Electrical catalyst

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by
Tadej Bajda a.k.a.Tamal Krishna
das Krsko, Slovenia
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Abstract
Description of a fictional device, cylindrical in shape, for starting a low energy nuclear reaction. Using an environment of hydrogen and nickel charecteristics, similiar to one in an E-Cat. Imagining hydrogen molecul as a spring resonant system and simply using frequency and power of electricity as a catalyst.
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862 comments to Electrical catalyst

  • Joseph Fine

    Ing. Andrea Rossi,

    Apparently (see below links), atomic clocks can now do more than just keep accurate time (as in GPS satellites). Now, they can be used to perform quantum simulations. Perhaps, you and your team could simulate and improve your quantum E-Cat (a cousin to Schrodinger’s cat?).

    http://www.tgdaily.com/general-sciences-features/73548-atomic-clocks-can-simulate-quantum-magnetism

    http://jila.colorado.edu/content/magnificent-quantum-laboratory

    Maybe, such quantum simulations might help settle some of the disputes on the other threads.

    Many, many, quantum regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Interesting, thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    You probably don’t need more reading material.

    But, as I was looking up recent information on MAX-PHASE materials (used to withstand extreme environments), I found this recent American Ceramic Society newsletter.

    http://americanceramicsociety.org/bulletin/2013_pdf_files/april13/pdf/apr13_lo%20res.pdf

    Lots of interesting information on ternary ceramics (Max-phase) here.

    These materials combine the properties of both ceramics and metals.

    Perhaps, you can find a new use for some of these materials!

    At the top of the list for info on max-phase materials should be (and is) the Drexel University website:

    max.materials.drexel.edu/‎

    Max regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Carlo Marcena:
    you are right: as I said, E-Cat is still in a phase of R&D, as I continue this work more findings will be released and additional technical information will be provided once practicable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Carlo Marcena

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    if ORC stays for Open Rankine Cycle, I agree with you that efficiency is not enough to make electricity generation competitive. Efficiency may go over 25% only if we use a close loop circuit – heat exchanger constituted by a boiling water vessel warmed by the E-cat (or E-cat clusters, to be submerged into this vessel), steam driers, steam turbine (connected to the electricity generator), condenser and pumps (pressure and circulating pumps). Working fluid pressure at the condenser (i.e. at steam turbine exit) must stay low, let’s say some 0,05 – 0,1 bar (about 100 psia), while heat exchanger pressure must be not less than several tens bar. I understand that it’s not an easy task, but I believe that this compact close circuit can be designed and fabricated with good results.
    Regards,
    Carlo M

  • Andrea Rossi

    Carlo Marcena:
    We got offers not in line with your comment. The cost of the ORC system combined with the low efficiency make the ORC useful only for recovery of waste heat, but not competitive for energy production: I say this based on the numbers I got. We calculate with numbers. If in the meantime the numbers are changed ( my last review of the ORC tech is 2 months old) I will be happy to receive real offers.
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    A.R.

  • Carlo Marcena

    About heat conversion into electricity.
    After a thirty year experience in the electricity field, I can say that Stirling engine has always been on the point of “arriving on the shelf”, but it never did. Provided that domestic e-Cat is not expected to be soon on the market, at the moment what E-Cat needs is a mini electricity generator, rated 0,1 – 1 MWe. Well, if this is the case, in my opinion the best choice is a close loop Rankine cycle, with a small steam turbine and a condenser working with tap water as cold sink. In summer, tap water temperature increase could be managed to be small (let’s say 10 – 20 °C) to have an electricity efficiency as high as possible. In winter, tap water temperature increase could be kept higher, to use this water as heating fluid, paying this higher cooling water temperature with a decrease in electricity efficiency.
    Small close Rankine cycles are not so expensive, when compared to the cost of the whole plant.

