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Radioactivity Physics Fundamentals

by
Will Schmidt

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Introduction
The purpose of this article on radioactivity is to explain and describe the following subjects:
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• What radioactivity is
• How radioactive decay processes work
• When radioactive decay is initiated
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Radioactivity is like the atomic nucleus speaking.

This article is really about the neutrino.  How can such a small particle with no electric charge and very little mass (if any) control the destiny of the world and all living things?
Listen, the radioactive nuclear atom will tell you.  This article will explain how the neutrino works and what it does.  What the neutrino really is, has not yet been discovered.
There are three types of neutrinos: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino.  They will be mentioned in examples below.
There are three major classes of radioactivity processes:
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• Radioactive beta decay
• Alpha particle decay
• Decay of proton particles
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These radioactivity processes will be described below and include:
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• Radioactivity decay of the free neutron.
• Radioactivity decay of the proton (if any)
• Pion particle decay
• Muon particle decay
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By these radioactivity  processes, nuclear structure is unfolding.
H. Becquerel discovered the ionizing effects of radioactivity radiation in 1899, and Rutherford showed that alpha particles were emitted as well as beta electrons.
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442 comments to Radioactivity Physics Fundamentals

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the Readers of the Journal:
    Today has been published the article Lessons of Math, by Prof Sergio Focardi. From where he is still teaches
    JoNP

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Eugene Mallove death… a macabre conspiracy of the Universe ?

    In the end of 2003 I had started to submit some of my papers to Infinite Energy Magazine. All they had been rejected for publication, each one of them due to a different reason. Sometimes the paper had been considered to be not of the interest of the readers of that magazine, as for instance the paper where I propose my model of photon. Other papers were considered not appropriate for the readers due to the complex scientific language. Then the editor Eugene Mallove had suggested me to put the papers in a book form, so that to be sold by Infinite Energy.

    The emails exchanged between me and Christy Frazier (Managing Editor) , which are partially exhibited ahead, show the strategy proposed by Mallove.

    20 February 2004 =================================
    From : Christy Frazier
    Sent : Friday, February 20, 2004 1:27 PM
    To : wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    Subject : Status of Papers Submitted to Infinite Energy

    Our editor suggests that since you have developed so many interesting, intriguing theories that you consider one of the following: publishing a book which melds the many theories together OR starting your own website, where you can post all of your papers for the public to see. IE would surely link from our site to yours, if you created one which had your many papers available.

    Thank you for your submissions. There are a few remaining which I hope we can give you answers on within the coming month or so.

    Christy Frazier
    Managing Editor
    Infinite Energy Magazine
    ================================================

    04 March 2004 ===================================
    From : Christy Frazier
    Sent : Thursday, March 4, 2004 8:19 AM
    To : Wladimir Guglinski
    CC : Gene Mallove
    Subject : Re: Status of Papers Submitted to Infinite Energy

    We recommend, again, that you consider putting all of the pieces into one work, with an introduction, etc.
    Publishing is not as expensive as you may think, if you approach it in the simplest possible manner. If you were able to pull all pieces together so that they read more like a book, you could simply print out each paper as a chapter of said book; the 8.5×11 paper could then be bound in that format. This is not a formal publishing effort, but would allow you to circulate the book. Infinite Energy/New Energy Foundation would consider selling such a book for you. It would not be offered on a large scale, since it would not have an ISBN and not be bound professionally. However, if you sent us a clean hard copy of the book on 8.5×11 paper, we could potentially make minimal copies and bind it. An ad would run in the magazine and the book would be added to our catalog.

    We would split the sales revenue with you, via an agreement we would work out with you. All that being said, we would first encourage you to seek some assistance in getting the language to flow better. There are many instances where your papers are difficult to read due to the English translation.
    ================================================

    09 March 2004 ===================================
    From : Christy Frazier
    Sent : Tuesday, March 9, 2004 7:17 AM
    To : wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    Subject : Re: Fundamental Requirements

    Dr. Guglinski:
    Your paper, “Fundamental Requirements for the Proposal of a New Hydrogen Atom,” will not be reconsidered by Infinite Energy.

    Our editor again encourages you to consider putting all of your papers into one book form, with a hearty introduction which generally explains the purpose of the “chapters”/papers.

    The reviewer of the paper in question did not mean that your paper was scientifically difficult to read. He meant that the language (i.e., English translation) is such that it makes it difficult to read through and fully comprehend. Our editor, as I noted before, took many hours to decipher the true meaning of some statements because the language was not such that it was completely apparent.

    I am sorry that we cannot satisfy your desire to have this paper published in Infinite Energy. I hope that our encouragement to publish the papers as a whole entity (and tied together coherently and neatly) is something you will consider. As I noted before, we woudl consider making copies and selling the product for you if you presented us with a clean, hard copy that has a good introduction which makes sense to the reader.

    Thank you.
    Christy Frazier
    Managing Editor
    Infinite Energy Magazine
    =================================================

    So, after so many encouragements, finally I had decided to put my book in a book form, and I sent the following message to Christy Frazier:

    ==================================================
    Dear Dr. Christy Frazier
    I have found an English teacher who is making the corrections in the grammar of my papers. I hope to have the book ready after three months, and then I will send you a hard copy, with the good introduction that you had suggested.

