners of the plants can use them the way they prefer: if they want to invest in a plant to sell energy, they can do it. We just make a due dioligence on the final Customer who buys the energy, before accepting the solution. Our Swedish licensee has proposed to us a Customer we like, therefore they are free to buy a plant to put it in the concern of their Customer and sell the energy. We gave them green light, but this is an initiative of theirs, not of ours.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gian Luca

    Dear A.R.
    is it possible that the same choice made in sweden can be replicated in Italy by Prometeon? It would be a great & good chance, for the italian industry, to know LENR and your tecnology for a great future!

    best regards

    Gian Luca

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gherardo:
    Your interesting suggestion should be turned to the examiners or to the manufacturer of the instrument, which is property of the examiners.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    The efficiency must be completed with the thermal energy supplied. In our case is very high because we have not hot gas through the chimney.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Eric Ashworth

    To the readers of JONP. This is part 5. being a follow-up of my previous material. Let us assume as previously stated that the quark has no specific size being responsive only to environmental conditions regards vacant space and constructed of three aethers that they themselves are responding to vacant space. The quark unlike an atomic unit does not contain a systemic system because it contains three mass less aethers that together constitute an entity. The atomic units are comprised of three entities that individually respond to a units circuit with regards position. There are only two dimensions in existence, diametrical being positive and circumferential being negative but in order to establish a duration of time (time being an attribute of the material world) the radial dimension is a necessity. The quark does not represent materiality, its radial is a transitional aether and three quarks of an atomic unit do not represent materiality because they too are transitional but the neutron being the radial unit of an atomic unit does establish a durational radial dimension of an identity because of its measurable lifetime and thereby provides for the life of an atom. The formation of the atomic environment represents the second stage/aspect after the formation of the quark and so too is the atomic radial dimension a second aspect. Only three quarks are required to form a geometric time dimensional structure (time is mobility/duration of quarks or atomic units) aether is timeless. 180 degrees provides for a diametrical and circumferential dimension whether it be a quark or an atomic unit (explanation to follow). Thereby when three quarks descend in the creating environment 180 degrees forms the density of an electron structure, when the structure further descends to 360 degrees it now forms the density of a neutron structure and upon descending a further 180 degrees the total 540 degrees forms the density of a proton structure. This descent of three quarks in the creating environment which is contained within an octahedral cavity of four exterior environments of four pressure densities forms the required densities within the cavity to provide for the necessary quadruplet interaction on each level, in other words, on each level nine quarks descend to form an atomic vehicle. Thereby in the atomic environment within the cavity dependent upon the depth will various densities exist and this initially makes for the complex situation that exists. Referring to volume and size with regards unit make-up, interaction and environmental conditions I believe can explain a complex situation in an easier to understand format without the need to label each and every intricate piece of the puzzle. The octahedral cavity being within a systemic system i.e. within a greater structure has a positive dimension of size at one end being the north pole and a negative dimension of volume at the opposite being the south pole. Thereby upon three quarks descending in unison as eddies in wave motion, atoms are formed in the creating environment. This roll over with regards the three quark structure on wave action accounts for the d.d.u. and the u.u.d. of the proton and neutron (the electron same pattern as the proton being the last in line). As the neutron oscillates between the electron and proton I suspect there is a polar nutation with regards each adjustment of its density, this being related to a volume/size relationship. The neutron in this position will always have less volume than the electron and less size than the proton (less size equal more volume, less volume equals more size) but it will not achieve the absolute of either. Consequently, why should the neutron equal p+e?. In the atomic units two quarks eithet descend or ascend on the diametrical dimension and one quark either ascends or descends on the circumferential dimension. This provides unity by polar attractive force but identity by circumferential quark repulsive activity as they ascend and descend upon their respective spirals. Repulsion and attraction is governed by vacant space and none vacant space. The interior of a unit has a vacant space due to the circumferential quark oscillating on its radial as it circumvents the diametrical dimension upon which are two quarks. These two quarks are in a tight helical trajectorynas as they travel internally between the poles. The vacant space is due to the approach of the radial quark that repels the diametrical quark off centre. To imagine this activity, imagine a capital D. where the upright is the diametrical dimension upon which it spins and upon which two quarks are on a tight helical trajectory and one quark travelling on a loose 180 degree helical trajectory that spins around the diametrical on a spiral, circumventing the diameter from pole to pole on the two dimensions. Each quark circumvents the spinning D. in an ordered format. Thereby three Ds. constitute p,n,e. of an atomic unit. Free neutrons dependent upon their source of origin will display either volume energy or size energy, this being negative or positive. In theory when a positive is able to penetrate to the north gate of a proton it will open the gate by its repusive presence (north pole is a closing tunnel to the centre that is fully open on the horizontal of the circumference) on the circumferential oscillating quark, causing the interior quarks and exterior quark of the proton to reverse their cyclic activity and thereby its polarity which dictates a units position within the atomic structure. This I suspect could transform a proton into a neutron which means the atomic unit is one proton short, thereby one electron must vacate the atomic unit and the positive responsible for the reversal of the proton is ejected by an act of repulsion at the now south pole of the neutron which is caused by the approach of the two inner diametrical quarks. Certain atoms must be able to support extra neutrons which creates an isotope. If this action is repeated the atomic unit will contain more neutrons than the two power potential which will because of similarity of vibration transform the neutrals into units of either heat or light by ejection caused by rejection. The quark is indestructible being of the primary stage with regards the creating environment but it is the origin of the neutron that I believe determins how much damage it is able to do, if any, to the surrounding environment by its penetration. This I believe is why the e-cat is a safe source of energy because the neutrons produced are from excessive volume hydrogen electrons and medium size nickle proton structure (when there is an interaction between two powers such as proton and electronn there is a roll over, the size moves into volume and the volume moves into size and it is because of the shared space that when two units equal one another they become neutrons of similarity without power potentials to control activity and therefore they become measurable amounts of heat as they dissipate). The hydrogen electron I suspect as it gains size, must absorb a substantial amount of energy by creating axcessive space, six quarks (two pairs of three) will divide space equally between two newly formed neutral units. However, and I know a lot of readers will be horified but could it be possible to introduce a minute amount of nuclear material into the e-cat perhaps by an insertion and extraction means, controlled by temperature change so as to sustain a nickel hydrogen reaction without the without the occasional use of electrical heat. I say this because this material in nature does aid evolution in the breakdown of the mineral kingdom. I am thinking of large scale power plants. As you are aware this information is non technical but offered as a possible brief explanation to this extremely complex subject and of which I have tried to be as brief as possible. Best regards Eric Ashworth.