    Regards,
    Carlo Marcena

    energy fi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Aldo Greco:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    Contact info@leonardocorp1996.com for commercial information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ALDO GRECO

    BUON GIORNO ING. ROSSI
    LA SEGUO CON INTERESSE SIN DALLA PRIMA ORA. HO TENTATO TEMPO FA DI FARLA CONTATTARE CON POSSIBILI PARTNER (ZONA RIMINI) CIRCA 2 ANNI FA SENZA SUCCESSO…..
    A PROPOSITO DEL MOTORE STIRLING SUGGERISCO LA GIAPPONESE DAVINCI CHE HA UN PRODOTTO CHE PUO’ ESSERE INTERESSANTE CHE SI BASA SUL MOTORE WANKEL.
    BUON LAVORO.
    ALDO GRECO

  • Andrea Rossi

    TO THE READERS OF THE jOURNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS:
    TODAY HAS BEEN PUBLISHED THE PAPER ” RADIOACTIVITY PHYSICS FOUNDAMENTALS”
    By Dr. Will Schmidt
    Warm Regards,
    JoNP

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mike Fidler:
    Thanks, interesting,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • MikeFidler

    Hello,

    You might be interested in this article on low tempeture power conversion via reverse air conditioning used on a geothermal site in Alaska.
    internationalgeothermal.org/Documents/UTC_Power_Conversion.pdf
    Sincerly,
    Michael Fidler

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paulina West:
    Thank you for your intelligent comment.
    The SEM and SIMS images, so far, are confidential because they contain information that we deem industrial secret.
    We will publish our theory ( we have understood very well the effect) when the IP will be safe or made useless by a strong industrialization.
    In the meantime our R&D work goes on : please read my comment of early today.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paulina West

    Dear Adrea Rossi,

    Congratulations on the 3rd party test and the recent paper “Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device.” 500+deg C is a bit warm for something that is using 360w, the energy equivalent of a few light bulbs. This paper has helped more people on science blogs to re-evaluate their thoughts on lenr.

    When you have time, do you have plans to publish or otherwise make available the SEM images and the isotopic analysis of the transmuted particles?

    It is my observation that the work of the Japanese cold fusion scientists and the work of experimentalists in pyroelectric fusion (exploding wires) shows that the reactions are occurring within the heavier elements. The product of the reactions are important to understanding this reaction, and theories which attempt to explain the Ecat without knowing the product of the reaction are premature. It will have implications for all of the sciences. (My own view is that this is a kind of near field antenna effect, which happens at certain resonances when electricity passes through an antenna – which can be either a wire or a small particle.) Thank you for your work.

    Regards, Paulina

  • Paulina West

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Now would be a wonderful time to provide the SEM images of the transmuted particles, for me. (:

    Best regards,
    Paulina

  • Andrea Rossi

    Brian:
    1- Low temperature E-Cat
    2- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Brian

    Mr. Rossi

    Congratulations on this important step towards mass production.

    Is this outside-made E-cat a “hot-cat” or a “warm-cat”?

    Is the CEO of the partner himself involved in the research and development work?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions
    Brian

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marcel:
    No, it is not possible: with the existing apps from such a photo the address could be catched.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marcel

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Could you please publish a photo from the mass production site? All your fans would appreciate it and it would not reveal any secret about the e-cat technology.

    Thank you.

    Marcel

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Dear Tadej Bajda:
    I haven’t visited JoNP in a while. I just noticed your wonderful paper and yes, I think the key to LENR is the oscillating bonds. I’ve been giving a lot of thought to the very polarizable nickel-hydride bond. When the E-cat is heated to 60 C, the reaction initiates. The heating makes infrared photons. We know from infrared spectroscopy that metal-hydrogen bonds can absorb infrared photons. This makes them stretch like a spring. I’ve given this some thought at Cold Fusion Now where Ruby is polite enough to put up with my senile off topic rambling.

    All the best,

    Alan

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tim:
    1- probably thousands
    2- both
    3- gradually
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tim

    Dr. Rossi

    When the factory in the USA gets up to speed, how many 1 MW plants a month will it be producing?