    Thanks to your attention
    WLADIMIR GUGLINSKI
    ==================================================

    And she sent me the following reply:

    24 March 2004 ===================================
    From : Christy Frazier
    Sent : Wednesday, March 24, 2004 7:02 AM
    To : Wladimir Guglinski
    Subject : Re: Fundamental Requirements

    Great! Once we have the material in hand, Dr. Mallove will look it over as one entity and make a final decision about whether we can help you sell it.
    The book would be either spiral bound or in a three-ring binder, depending on its size. We ask that you provide a working title for the whole piece so we can make a cover/title sheet. Once we have the project in hand, we can determine what our copying costs will be. Then we can let you know what percentage of sales we will pass along to you.
    Thanks.
    =================================================

    Then between 24 March 2004 and the beginning of May 2004 I was working so that to put my papers on a book form. But the day of 14 May 2004 had changed the future of my book. In that day Eugene Mallove had been murdered. And the new editor-in-chief of Infinite Energy Magazine did not share the interest of Dr. Mallove concerning my papers, and he decided to stop any partnership between the magazine and me, and my book will not become anymore a piece of their catalogue.

    Before Mallove’s death, I had the secret hope that perhaps after reading my work as an entire piece in the form of a book, he finally would decide to publish my book by Infinite Energy Press, giving to it an ISBN, putting advertisements in the magazine, etc. And therefore my secret hope died together with Mallove.

    Of course the death of Dr. Mallove left me very depressed, and I felt myself as if the Universe would be conspiring against the publication of my book. When Christy Frazier told me that Infinite Energy would not sell my book as promised by Eugene Mallove and it would not be put in the catalogue of the magazine, I felt myself with the will of giving up and abandon my attempt of publishing the book. I felt myself as a victim of the conspiracy of the Universe.

    So, I was in the street again, but in a worst situation: with the feeling that the fate of my book was to be never be published.

    Nevertheless, after some days of depression, I had tried two other new strategies:

    1- I had started to offer my book for publication in several publishing houses, via internet. Among several ones, I had submitted the manuscript of my book to the Bauu Institute Press before the end of 2004 (I don’t remember if one, two, or three months before the end of the year).

    2- The City Hall of the Juiz de Fora city (where I was living since 1997) has a Cultural Department named FUNALFA, which has a cultural project named Murilo Mendes Project, that gives financial support for several kind of cultural activities, as publication of literature books, poetry, presentation of plays, etc. And so in the beginning of 2005 I had submitted my book with the hope to get its publication.

    My brother Aleksander lives in Cataguases with his family, and I went to visit them, in the March 2005.
    Mr. Mané Bóia is the husband of the sister of the Aleksander’s wife. And Mr. Bóia is subscriber of the Folha de Sao Paulo, a newspaper which publishes every Sunday a supplement of scientific information for the layman.
    One day I went to visit the family of Mr. Bóia, and his son Leonan brought to me several old editions of the newspaper, which were accumulated along several months.
    Suddenly the edition of December-2004 fallen down under my sight, and I saw the photo of the electrosphere of an atom made by David Villeneuve. At once I realized that the image of the photo was like my model of electrosphere, proposed in 1991 in my first book, and also exhibited in my book Quantum Ring Theory, submitted to the Bauu Press.
    According to the current atomic model at that time, the level p of the electrosphere crosses within the level s. Unlike, in the model of electrosphere proposed by me in 1991, the level s was not crossed by the level p. Actually the electron in the level s is involved by a cushion of aether, and the cushion of the level s supports the cushion involving the electron in the level p (as a pillow supports your head when you sleep).
    Villeneuve’s photos had confirmed that prediction of mine, and so the model of Quantum Mechanics was wrong, requiring some improvements.

    Going back to my house in Juiz de Fora, I asked to my friend Claudio Nassif to call Dr. Lauro de Almeida Mendes by phone, and we had combined a meeting with he. In our meeting , I had showed to Dr. Lauro the photo taken by Villeneuve, published in the newspaper Folha de Sao Paulo, reproducing the photo published in the journal Nature in December-2004.
    I asked to Dr. Lauro to write a letter to the members of the FUNALFA, telling them the prediction made by me in 1991, and now confirmed by experiments made by David Villeneuve. My hope was show them the importance of publishing my book.

    Dr. Lauro wrote the letter to Funalfa, which I translate ahead. A copy of the letter had been filled by Dr. Lauro in the files of the Department of Physics of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora – UFMG, where I suppose it is yet filled (if some physicist did not stole and destroyed it).

    —————————————————–
    Juiz de Fora, 28 March 2005

    To FUNALFA
    To the care of the members of the Comission of the Law Murilo Mendes

    Ref: publication of the book “Quantum Ring Theory- Foundations For Cold Fusion

    I am retired professor, and had led by some years the Department of Physics of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora – UFJF . Through this letter, I recognize the scientific merit of the book quoted in the REFERENCE and by the authorship of the Mr. Wladimir Gugliski, for which I recommend the sponsorship of FUNALFA for its publication.

    Among the motives which had contributed for the recommendation of the Guglinski’s book, the one of largest enhancement was an hypothesis arisen by he in 1993 in which he proposed a change in the model of the electrosphere of atoms, traditionally accepted by the Scientific Community and taught in Universities. That had been an audacious idea which anyone physicist would reject, because if Guglinski was right then Quantum Mechanics would have to admit corrections.