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    Do the elementary particles e(+) and e(-) of the aether in QRT have mass? (In your article A Model of Photon, they have mass. But, in your article Stability of Light Nuclei, you specifically state at the beginning of the article that they are massless.)

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    It appears that you are developing a Hot eCat with an output temperature around 350C. If we assume your cold side runs at a temperature of 100C, then the Carnot efficiency will be about 40%. Assuming a turbine (generation) efficiency of 70% yields a net efficiency of 28%. To produce twice as much electricity as needed for breakeven suggests that a COP of about 7 is needed. Is this generally consistent with your plans?

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    I did notice on the PDF photo (page 15 – photo number 10) that ground standard cable colors have been used for providing power to the hot-cat.
    Would be safer to use black or brown or blu colors. Yellow and green are for ground protection.
    It’s just a matter of standard but important for safety.
    Gherardo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Henry Ethancourt:
    Thank you for the very important information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Amos:
    We will be able to give these data when ready. Anyway the temperature should be around 350 Celsius. The mass flow obviously depends on the power of the plant and thetemperature of the steam.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Amos

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    While I wait for a response from the licensee of my territory, I have in the meantime a few more questions for you. Using the Carnot Cycle for electricity generation, what is the predicted:

    1. Outlet steam pressure in bars
    2. Outlet steam temperature in °c
    3. Massflow in kg/hr

    Regards,

    Amos.

  • Henry Ethancourt

    Hello,
    I just wanted to inform all interested parties that version 3 of the ArXiv article is now available for download. An Appendix has been added, addressing certain issues which came up in discussions on the paper. The link is http://arxiv.org/pdf/1305.3913v3.pdf
    Cheers,
    Henry

  • Steven N. Karels

    Herb Gillis,

    If we believe in a rational world, then there must be an output, a waste product of the exothermic reaction. I see no evidence, tested or alluded to, that suggests Hydrogen does not play a part in the energy production in eCat technology.