    Will these be warm-cats or hot-cats or both?

    Any idea when this will happen?

    Tim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Prof. Margherita Hack left this life.
    It is very sad that, after the loss of Prof. Sergio Focardi, another great physic ( astrophysic ) has left us: Prof. Margherita Hack, among the most important astrophysics of the world, was a good friend of Prof. Focardi, and he told me she was very interested to our work.
    My deepest condolences to her family.
    Andrea Rossi

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I agree,it is diabolic and God has a great sense of humor.

    Regards G G

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    There is a link posted by Daniel De Caluwe on June 26th, 2013 at 6:04 PM under your article from 2 months ago. It is to an article in Scientific American that describes how protons and neutrons seem to travel around within the nucleus as PAIRS, not as singles (at least 25% of the time anyway). This, of course, resembles the deuterons in your gravitational fluxes n(o). It is considered an “extreme view” of the nuclear dynamics.

    Your friend John Arrington says, “You really have to understand those reaction mechanisms to know what’s going on…” Of course, you have already briefed him on your Quantum Ring Theory, but he does not cite your work for some reason. Maybe he just forgot. Perhaps you should refresh his memory with an email. Perhaps you should contact everyone who rejected your thesis and place their responses here on JONP. It would be quite the learning experience.

    Do not forget to leave a comment at the end of the article in Scientific American.

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Andrea Rossi

    To The Readers of the JoNP:
    Today has been published on the Journal of Nuclear Physics the article “Advanced concepts in Black hole Cosmology” by Prof, U.V.S, Seshavatharam ( India).
    JoNP

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giovanni Guerrini:
    Our enemies have to be preserved and defended, like the Chinese Pandas. They are a race in extinction and it is so sad. The more they write stupidities and biased considerations, the more they disappear and the more we get credibility, but, paradoxically, the more they disappear, the more this precious source of credibility for us fades: what a shame. Please, preserve snakes, monkeys etc, don’t let the competiton for survival make them dead men walking, like the Zombies of World War Z , the movie of Brad Pitt now in the theaters, very funny and genial for its epilogue. We need them ( even if Zombies). Snakes, for example, are delicious with mayonnaise and champagne, but the more we eat them, the more they disappear and the less we can hope to taste their deliciousness: and this is another paradox; in few words, the more you get a source of deliciousness, the less you can hope to get this solace eventually. This is diabolic, isn’t this?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    To the Dott Rossi’s enemies.

    Some years ago,in an interview with an italian television, Prof Emilio Del Giudice said that a future device based on cold fusion would not have been expensive and complicated to make.He was talking about D-Pd,but certainly also a device with H-Ni is less binding than a fission reactor or ITER.
    I think that the idea “this technology will be integrated with the other energy sources” is a wise idea.
    If tomorrow morning this know how would be an open source,would happen the chaos.
    A worse chaos will happen arriving to the oil peak without a valid alternative energy source and with the increase of CO2 in atmosphere it will be a middle age.
    So with this technolgy,the fossil industry will extend the time of its life and in the same time CO2 will decrease.
    Now the situation is this:
    1)All the world knows that E-Cat exist and works (thanks to www and the indipendent report)
    2)Dott Rossi is the wise guardian of his industrial secret (he is a philosophisicist !).
    So you,enemies,have a great advantage that Dott Rossi stays in good health and that he gets the international patent.

    Put flowers in yours guns,and become friends ,we all live in the same heart and we breathe the same air.

    At the end of the world,we all have the same destiny.

    Giovanni Guerrini Italy.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Albert Ellul:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ing. Albert Ellul

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    Regarding ready made for market Stirling engines, if you have not contacted these peple: Biopower of USA have a ready made 38kw electric generator powered by a Stirling engine

    http://www.stirlingbiopower.com/STIRLING/BASSE.swf

    If one , let’s say, 100 kW of thermal power to drive the 38kW electric alternator, then a 1MW hot-cat would drive ten of these generators outputting 380 kW electric.