    After twelve years, I surprised face the reproduction of the photo obtained by an experiment published in the scientific journal NATURE, of December 2004. The photo seems to reveal that Guglinski was in the right way. If the event be confirmed by posterior experiments, the Quantum Mechanics shall do the due corrections.

    The book by Guglinski meets a collection of 25 papers which were written along 14 years of persisting search of palatable explanations. To put the articles in the form of a book had been suggested by the eminent physicist Eugene Mallove, PhD by MIT, in the age when we was editor-in-chief of the magazine INFINITE ENERGY and PRESIDENT OF THE NEW ENERGY FOUNDATION, in the United States of America. After analyzing along two years seven articles by Guglinski the Dr. Mallove had expressed the opinion that the articles propose INTERESTING and INTRIGUING ideas, the reason why he had encouraged Guglinski to put the articles in the form of a book, which would be advertised and sold by INFINITE ENERGY, in USA. The murder of Dr. Mallove in May 2004 had frustrated those plans.

    Finally, it merits to be mentioned that, in the case of approving the sponsorship for the publication, the FUNALFA, beyond to favor a possible contribution for the advancement of the Science, would be valuing a cultural project in our region and which would be invaluable for the citizens of Juiz de Fora.

    Graciously,
    Lauro de Almeida Mendes – Retired Prof.
    —————————————————

    Concerning my attempt with FUNALFA, it was not successful. The commission responsible for the decision had considered that my book did not fit to the rules of the Murilo Mendes Project, because of the scientific feature of my book. I tried to change that verdict with an appeal to the council, but the final decision had been do not publish the book.

    Everybody may guess my depression when I received the decision. Again, I felt myself as if the Universe had been conspiring against the publication of my book, reinforcing my bad feeling concerning the fate of my book: that it was unpublishable.

    Concerning my attempt with Bauu Press, when I went back to Juiz de Fora after my visit to my brother, at the same time when I had asked to Dr. Lauro to write the letter to FUNALFA I had also sent an email to Peter Jones, the editor of the Bauu Press. And finally after some weeks Peter sent me a reply, telling me that he decided to publish my book. In 16 May 2005 Peter sent me by air mail the Agreement, which I received in two weeks, and we started to work in the revision and the lay-out of the book. And in August 2006 the book was finally published.

    Now let us compare the publication of the book by Bauu Press and the other two possibility of publication if they had been successful: if the book had been either published by FUNALFA or sold in the form of Xerox copy by INFINITE ENERGY.

    1- The book published by BAUU PRESS : it is advertised, distributed, and sold by the most prestigious websites of internet: AMAZON and BARNES & NOBLE. Therefore the book is sold worldwide, and it is seen and can be purchased via internet by the readers of the whole world.

    2- The book published by FUNALFA – if it had been published by FUNALFA, the book would be confined in the small city of Juiz de Fora.

    3- The book advertised and sold in the form of Xerox copy by INFINITE ENERGY – if it had been sold by INFINITE ENERGY, two disadvantageous conditions would occur:
    3.1 – The book would not have the ISBN. Therefore in 2012 and 2013 when the journal Nature and the journal European Journal of Physics had published the three plagiarisms of the proposals already published in my book, I could not denounce the plagiarism, because my book would have not the ISBN.
    3.2 – As being advertised and sold in the form of Xerox, probably the readers would not take seriously the book, by considering that if the book had be serious then the own editor of INFINITE ENERGY would have interest to publish the book, giving to it the due ISBN.

    Therefore the two alternatives, the publication by FUNALFA and by the commercialization by INFINITE ENERGY PRESS in the form of Xerox would be disadvantageous, compared with the publication by the Bauu Press.

    ——————————————————-
    And the macabre conclusion: the death of Eugene Mallove had been advantageous for the publishing , the advertisement, and the market of my book.
    ——————————————————-

    In August 2006 I had received 10 copies of the book from Peter Jones via air mail, and after that sometimes I kept myself thinking in the fate of Dr. Eugene Mallove. It was impossible to avoid to think about the following questions:

    - Had the mind of the murderer of Dr. Mallove been suggested by some mysterious conspiracy of the Universe? For example, inspired by a collective consciousness in the sense of Jung , or other sort of influence.

    - Was Eugene Mallove a victim of a macabre conspiracy of the Universe, so that to avoid the commercialization of my book through the disadvantageous form of Xerox copies?

    One could say that such sort of thinking is paranoiac, because of the ridiculous assumption that the life of one man like Dr. Mallove would have to be sacrificed for the publication of a book, thanks to a macabre nebulous conspiracy of the Universe.
    I share such way of thinking.
    But I also cannot avoid to think about the hypothesis of conspiracy. It’s like my mind ]should be divided in two different ways of thinking, and I cannot stop them to come to my consciousness.

    However, if we consider that the models proposed in Quantum Ring Theory can be the true image of the structures of matter existing in the nature, then we realize how important the book is for the advancement of the human knowledge, and so the life of one man is nothing face to the mysterious way of the happenings in our planet.