    Eventually, Andrea Rossi will be required by patent, or marketplace pressures to explain the reaction.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe wrote in June 10th, 2013 at 4:04 PM

    Wladimir,

    1. A problem with GR is that, space and time are treated as material objects.

    Dear Joe,
    Claudio Nassif is a friend of mine. He is a theoretical physisist, and he is the author of the Symmetric Special Relativity- SSR. It’s a new version of the relativity, where the space is filled by an aether, and in which Nassif proposes a new fundamental concept: the minimum speed of elementary particles.
    So, Nassif introduces a symmetry in the relativity: the maximum speed of light and the minimum speed of particles.

    He has several papes published in some peer review journals, as the Indian Pramana, and the International Journal of Modern Physics B.

    regards
    wlad

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    Our commercial department is analizing this issue. The answer is complex.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Silvio Caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Did you extimate how many potential customers need 1MW low thermal power near 24/24hours 7/7days ?
    Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Catbauer24:
    I cannot answer to this kind of questions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    1. A problem with GR is that, space and time are treated as material objects.

    2. The problem with hypothesizing a greater number of dimensions than 3+1 is that, even 3 (space) and 1 (time) do not share a common nature. Yet, dimensions are supposed to be of the same quality.

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Dear Mr. Rossi

    1. What are your thoughts about possibility of Hydrogen entering a sub-ground state, causing excess heat, as some have proposed for similar observations?
    2. How have your thoughts above changed throughout development and testing of the E-Cat?

    Regards,
    Charles

  • Herb Gillis

    Steven N. Karels;
    If it turns out that the hydrogen is not reacting to form some identifiable nuclear product [ie. a heavier hydrogen isotope, a copper isotope, helium, a heavier nickel isotope, etc.), in amounts commensurate with the observed excess energy, then it is legitimate to question if the hydrogen is really needed. In that eventuality; do you think it might be possible to initiate the energy producing process of the Ecat without hydrogen?? Perhaps by using only the Rossi additive package with the nickel fuel? If that view proves correct then it could play havoc with patent claims requiring hydrogen (or deuterium)! Has that experiment been tried, under otherwise optimal Ecat reaction conditions?
    The fact that the Ecat works is now beyond question, in my view. The real mystery is how it works.
    Kind Regards; HRG.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    —————————–
    From: Wladimir Guglinski
    To: CLAUDIO NASSIF
    Sent: Sábado, 8 de Junho de 2013 18:33
    Subject: Did Weinstein surpass Einstein?

    Did Weinstein surpass Einstein?
    http://www.inovacaotecnologica.com.br/noticias/noticia.php?artigo=teoria-tudo-weinstein-superacao-einstein&id=010130130607
    —————————–

    —————————–
    Date: Sun, 9 Jun 2013 05:15:39 -0700
    From: claudionassif@yahoo.com.br
    Subject:
    Re: Did Weinstein surpass Einstein?
    To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

    Weinstein is proposing a geometrical theory with 14 dimensions so that to unify Relativity and Quantum Mechanics
    —————————–

    —————————–
    From: Wladimir Guglinski
    To: CLAUDIO NASSIF
    Sent: Domingo, 9 de Junho de 2013 10:39
    Subject:
    Re: Did Weinstein surpass Einstein?

    Well, he did surpass, yes.
    Isn’t the previous record of 12 dimensions?

    regards
    wlad
    —————————–

    —————————–
    Date: Sun, 9 Jun 2013 08:18:53 -0700
    From: claudionassif@yahoo.com.br
    Subject:
    Re: Did Weinstein surpass Einstein?
    To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

    —————————–

  • Steven N. Karels

    Herb Gillis,

    As I mentioned in one of my earlier posts, conversion from Hydrogen to some other element, i.e., Helium, might be consistent with eCat reported operatation. I saw a video where Dr. Storms postulated as much.