    We are waiting for your first hot-cat electric. Good luck.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    About nickel size, I cannot give further information.
    About the safety, in the safety certification process all these issues are assessed: the E-Cats guarantee intrinsic and extrinsic total safety.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You answered “No” to my question “Can we assume the smaller Nickel particles had a higher reaction rate compared to the larger particles (because they have a higher area-to-mass ratio)?”

    So it would appear the reaction rates are not strictly a function of surface area. I would specuate it is probably a function of “crack” or defect size in the Nickel particle. If so, then there would probably be an optimal Nickel particle size so that after your material preparation phase, sufficent “cracks” of the right size range exist to facilitate the reaction.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Nickel safety is only one of the few issues the “snakes” will use to discredit or otherwise attack eCat technology. I am glad you are prepared.

    From your response, I assume the delivered eCat fuel module is a “sealed” unit, with sufficent encasement strength to protect its contents in all but the most violent events?

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Dear Joe
    one paradox that cannot be solved by considering the current Sandard Model is concerning the mesons Rho.

    The text below is extracted from the page 44 of my book The Missed U-Turn (not published, because the publisher decided to broke the aggreeent signed by he)

    Page 44:
    By adopting the “spin-fusion” hypothesis proposed in QRT, the anomaly of the beta decay is explained, as shown in the paper New Model of Neutron and, in this way, high energy reactions can be explained through LOGIC, in the same way as occurred in Chemistry for the establishment of the chemical reactions.

    Spin-fusion occurs in several high energy reactions, and it can explain some strange behavior of particles. Let us see an example. Consider, for instance, the mesons pi and the mesons Rho (they have the same structure, according to the Standard Model, but Rho are excited mesons):

    • The meson pi+ has structure ud’ , its rest mass is 140MeV , and its time decay is 2,6×10-8s

    • The meson Rho+ has structure ud’, its rest mass is 770MeV , and its time decay is 0,4×10-23s

    • The meson pi(0) has structure (uu’+dd’)/21/2 , its rest mass is 135MeV, and its time decay is 0,8×10-16s

    • The meson Rho0 has structure (uu’+dd’)/ 21/2 , its rest mass is 770MeV, and its time decay is 0,4×10-23s.

    Note the following:
    1- The masses of pions pi(0) and pi+ have a difference of 5MeV.
    But Rho0 and Rho+ have the same mass 770MeV
    Why ????

    2- The pions pi(0) and pi+ have different time decays: 2,6×10-8s and 0,8×10-16s.
    But the mesons Rho have the same time decay: 0,4×10-23s s

    Why ????

    There is no way to explain it from the current Standard Model of Modern Physics, because:

    A) If we use an argument so that to explain the difference of mass 5MeV between pi(0) and pi+, however the same argument would have to be applied to the masses of Rho0 and Rho+, and they would have to exhibit a difference of mass too. But Rho0 and Rho+ have the same mass !!!

    B) If we use an argument so that to explain the difference of time decay between pi(0) and pi+, however the same argument would have to be applied to the time decay of Rho0 and Rho+ , and they would have to exhibit a difference of time decay. But Rho0 and Rho+ have the same time decay !!!

    Explanation by considering spin-fusion

    Such difference between the behavior of mesons pi and Rho can be explained by considering the spin-fusion.

    Indeed, the structure of meson pi+ can actually be pi(0)-e’ , i.e. a meson pi(0) tied with spin-fusion to one positron e’.
    Look:

    a) Such structure explains the difference of mass 5MeV between pi(0) and pi+:

    the mass of positron is 0,5MeV, but its presence causes a reduction in the binding energy between quarks, and so there is a growth of the pion mass.

    b) It also explains the difference of times decay:
    • the pi(0) with 0,8×10-16s , with a short time because its structure is formed by quarks only

    • the pi+ with 2,6×10-8s , with a long time because its structure has a positron (causing a reduction in the binding energy).