    Probably the most people would rather think that Mallove’s death occurred thanks to facts that had nothing with the facts involving the publication of my book. Nevertheless, there are so many mysteries in the Universe, and nobody is capable to affirm either if there was, or not, an unknown sort of incomprehensible conspiracy. After all, the nature is able to make some steps in the evolution of the species which are impossible to occur via probability due to chaotic mutations, as supposed by Darwin. There is an Intelligent Force actuating in the nature. And nobody knows what is the aim of such a Force. For the evolution of the species, they call its actuation as Intelligent Design.

    For the lovers of the theories of conspiracy of the Universe, who claim that it conspires for the realization of the projects of those who persist tirelessly in their attempts to achieve their deepest and harder dreams, this interpretation of Mallove’s murder is the best of any masterpiece of conspiracy.

    Regards
    Wladimir Guglinski

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    COINCIDENCES … and the birth of Quantum Ring Theory

    A lot of coincidences had happened along the development of my theory, and I will tell some of them to the readers of Rossi’s blog.

    In 12 July 1989 my son Douglas died, and his death had shaken my soul, leaving me with a distressful need of getting a deep understanding on the Universe where we live.
    So, I had started to think on how would had to be the structure of the Universe, because some prevailing theories did not seem to me satisfactory.
    My father was a doctor, he was materialist, not believing in the existence of the soul, and I had inherited his vision of the cosmos. But something was wrong with his skeptic convictions: he was dogmatic. For instance, he used to tell us a paranormal experience occurred to him when he was young. However he used to reject his own experience, because of the fear of to be mocked by his colleagues in the hospital. That betrayal to the own experience was very strange, and unacceptable to me, and that was the door from where the doubt started to shake my materialist viewpoint. However, if the soul exists, the space could not be empty, as proposed by Einstein. Therefore, the first fundamental point to be investigated was the possibility of Einstein to be wrong.

    From my deep reflections, between 1990 and 1991 I wrote a book, where I had proposed some changes in the basis of what we know about the Universe.
    The title of my book was “How Nostradamus Had Forecasted the Future… and Eisntein… was wrong ?”. The original manuscript is now filed in the file of the National Library, in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil.

    The main new proposals of my book had been the following:

    1- In the field of the Biology, I felt that Darwin’s theory was not able to explain some jumps in the degrees of the species evolution. So I had supposed the existence of two aetheres: one mechanical aether, as considered in Theoretical Physics, and other intelligent aether, responsible for some intelligent steps in the evolution of life. The Intelligent Aether would have a Memory, in which some “experiences” made by the Nature would be kept. Such sort of memory would be responsible for the Instinct of the animals.

    2- In the field of Physics, I had proposed to bring back the aether, by giving a new interpretation for the Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Another changing proposed in my theory was concerning the model of neutron proposed by Yukawa, because his proposal was absurd: his model of a meson doing jumping between two protons was similar to a play by two men playing tennis. And when two men play tennis they follow the law of ethics, and not the laws of Physics. His model was a violation of Newton’s second law.
    My knowledge on the solutions adopted for the working of the Universe had convinced me that it was impossible do not have a Creator. But of course my idea of the Creator was that same of the Einstein-Spinoza God.
    At that time I had the deep conviction that God would not build the Universe from a structure having a lot of particles. I was agree to that old statement according to which the Nature produces the phenomena by the most simple way, and therefore when God had created the Universe He had used only two particles as the fundamental bricks: the proton and the electron. And so the neutron would have to be formed by proton+electron. My model of neutron was similar to that proposed by Yuwaka: an electron jumping between two protons, but with a fundamental difference: the participation of the aether, and by this way the Newton’ law was not violated. Later I had adopted the model in which the electron moves about the proton.

    3- Also in the field of Physics, I had proposed that the aether contributes for the equilibrium of the electron in the electrosphere of the atoms. Then I made a model of the levels similar to that existing in chemistry, where there was a little difference in the most inner levels s and p, and therefore contradicting the prevailing model of Atomic Physics.
    NOTE: in 1993 I had started to write my scientific papers, which in the future would compose my book Quantum Ring Theory. In 2003 Eugene Mallove, editor of Infinite Energy Magazine, had considered to distribute my book in a form of Xerox copy, but I kept a secret hope that perhaps he could change his mind, and to decide to publish my book. He had suggested to me to give a name to my book, and then I had chosen the title Quantum Ring Theory. But in May 2004 he died by a murderer, and also died my hope of publishing my book by the Infinte Energy Press, and then I had started to look for a new publisher, and one among others I had sent my manuscript to Bauu Institute Press. In November 2004 David Villeneuve had published a paper in Nature showing some photos of the electrosphere of some atoms, and the photos had confirmed the distribution proposed by me in 1991. So, the old model of Quantum Mechanics had to be improved by some changes, and the prediction of my model proposed in 1991 was correct. That confirmation induced the editor Peter Jones of Bauu Press to publish my book, finally published in August 2006.

    As everybody know, Fleischmann and Pons had published their discovery on cold fusion in 1989, the year of the birth of my theory. However at that time I had never heard anything on cold fusion. The first time I had taken knowledge on the existence of cold fusion research had been 10 years later, in 1999, as I explain ahead.