    Andrea Rossi has previously reported that they have not observed Helium in eCats running for long (~6 month) durations. If this is the predominant energy reaction, one would expect to see a measureable increase in Helium from the starting condition. Either this testing was not performed, it was done incorrectly, the Helium diffused from the reactor area or this is not the dominant energy production reaction.

    From the eCat Followers viewpoint, it is quite frustrating (and interesting) that no output products have been revealed by Andrea Rossi. Without this information, we cannot understand the design, the implications and the consequences of eCat operation. But we understand the need for safeguarding intellectual property.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Amos:
    1- If the address indicated in your comment is correct, you will be contacted by out Licensee for your Territory
    2- we are working very hard on it. We will use the carnot Cycle.
    3- see above
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    What you say is correct, but it will be valid from when we will be able to make electric power. At that point anything that consumes electric energy will have a gain from this technology.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi is this logic reasonable? Water. If the E-cat is able to produce electric power 75% cheaper on average, this alone would decrease the cost of Reverse Osmosis operating costs by 20 to 25%. This alone would tip the economic scales in favor of desalination in many locations. Of course the big cost advantage of the E-Cat power reactor not even considered in this 20-25% is the E-Cat would be able to operate in locations without a conventional power source, where it is generally most urgently needed.

  • Herb Gillis

    Steven N. Karels:
    Would you agree that the possibility of nickel being just a catalyst for the conversion of light hydrogen to helium is ruled out as the predominant source of the Ecat energy?
    Kind Regards; HRG.

  • Amos

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I have a few questions for you:

    1. How can I purchase a 1MW unit for use in Zimbabwe.
    2. How far are you with electricity generation? Are you going the Steam turbine route, Sterling Engine, or TEG?
    3. If there is no electricity generation attached to the 1MW unit, will it be possible to purchase a steam turbine from a company like Siemens and attach it?

    Thank you.

    Amos.

  • mario

    Orsobubu:
    each new use of energy will be, as usual, subject to an each time unique judgement on relations between time, location, type of demand in terms of quantities and qualities.
    Some judgements can be reused if same originary conditions occurs.
    Human beings thrive mostly on reuse of past good judgments condensed or capitalized in technology and good behave untill a change is needed or felt necessary.
    This is not a problem to me, at least. Only for orsobubu this has to be managed, steered, directed by masters of social knoledge for our prosperity, I presume. Anyway, is easier go to the moon than knowing what is the actual thinking of each living person now and after. Isn’t it?
    So dear A.Rossi is easier discover a new energy source than put oneself in control how generations will reuse the knoledge you will hopefully deliver to us all. That’s why one choose the market, if orsobubu’s friends (government agencies) and friends od orsobubu’s friends (licensed oligopolists) don’t shoot the consequences of freedom from the opposite side. :-)

  • Steven N. Karels

    Herb Gillis,

    Thank you. The two analyses I posted are meant to be the upper and lower bounds of Nickel availability and the effect of eCat consumption. The uncertainty is we (followers of eCat) do not know the actual mechanism for energy production. Is it only 64Ni being converted to Copper? Is it some how in some way mass being converted 100% to energy? Or is it something else?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    I am not yet convinced of this: the reverse osmosis costs are so low, that I am dubious about our competitivity.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini:
    Mainly technological, but also scientific.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Drew Glista:
    We will.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Dear Steven Karels:
    Your solution to the nickel consumption calculation is brilliant. The only further concern one might have is whether the 0.3g of nickel fuel is the appropriate charge for a 10 KW Ecat for 6 months of continuous operation (without a re-loading). The 0.3g figure from the Third Party Report was for a test of relatively short duration.
    Kind Regards; HRG.

  • orsobubu

    mario,

    it is correct, cheap energy alone will not resolve crisis situations. On the contrary, in a regime of capitalist production, this will diminish the available capital putting out of business the enormously more labour-intensive fossil sector. You will need to widen the geographic markets (but they will saturate quickly) and invent new products that absorb all the exceeding workers from the innovations made ​​in the energy revolution, and even create a large demand for new workers to compensate for the progressive falling rate of profit. But it will certainly be a massive undertaking, judging from the current situation of high-tech markets. Suppose – ad absurdum – that the availability of energy leads to invent new “electronic clothing” that materialize upon users in place of standard outfits, with a host of features previously unthinkable. A little LENR-onic device would be enough to stock all the imaginable fashions. This technology, totally made by robotized production lines and designed by a few super-specialized technicians, on the other hand would cause the total destruction of tens of millions of workers in the textile industry. As Marx teaches, all the crisis come out from the progress.

