Radioactivity Physics Fundamentals

by
Will Schmidt

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Introduction
The purpose of this article on radioactivity is to explain and describe the following subjects:
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• What radioactivity is
• How radioactive decay processes work
• When radioactive decay is initiated
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Radioactivity is like the atomic nucleus speaking.

This article is really about the neutrino.  How can such a small particle with no electric charge and very little mass (if any) control the destiny of the world and all living things?
Listen, the radioactive nuclear atom will tell you.  This article will explain how the neutrino works and what it does.  What the neutrino really is, has not yet been discovered.
There are three types of neutrinos: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino.  They will be mentioned in examples below.
There are three major classes of radioactivity processes:
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• Radioactive beta decay
• Alpha particle decay
• Decay of proton particles
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These radioactivity processes will be described below and include:
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• Radioactivity decay of the free neutron.
• Radioactivity decay of the proton (if any)
• Pion particle decay
• Muon particle decay
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By these radioactivity  processes, nuclear structure is unfolding.
H. Becquerel discovered the ionizing effects of radioactivity radiation in 1899, and Rutherford showed that alpha particles were emitted as well as beta electrons.
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442 comments to Radioactivity Physics Fundamentals

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You answer to Herb Gills question about “revolving reactors” suggests that calender life time is not a major factor in eCat reactors. That is, the reactor lifetime appears to be primarily a function of operating time and total power generated rather than time since the reactor was loaded with fuel. Can you confirm this?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Herb Gills:
    Yes, it is possible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    I will maintain the promise.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini:
    Thank you, same to you and all our Readers,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Sorry, we cannot give information regarding our charges.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rob:
    No, there is nothing we can do to ease that situation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rob

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Is there anything your technology can do to help the crippled Fukushima reactor situation that seems to be going from bad to worse? Perhaps you could donate 1MW plants to help power the massive ice wall they might erect. http://www.dvice.com/2013-8-14/japan-planning-build-giant-ice-wall-around-fukushima. Or can your technology be used to neutralize the radioactivity in the water? The state of emergency there is very concerning.

    Thank you for your work.

    RI

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Have you run (or have you considered running) a pure Nickel Isotope (i.e., Ni-64) in the eCat to see if there is a difference in perfomance and stability? Isotopes of Nickel are becoming more commercially available, although still in small quantities (grams).

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Caro Andrea Rossi,
    buon Ferragosto.
    Giuliano Bettini.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Yes, indeed. No problem.
    Sometimes we think that technology and knowledge and strategy and values are the keys to a better world, but sometimes it is something very basic. Nowadays big trade has been done in 130 – 150 yrs old Mayonnaise manufacturers. I remember that making Mayonnaise was the first “cooking” I ever did myself in my grandmums kitchen.
    So I think it is very important to have the best product and the best reputation. So you have to work very hard to develop both.
    This reminds me on one of your promises about some scrap and old prototype reactors. Are you still able to keep that promise, or did your partner buy everything ?
    Kindest Regards,
    Koen

  • Herb Gillis

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    Happy Ferragosto!
    Instead of having a trained technician change the fuel in an Ecat device every 6 months, do you think it might be possible to have a series of multiple cartridges pre-loaded in the machine that could be rotated or slid into the active chamber automatically (like bullets inside a revolver), without having to open the device? If this is possible it might extend the service cycle from 6 months to several years.
    Kind regards; HRG.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    Date: Wed, 14 Aug 2013 21:02:32 -0300

    Dear Dr. Attila

    what I mean to say when I said that 4Be7 is not the mirror of 3Li7 is not concerning the identity of numbers of protons and neutrons.

    Of course, from such a viewpoint they are really mirror of each other.

    However, only because they are mirror it does not mean that the structure of 3Li7 is similar to the structure of 4Be7.
    I suspect that they have different clusters of nucleons.
    Just in this aspect I suspect that they are not mirror (they have different structures)

    regards
    wlad

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Is the measurement of the quadrupole moment of 4Be7 another conspiracy against the scientific method ?]

    Reply by Dr. Attila Csolo:

    =======================================================
    > From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    > Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    > To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    > Date: Wed, 14 Aug 2013 16:22:33 +0200
    >
    > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror_nuclei
    =======================================================

    =======================================================
    From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    Date: Wed, 14 Aug 2013 20:46:26 -0300

    Dear Dr. Attila
    that link quoted by you, refering to mirror nuclei, is concerning what is predicted by current nuclear physics.

    But we are not sure that current nuclear models are correct.

    After all, you are just claiming that there is need to measure the quadrupole moment of 4Be7 because you are not sure what sort of model you have to use, so that to apply to the sucject concerning the solar neutrinos.

    Do you know the Don Borghi experiment ?
    His experiment shows that some fundamental principles of Nuclear PHysics are wrong.
    His paper had been published in 1993 by the American Journal of Physics.
    His experiment has been confirmed by Santilli:
    http://www.i-b-r.org/NeutronSynthesis.pdf

    But the scientific community does not accept the Borghi’s experiment, because it proves that some principles of Nuclear Physics are wrong.

    So, the community of physicists use to ignore the publication of the Borghi experiment.

    I suspect that the same happens with the experiments which had measured the quadrupole moment of 4Be7.
    The community of physicists is not interested that the measurement of zero quadrupole moment of 4Be7 become known by everybody.