    Between the end of 1991 and the beginning of 1992 I tried to publish my first book. But all my attempts had no success, no editor had interest to publish a work discrediting the prevailing dogmas of the 20th Century. That’s why I decided to undertake a scientific research, so that to prove that my ideas were correct, because while the structure of the Universe supposed by me was agree to the logic, unlike what I knew about the prevailing theories had convinced me that the logic was missing in many of them.
    However I was not sure about the coherence of my ideas, and in the middle of 1992 I had decided to submit my book to the scrutiny of some theoretical physicist. My brother Aleksander had a colleague named Dr. Eudes Santos who taught Chemistry in the Federal University of Juiz de Fora – UFJF. His mother lived in Cataguases City, where I lived at that time. And when Dr. Santos come to Cataguases in a weekend, I had a talk with he. He promissed to deliver my book to Dr. Lauro de Almeida Mendes, a theoretical physicist of the Dept of Physics in that university.
    Two months later Dr. Lauro sent me back the manuscript of my book, with the a short bill with words somewhat like:
    ————————————————————–
    “This may represent the new paradigm of Physics”.
    ————————————————————–
    His words proved to me that I was not crazy, and my ideas were coherent. But in a phone talk to Dr. Lauro, he told me that he was not able to give me a definitive verdict about my work. And he suggested to me to send my book to the appreciation of Dr. José Abdala Helayel, a particle physicist of the Brazilian Center for Physics Research – CBPF.

    Dr. Helayel did not reject my work. Instead of, in the beginning of 1993 he sent me a letter asking me explanation on some points he did not understand. That was the starting point for the development of my scientific theory, because at that moment I decided to undertake a scientific research, so that to prove that my theory was correct. Later I had discovered that Dr. Helayel had not the intuition necessary to understand my ideas. He was more mathematician than physicist (as occurs with the particle physicists in general). But the most important in that episode was the fact that he lit the flame for my enterprise.

    I decided to undertake my theoretical research because I had trust in what the scientists use to state: that experiments are the final verdict about any theoretical controversy. So, I believed that, if I could prove my theory supporting it on experimental evidences, then the physicists shall accept my ideas.

    Now the two interesting consecutive coincidence: if my book had been delivered to any other physicist in Brazil, he would not even to send me any response. He would simply ignore my work. And then I would give up of developing my theory, convinced that my work had not any credibility.
    And what is very intriguing: Dr. Santos sent my book to Dr. Lauro, the unique theoretical physicist in Brazil capable to find coherence in my work. And Dr. Lauro sent my book to Dr. Helayel, the unique theoretical physicist in Brazil with the impartiality of do not reject my work. Any other physicist in the CBPF (or any university in Brazil) would reject my work, or simply would not give me any reply.

    Helayel told me that he had been strongly criticized by all the physicists of the Brazilian Center for Physical Research, because of giving attention to my work. He told me that he had been pupil of the Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam, who stated that any person has the right of sharing a theory, and so Helayel did not mind of the critiques of his colleagues. That’s why I had concluded that Helayel was an impartial scientist, loyal to the scientific method, and had taken seriously my theory.

    In the end of 1993 I met Claudio Nassif. He was a student of Theoretical Physics in the UFJF of Juiz de Fora, a city 100 kilometers far away of Cataguases where I lived. Nassif had new ideas for the development of a new version of the Einstein’s relativity, and he was victim of mockery by the physicists and students in the university, who called him crazy, crack pot, etc. He was very depressed because of that when I knew him, and my talks with he changed his mood. I told him my idea of a space filled by an aether, and he incorporated the idea in his work. In some weekends when he traveled to Cataguases we used to talk along hours about the fundamental questions in Physics. With the help of our discussions he finally discovered the fundamental point of his Symmetric Special Relativity, SSR: while Einstein had proposed that matter had a superior end of speed (the speed of light), Nassif is proposing that matter has an inferior speed regarding the aether. This is the fundamental symmetry of his SSR.
    Nassif lent me some books of Quantum Mechanics, and along our discussions along the years we helped one each other. So, I would say that each one of us was indispensable for the achievement of the work of the other.
    This is other very interesting coincidence. Because the world is very extensive, and two men with two revolutionary theories were living in two cities very close, separated by only 100 kilometers.

    So, while in 1993 I had started up to develop my theory and met my friend Claudio Nassif, Andrea Rossi had started up to work with his revolutionary technology using Ni powder. Probably Nassif had been for me what Sergio Focardi had been for Rossi. I am an engineer, and Nassif is a physicist, while Rossi is also an engineer, and Focardi had been a physicist.
    Also in 1993, the American Institute of Physics had published the Borghi’s paper, describing the experiment which proves that the neutron is composed by proton+electron. But I would take knowledge of his experiment only in 2002, when Santilli sent me his book on Hadronic Mechanics, and I decided to suit in law two universities of Brazil, in order to oblige them to repeat the experiment in their laboratories.

    Along the years I was writing papers, and sending them to journals of Physics. At that time I did not use the internet, and all my correspondences had been sent via air mail.