    Due to the spin-fusion between the positron and a quark of the meson pi(0), the meson pi+ with structure pi(0)-e’ has a spin S=0, because the positron loses its spin 1/2.

    The meson Rho+ has not a lepton in its structure, that’s why Rho0 and Rho+ have the same mass and the same time decay. Note that, as there is not a lepton in their structure, the time decay is very short: 0,4×10-23s.

    Dear Joe,
    I also have to remember you that the structure of neutron formed by proton-electron already had been confirmed by Borghi, Conte-Pieralice, and Santilli experiments.

    Such structure of the neutron formed by proton-electron can be explained only by considering the spin-fusion hypothesis.

    The physics theorists are betraying the scientific method, because they are rejecting those three experiments, since they want to keep their current theories.

    To accept the Borghi experiment imply in rejecting some fundamental foundations of the current Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics.

    That’s why, instead of to abandon their current theories, the academic theorists prefer to betray the scientific method.

    regards
    wlad

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe wrote in June 28th, 2013 at 4:11 PM
    Wladimir,

    What is your justification in seeking a new symmetry, especially since you disagree with the approach taken in SUSY?

    Joe,
    the experiments in LHC had shown that there is not any supersymmetry in the nature. The experiments had NOT detected symmetric particles.

    So, Suse IS WRONG.

    Do you need a better justification than do not accept a wrong (and stupid) theory?

    The physics theorists try to discover the structure of the matter taking the mathematics as point of departure. THIS IS NOT PHYSICS.

    The correct procedure is to discover the true fundamental concepts, and after that to apply the mathematics, so that to verify if they are correct.
    One of the fundamental concepts to be considered is a non-empty space with structure formed by elementary particles.

    Suse had been developed by considering the space as empty.
    Now the experiment published in 2011 (according to which light had been obtained from the space) is showing that the space is NOT EMPTY.

    Do you think that does it makes sense to keep the ideas from which Suse had been developed (even knowing that Suse was developed by considering the space as empty) but now the 2011 experiment shows that space is NOT empty?

    I dont believe in supersymmetry.
    If the universe should be symmetric, matter and antimatter would vanish one each other.

    regards
    wlad

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuseppe:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    Symmetry already exists between the 12 fermions of the Standard Model, especially in terms of charge and number of generations (3). This implies that the neutrino and electron families are at the SAME level of composition as the 2 quark families.

    Yet, QRT has these 4 families in a 3-level hierarchy of composition:

    1. neutrino: composed of electron and antielectron
    2. electron: composed of QED quarks
    3. QCD (and QED) quarks: composed of unknown particles

    What is your justification in seeking a new symmetry, especially since you disagree with the approach taken in SUSY?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Giuseppe

    Dear Dott Rossi,
    I found this kickstarter project, perhaps you might be interested
    http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1876426552/supercritical-co2-turbine-generator?ref=category

    Regards,
    T.G.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giovanni Guerrini:
    He,he,he…thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    1- no
    2- confidential
    3- Ni is contained ermetically in the sector of the E-Cat that has not to be opened by the Customer. Our .employees handle Ni powders with all the necessary protection. Crashes of the internal part of the E-Cat are impossible if not voluntary, due to the shielding. In case of overheating you have no more powders, because Ni melts. Intrinsic safety.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Relative to the Nickel particle sizes, you stated there were differences.

    1. Can we assume the smaller Nickel particles had a higher reaction rate compared to the larger particles (because they have a higher area-to-mass ratio)?

    2. You obviously settled on a specific size for production. Was this strictly a matter of material cost or were there performance advantages?

    3. Powdered Nickel can be hazardous if inhaled, etc. How do you address safety concerns if the eCat containers are opened (damage from crashes during transportation, unauthorized access, etc)?

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe wrote in June 27th, 2013 at 12:27 AM
    Wladimir,

    1. If QED quarks bind to each other with the same force (strong interaction) as the QCD quarks do with each other, could they not also bind between themselves? If no, why not? If yes, where are the particles that are composed of such a mixture?