  • Drew Glista

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    Has the 1 MW plant arrived at it’s USA destination yet? If so, or when it does arrive, please extend an invitation to the US Patent Office examiner and US Department of Energy Officials for a demonstration of the ECAT in operation. Reality is difficult to refute.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Andrea,
    answering to a question regarding “big surprises and results” you spoke about technological and scientific achievements.
    We look forward. :)
    Mainly technological or mainly scientific?
    As Joseph Fine would say
    scientific regards
    Giuliano Bettini.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: Do you agree, as we discussed many months ago, creating cheap electric power is the best way the E-Cat can bring about clean inexpensive water?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Thanks for the insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • mario

    Steven N. Karels,
    looking ahead
    trasmission line are only a justified cost if it is beared by distributed producers as a cooperative or mutual insurance and redundancy against limited systems failure or in high availability services framework.
    Power abundance will be a given situation widely & normally.
    So if we want really figure out how help people in misery or distress we have the “mission” to immagine new ways to harvest resources springing out of new demanded energy implicated products and services. “We have to” create new useful applications, unimagined since now.
    When human beings let their minds freely challenge a problem they come out with more solutions or more options on wich thrive on in a broad sense reaching every corner of the hearth in every geographical land.
    Happy brainstorming!

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Another way of approaching the Nickel consumption issue is as follows:

    1 converted gram of matter yileds 23 million kWh of energy

    An eCat (from the report) contains 0.3 grams of fuel

    An eCat continuously outputing 10 kW for 6 months generates 43,800 kWh (less the input which depends on COP).

    Therefore, the maximum mass consumption is about 2 milligrams during that 6 month period.

    This roughly relates to the 64Ni amount present in the 0.3 grams of fuel.

    So assume the 0.3 grams of fuel is thrown away and cannot be recycled (you have previously pointed out that it can be recycled). So 0.3 grams equals 43,800 kWh of energy production.

    Total world energy consumption is around 150,000 TWh, 1 TWh = 10**+9 kWh. So it looks like the annual Nickel consumption for eCats to meet all the World’s energy production would take 1,000 tonnes. The current World Nickel production is over 1,000 times that level, so eCats will not have an impact on Nickel consumption.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Thank you for your thoughts,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Obviously RO has a place in water treatment. I think they (RO) excel in desalinization of sea water to potable water. You would be in a better position to judge the market/profitability issues with RO versus some eCat based approach or approaches.

    My vision is for Guatemala and specifically the Mayans. They have access to city water (faucets) but the water is contaminated. They also have limited electricity in some areas. So until an eCat that can self-produce electricity is available, my plans are to use a UV lamp based approach with a water cistern and a continuous low flow rate UV lamp with a conventional 5 micron filter. My prototype unit would service 100 – 200 people with a centralized distribution point and should consume about 10 Watts of electrical power. I have submitted a design to an NGO and am waiting to see if it is accepted.

    I foresee eCat technology being available in remote areas to electrify villages at substantially reduced costs to the government or the villagers. This would be part of your distributed electricity generation plan. Low cost electricity production generated on a distributed basis. No need to lose 10% or 15% of the energy in transmission lines. Some thoughts.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Prof. Joseph Fine:
    Storms are very interesting for LENR. I am studying the production of positrons in storms, where energies involved should be enough for this phenomenon.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Herb Gillis:
    I do not think that LENR can resolve the problem of radioactive wastes, based on the knowledge I have now.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes, our speed raised exponentially.
    Warm Regards,
    A.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jackie:
    But in that case the problem is water treatment, we are not expert in that area. The pollutants can be of very different kind, I do not think we can resolve the problem with a distillation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fabio 82:
    We will be subject to a massive attempt of discredit, from many differentiated sources, but I think that we can win just installing operating plants. Our work will beat any chatter.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Interesting. So it is bound to our capacity to produce electric power. But are you sure that we could be competitive with the reverse osmosis?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>