    In 1998 an editor suggested me to send my papers to Frontier Perspecitives, and so I had submitted a paper to that magazine. The editor Nancy Kolenda gently sent me the last issue, where Mike Carrell had an article speaking about the work of Randell Mills. In the beginning of 1999 I sent a letter to Mike telling him about my new hydrogen model of atom (which I was sure to be able to be fit to Mills experiments), and in June-99 Mike sent an issue of the Infinite Energy where it was published his article about the Newman’s motor.
    Coincidently (look the coincidence again) in that issue of IE there was also an article by Elio Conte and Maria Piearlice, describing an experiment which result suggests that the neutron is formed by proton+electron, as proposed in my new model of neutron.

    Then I sent an email to Dr. Helayel, telling him that my new nuclear model had been corroborated by an experiment published in Infinite Energy Magazine. But Heliayel did not reply my email.
    In 2002, when I had knowledge on the Borghi experiment published in 1993 by the American Institute of Physics, again I sent an email to Helayel, and again he did not give me any response. Then I sent him an email calling him a betrayer of the scientific method, and finally I understood why Helayel had defended my right of sharing my theory among the physicists: he did not defended my right because he was impartial, but actually because he was sure that my theory was wrong, and therefore my work could not cause any damage to the prevailing current theories (including the Supersymmetry taught by him in CBPF).

    I had never told the origin of my scientific work, because I was sure that the snakes would claim that my theory was not scientific, that my work had an esoteric origin, and my model of neutron had been conceived from my belief of what should had to be the thinking of God when He had created the Universe.

    But now there is no problem to reveal the origin of my work, because I don’t mind of what the snakes may claim. Because between 2008 and 2013 many of my proposals have been confirmed by recent experiments. In 2012 the journal Nature had published a plagiarism of a proposal of mine published in my book Quantum Ring Theory. In 2013 another plagiarism had been published by Nature. Also in 2013 a plagiarism had been published by the European Physics Journal, where the authors proposed a theory that the space is filled by particles and antiparticles (published in my book in 2006), and they had proposed their theory because an experiment published in 2011 had showed that light can be created by the space (and therefore the space cannot be empty, and actually must have a structure, so that to be able to produce light).

    And of course that other plagiarisms will be published in several journals of Physics, because as my models have the structure like that real structure existing in the nature, then the experiments will step by step revealing that my models are correct, and so the journals will publish papers where the authors propose models like the mines.

    There are many other coincidences that happened along the years of the development of my theory (and also coincidences of dates that happened before its development). But I had put here only some of the most interesting.

    It seems to be right that assumption according to which if you have an idea, and your idea makes sense and is the image of the True , the Universe conspires so that to spread your idea worldwide, no matter how strong can be effort of your opponents trying to destroy you and discredit your work.

    Regards
    Wladimir Guglinski

  • Andrea Rossi

    Adelheid J.Bohn:
    Let alone History, let’s put down at work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Thank you, Dr. Rossi!

    For the sake of history, does this Event and Revelation with the burnt finger have a precise datum
    as March 23 for Fleischmann
    and Pons? When has the Energy Revolution started?
    Adele

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Make energy at much lower cost and without pollution.
    Make jobs.
    That’s why our Team is working and making a rigorous cycle of a very long term validation, to get the maximum possible reliability, efficiency, safety. I have the honour, in this period, to work not only with high level scientists and engineers, but also with workers with outstanding capacity and skills. We are making every day a progress, but I must warn that our technology is still in a phase of R&D and validation and that we will share any information, positive or negative, when we will have completed the validation in course. As a matter of fact, we have on course two validations, one made by a third indipendent party, that is carrying on the work initiated in March 2013 and that will continue in 2014, one by us. The two validations are on course in two different plants, each indipendent from the other. I think that the publication of all this work will be very interesting, indipendently from the results, positive or negative as they might be. The third party validation will be published indipendently from us on a scientific magazine, while the report of the validation made by us will be published in a Report of the Company.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You speak of your Team’s sense of duty towards God and Mankind — which indicates to me you are looking beyond maximizing your personal and corporate profits.

    As you and your partner prepare to bring E-Cat technology into the world, what is the overriding goal that you hope to achieve?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Andrea Rossi wrote in September 15th, 2013 at 9:45 AM
    ——————————————————–
    I started working with Ni powders in 1993, when I decided that it was completely useless to go ahead along the path of electrolysis suggested by F&P ( which I studied very throughly) .
    ——————————————————–

    COMMENT:

    Interesting coincidence.

    I had discovered my new nuclear model in 1993.

    Page 110 of my book Quantum Ring Theory:

    I discovered the basic structure of my new nuclear model on 19th of November-93 , during a barbecue party. I was invited by my brother Alexander , for the commemoration of his 23 years of Biochemistry graduation in 1970. During many weeks ago, I was trying to discover the structure of the nucleus, without success. However, during that barbecue suddenly I had an idea, taking my new model of neutron as a point of departure. Let us see the sequences of my discoveries, as follows.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    1- Of course yes: the Team I am working with is a team that already dedicate enormous resources upon targets inspired by the sense of duty toward God and Mankind. The motto of the USA is “In God we trust” and we are working ( vibrating) within this field of energy as particles in a Universe in evolution.
    2- “Memory Book”? I hope to rely on memories as late as possible. When a man seats on his own “memories” means has nothing to future anymore ( “to future”: does not exist as a verb, but works well! It is a “virtual verb”).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi:
    thank you for having shared your past experience about the birth of “Rossi Effect”. Very interesting indeed. Many people should learn from you, in all sense.