    2. How does QRT explain the three generations of discrete mass that exist within each family of fermions?

    3. Are the QED quarks and the QCD quarks composed of the same particle? If yes, what is that particle? If no, what is the difference between their constituent particles?

    Dear Joe,
    I am not a particle physicist.

    I had developed a theory which emphasis is regarding the following:

    1- A structure for the aether
    2- A model of photon
    3- new hydrogen atom
    4- new neutron model
    5- new nuclear model

    In my theory I had proposed new fundamental principles so that to rule the working of the models above.

    For example, in my theory it is proposed the spin-fusion mechanism, which is not considered in current Physics.
    It’s shown in my book that several paradoxes of Particle Physics can be solved by the spin-fusion mechanism.

    Of course, if the spin-fusion mechanism indeed is existing in the Nature, the particle theorists need to change the way of their theoretical research, in order to incorporate such new funamental concept.

    So, if some fundamental concepts are missing in the current Physics, you cannot get answers for your questions without to take in consideration such new fundamental concepts (as for instance the spin-fusion mechanism).

    Therefore, in order to get answers to some of your questions, there is need to incorporate some new fudnamental concepts missing in current Physics, otherwise it will be IMPOSSIBLE to get the answers risen by you.

    Conclusion: there is need to change some fundamental concepts in current Physics, so that to get some answers yet missing in Particle Physics.
    There is no way to explain them by taking in consideration the foundations considered in current Physics

    regards
    wlad

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dear Dott Rossi,
    I think that you are,before than a scientist and a businessman,a “filosofisico” philosophysicist(?).
    Consequently,today you are the wise guardian of this technology and of its integration with the other energy sources.
    So,your safety and health should be a priority not only for your friends,but also for your “enemies”.

    Long life and prosperity to wises and philosophysicists!

    Regards G G

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    1- yes, we tried different sizes and there are differences
    2- we do not give this kind of information
    3- same as in 2.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco Marchesi:
    Yes, the Sterling Engine is an option with the new temperatures.
    We are studying also this kind of coupling.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear ing. Rossi, congratulations for the excellent recent interview! I have great confidence in you!
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zR9GbqK11M

  • Marco Marchesi

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I’m Marchesi Marco from Bergamo. I’ve just read on E-Cat World (http://www.e-catworld.com/2013/06/rossi-on-e-cat-electricity-generation/) that you’re working on electricity production. Maybe are you working on it in the usual sense with a steam turbine or could you re-evaluate the idea of a simple Stirling engine? An increasing Delta-T will augment the efficiency, so the Hot-Cat is the best choise… Or, maybe it’s an old idea, just tried and not working?

    Regards,
    M.M.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The question I was attempting to address is what is the basic structure requirement of the Nickel to make eCat technology work (besides the Catalyst).

    1. Have you tried different size Nickel particles? I have heard you use 1 micron diameter Nickel. Nanoparticles to 20 nanometers (and smaller) are commercially available but they are more expensive than larger particles. Have you conducted experiments in various sizes of Nickel particles and, if so, have you observed a difference in reaction rates, etc?

    2. Depending on the molten salt used, the Nickel could either be a suspension or it could be dissolved. If the eCat production requires micro-fractures, then the dissolved version might not work. So finding a suitable molten salt that is compatible with Nickel and your special Catalyst might be difficult. Do you agree?

    3. Perhaps a molten salt based on Nickel with the special Catalyst as an additive might be a viable alternative approach. What do you think?

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    1. If QED quarks bind to each other with the same force (strong interaction) as the QCD quarks do with each other, could they not also bind between themselves? If no, why not? If yes, where are the particles that are composed of such a mixture?

    2. How does QRT explain the three generations of discrete mass that exist within each family of fermions?

    3. Are the QED quarks and the QCD quarks composed of the same particle? If yes, what is that particle? If no, what is the difference between their constituent particles?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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