    May I ask if your Usa partner has the will to give this technology to Humanity?

    P.S. Have you ever thought to write a “Memory Book?”

    Kind Regards,
    Italo R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Adellheid J. Bohm:
    The first time I discovered the Effect has been in the USA in 1996, when I got about 3 watts, melting some Ni grains using a battery of 4 V as an energy source. I calculated ( miscalculated?) a COP 3. I was in Manchester, New Hampshire, in a small laboratory where I also worked in a steel carpentery to pay my expenses: when I came in the USA in 1996 I didn’t have money, because of what happened to me in Italy ( see http://www.ingandrearossi.com). I had to live with 1,000 $ per month, which was not easy, because I had to pay 600/month for the rent of the apartment. In that period my daily meal sometimes was 2 boiled eggs.
    I used a lab of that steel carpentery during the free time to make my experiments. When the nickel melted I touched it with a finger and the finger ( left index, I am left handed) got burnt: it has been the sole time in my life in which to be burnt made me happy ( I am not masochist). Very happy.
    Before that day I had got effects, but not sure of the measurements, being the energies in the range of milliwatts, so very difficult to measure precisely with the instrumentation I had. I started working with Ni powders in 1993, when I decided that it was completely useless to go ahead along the path of electrolysis suggested by F&P ( which I studied very throughly) .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    p.s. : your comment is the # 16,000 of this blog

  • Dear Herr Doktor Rossi,

    We see that your technology is verified thoroughly and it will go commercial only when absolutely sure as technology and ecology.

    But your fans are longing for information including
    the Start; can you please
    tells us a bit about your Evrica Moment, about that gift of God, when you have discovered the Seed of the Rossi Effect?

    Thank you much,
    Adele

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    I cannot give this kind of information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I know you cannot discuss ongoing R&D activities. But perhaps you can enlighten us on some basic physics of the “Rossi effect” We know as size changes the area changes as the square of the length while the volume changes as the cube. Was your initial selection of a 10kW eCat based on area versus volume effects or was it arbitrary?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Carlo Marcena
    The COP issue is an essential part of our work of validation and R&D and we will share the results when we will have completed our work of validation
    Warm Regards
    AR

  • Andrea Rossi

    Barty
    These information will be given by the Press guys when it will be deemed opportune. At the
    actual status a rigorous validation process is in course and I cannot answer to these questions
    Warm regards
    AR

  • barty

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    are you able to tell us some figures about how many Low-Temp 1MW plants were already built by your partner completely independent from you, and without your help?
    I ask because if this number is greater than “1″, this will be another huge leap in mankind :)
    Just some numbers, no details ;)

    Greetings
    barty

  • Carlo Marcena

    Dear Andrea,

    reading on the “September 12th, 2013 at 9:25 AM, Steven N. Karels post” about an Ecat COP of 12 make my happy. With such an high COP also the use of a commercial ORC becomes possible … Please tell me that I can trust this 12.
    All my best to you and to everybody participating in this blog,
    CM

  • Andrea Rossi

    Nikita Alexandrov:
    We are making a rigorous work of validation and R&D that will take all the necessary time. We will share all the information, bad or good, when the work of validation will be completed regarding the long term verification, as well as the theoretical bases of the so called “Rossi Effect”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    To All,

    Saturday morning (14 Sep) I will be traveling to Guatemala for nine days to install and test three Village Water Purification systems that I designed and built for use at Mayan Indian villages. The system uses a sedimentaiton filter coupled with a UV sterialization filter to provide up to 200 people with their daily water needs. Wish I had an eCat with me to provide electricity and to heat water but that will be a future trip.

  • Nikita Alexandrov

    Andrea,
    How long after your technology is adopted will you wait to speak about the mechanism of the Rossi effect and say attend ICCF to make your scientific contributions available to the public, even information which is more engineering based, so science can be advanced by studying this effect?

    Are collaborations with the scientific community possible within the next 5 years or so for you?
    Thanks,
    Nikita Alexandrov

    “The scientific man does not aim at an immediate result, He does not expect that his advanced ideas will be readily taken up. His work is like that of the planter—for the future. His duty is to lay the foundation for those who are to come, and point the way.” -Nikola Tesla

  • Hi everyone!

    I just would like to inform you about my new research paper called: An alternative Quantum Physics. In case you are interested, you may visit my web site:
    http://www.ioannisxydous.gr/

    Kind Regards

    Ioannis Xydous

    Switzerland

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You are welcome.

    Scaling up to the 10kW eCat maybe as easy as replacing each individual unit with ten units, perhaps 5 high (about 1 foot in length) and two abreast (about 5 inches). The battery charger and battery should be separate from the 10kW eCat.

    The key is achieving a high enough average COP. Last I heard, the average COP was in excess of 12. Comments?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Regarding thermal electric generation to sell-sustain an eCat module.

    Let us assume for analysis a 1kW eCat unit with an average COP of 12. 83.3W of continuous electric output is needed. Assume that the eCat is running at 350C so the outside “Hot” plate is at 300C.
    Assume 25C ambient for the “Cold” plate

    Assume you had a six sided structure and on five of the six sides you mounted a Custom ThermoElectric converter, part number 1261G-7L31-24CX1, (443) 926-9132, unit cost in qty of 100 = $52.00USD. Its dimensions are 2.21″ x 2.21″ x 0.197″. Each unit would output 19.1W (3.9V x 4.9A). In total you would obtain ~100W which should be enough power to charge a battery to handle start-up and peak loads. The sixth side would be used for heat transfer to the load.

    FYI

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bang:
    We are studying the issue.
    When we will have information to share we will give it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • bang

    Ing. Rossi:
    Is there also a magnetic field on the gas powered E-Cat’s?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Martin:
    I say what I can: as you know there is considerable speculation about the Rossi Effect highlighted in the third indipendent party report published on Arxive Physics (” Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder “). While we test our work in a long term validation test, that probably will endure one year, it will be impossible for me to talk about what we are doing. Where there are discoveries to share, positive or negative, it will be done.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Please see the answer to Frank Acland today
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    It is soon to say anything solid. We are studyinf the phenomenon: by the way, today I have to make measurements in this field, but , as I said, in this period of R&D and validation I cannot answer to this kind of questions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Your continued interest in direct electricity production from the E-Cat is intriguing. Without going into any detail, do you see the potential for this phenomenon to be significant enough to produce useful amounts of electricity?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Since your team is still studying the production of electrical force, I can conclude that you havenot dismissed it as an errant measurement nor as a trival effect.

    With this assumption, I can then project either that the effect could be significant and the future might hold an eCat “electric battery” with some thermal output or the electricity generated through some future process using this effect could be fed back to control the unit or at least decrease the effective COP of an eCat or surrounding eCats.

    Without commenting on the actual situation, is my assumption and logic correct?

  • Martin

    Dear Andrea,

    I’m one of the early followers of this website and we also had some private email conversations.
    I always enjoyed this website and had a lot of interest in your answers and stories. In this period you have chosen
    to answer most questions with a kind of standard statement. Understandable but not interesting! The early day’s of this blog was much more fun!
    Is it possible to give us an weekly/monthly work update with information you can share?
    I hope this will be possible.

    Best regards,

    Martin

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Tom Conover, Dear Andrea Rossi,
    in the case “5. Music The percussion section of an orchestra.”, the conductor (of the orchestra) might be important !
    Kind regards
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    As I said, we are continuing the work of research, validation of the E-Cats and since this rigorous work, made with the help of teams of specialists and of scientists will not be finished, I will not be able to answer this kind of specific questions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    What if the correct answer is the 5?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    In your comment you mentioned that currently a battery of hot-cats were undergoing extensive review at this time. I looked up the definition of the word battery, and although your comment in context implies the meaning of “6a” below, if you are testing the 450 pound 100kw hot-cats, I just can’t resist asking if the definition marked “2b”, might be more accurate. Answer if you can, but I hope your warship is well equipped.

    God bless you,

    Tom

    bat·ter·y   (bt-r)n. pl. bat·ter·ies1.
    a. The act of beating or pounding.
    b. Law The unlawful and unwanted touching or striking of one person by another, with the intention of bringing about a harmful or offensive contact.

    2.a. An emplacement for one or more pieces of artillery.
    b. A set of guns or other heavy artillery, as on a warship.
    c. An army artillery unit, corresponding to a company in the infantry.

    3.a. An array of similar things intended for use together: took a battery of achievement tests.
    b. An impressive body or group: a battery of political supporters.

    4. Baseball The pitcher and catcher.

    5. Music The percussion section of an orchestra.

    6. Electricity
    a. Two or more connected cells that produce a direct current by converting chemical energy to electrical energy.

    :-)
    b. A single cell, such as a dry cell, that produces an electric current.

  • WaltC

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I have some questions relating to the 6 month recharge interval for eventual domestic sales of the E-Cat. It seems hard, in a domestic setting, to guarantee that people would reliably follow that interval (procrastination, home sales, budget problems…) so:

    1) is the thinking to enforce the recharge interval somehow in hardware?
    2) or is it that at some point after 6 months, the reactor “runs to exhaustion” (I’m not sure what to call it, but the reactor benignly stops working) & they recharge it then?
    3) in terms of reactor behavior after continual usage much longer than 6 months– has this been thoroughly tested & characterized already, or is that a future item?

    I hope you don’t mind the questions– I’m a retired engineer & I tend to get curious about the strangest things.

    thanks,
    WaltC

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    Sorry, I cannot give this information.
    As I said, we are making a rigorous validation of our technology and plants. During this period, from which can derive positive or negative results, I cannot give any specific answer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    I appreciate all the hints you have given me about the possible solution to how your mechanism operates. The one that I found most helpful is your statement that the explanation does not violate standard physics. This eliminated many possible approaches to a solution.
    Since you have stated that direct production of electrical power is possible implies that some sort of electron movement is required, can you reveal if Beta decay in a Nickel isotope or isomer is or is not involved?
    Thank you for your past generous replies. Continued good luck.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Yes, this is a very interesting phenomenon, that we still are studying.
    As you know, our work of R&D is in course and we are submitting our technology to a rigorous process of validation that includes also this effect. The results of our R&D could be positive or negative in any sense, and will be communicated when we will have final results, positive or negative. In the meantime, I cannot give specific answers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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