    It is impossible that it had not been measured yet.
    The spin and magnetic moment of 4Be7 had been measured in 1998.
    Along the years you and other physicists have emphasized the importance of the measurement of the quadrupole moment of 4Be7

    Therefore, I suspect that, as happens in the case of the Don Borghi experiment, the scientific community of physicits are trying to hide the true: that 4Be7 has quadrupole moment near to zero.
    As they know that such result denies the current nuclear models, they are not interested to share such fact.

    regards
    wlad
    =======================================================

  • Steven N. Karels

    Abundance of Nickel for eCat Applications

    While the statement that 1 gram of (consumed) Nickel will yield 23,000 MWhrs of energy is true, let us assume that only one isotope is actually consumed by whatever reaction occurs within the eCat reactor.

    For example, if Ni-64 were the consumed isotope and its natural occurrence is about 1%, then a fuel sample of 100 grams after full depletion would weigh 99 grams. This depleted Nickel could then be used for other commercial purposes.

    Average world energy use is around 15 TerraWatts times 8,760 hours per year yields around 130,000 terraWatt-hours per year.

    To meet all the world’s energy needs, a total of about 6 metric tons of Nickel would be consumed per year. With the isotope assumption (1%), the total Nickel required would be 600 metric tons per year.

    The annual production of Nickel is around 1.6 million metric tons. Estimated world reserves are at 80 million metric tons.

    So we could run a long time on Nickel.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    I cannot answer to this issue
    Warm regards
    AR

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    A range of working products.
    In the market, mass produced and available plug-and-play for everyone who wants to buy it.
    No formal IP protection. It is mostly market preparation that makes a successfull launch, and the usefullness and the good quality that make it profitable, not the bare ownership nor the low price. If you own the name “E-Cat”, that might be enough.
    That is what we need.
    May I hope that it is this what you and your Partner have planned ?
    Kind Regards.
    Koen

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Reply by Dr. Attila Csolo

    ======================================================
    > From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    > Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    > To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    > Date: Mon, 12 Aug 2013 16:41:41 +0200
    >
    > There is no controversy with the Be7 quadrupole moment. Theoretical
    > models agree that it has a large negative value. It has not been
    > measured yet.
    ======================================================

    =====================================================
    From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    Date: Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:47:54 -0300

    Dear Dr. Attila
    I suspect that 4Be7 is not a mirror nucleus of 3LI7

    There is need to measure the quadrupole moment of 4Be7

    regards
    wlad
    =====================================================

  • eric ashworth

    Wladimir, Regards Dr Attila Csoto reply, “Believe me you can’t find an experimentalist who want to measure the quarapole moment of a spin zero neucleus because he knows that it is zero”. And your reply “there is a need to eliminate the controversy regards 4Be7”. If you read his reply he is telling you the truth. Experimentalists are in employment and need to earn a wage to survive. Unless you are able to pay them a wage to prove the opposite their hands are tied. You have them in a ‘cleft stick’. How can I say such a thing?. Because I know the game that is being played from personal experience. It’s the system system of human evolution, it’s difficult and a struggle but it seems to be a necessity of life. It’s an unfoldment of the future. Which you are a part of together with Andrea

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eric Ashworth:
    Working and working all will be resolved,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eric ashworth

    Thanks for your reply Andrea I realise this is an ongoing issue but eventually I realise it will be resolved, All the best Eric Ashworth.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Wladimir Guglinski:
    Good.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    I already answered these questions, no more information can be given about this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Herb Gillis:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    Do you have any clear evidence that something is being depleted from the nickel after 6 months continuous operation (or any other period of operation)?
    Kind Regards; HRG.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A couple of years ago, the theory for eCat energy production was Ni + H -> Cu.

    Later you stated you believed this was not the primary energy production mechanism. This led some to believe that the Ni was more of a catalyst that enabled the primary reaction.

    Now you speak of Ni consumption and conversion to energy under Einstein’s formula.

    Can you clarify your thoughts?

    1. Does the primary reaction consume Nickel?
    2. Is the Ni + H -> Cu the secondary reaction that eventually alters the Ni composition to affect the primary reaction rate?
    3. Is one (or more) Ni isotopes preferentially consumed?

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Reply by Dr. Attila Csoto

    ========================================================
    From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    Date: Sat, 10 Aug 2013 16:23:52 +0200

    You quoted the calculations in Nature, remember? I just corrected you, saying that even a linear chain of alpha particles becomes a sphere, after you project out the correct quantum number. The figures in the Nature paper show the structure before this projection.

    Experimentallists have measured the spins of those nuclei, which imply strong symmetries not just in theoretical models, but also in nature. Believe me, you can’t find an experimentallist who want to measure the quadrupole moment of a spin zero nucleus, because he , knows that it is zero.
    =======================================================

    =======================================================
    From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    Date: Mon, 12 Aug 2013 11:04:01 -0300

    Dear Dr. Attila
    I am not speaking about to measure the quadrupole moment of spin zero nuclei. I am spealing about to measure the quadrupole moment of 4Be7, which obviously is crucial for the advancement of Theoretical Nuclear Physics.

    There is need to eliminate the controversy about the quadrupole moment of 4Be7, dont you think so?
    Dont you know an experimentalist so that to ask him to make the measurement ?

    regards
    Wladimir Guglinski
    =======================================================

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Dear Andrea
    I know you did not cut my posts.

    I am posting from a lan house, and this is problaby the reason why my comments had been cutted

    regards
    wlad

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eric Ashworth:
    We have to find the equation that gives us the number telling how much time a charge can work properly. This is an empirical work that takes time to get reliable statistics. The 6 months timeframe has been assumed just because we have experienced that in that time the efficiency does not change. I do not think this issue can be resolved with theoretical assumptions, but only with try and error series.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini:
    The equation
    1g = 25 000 000 kWh
    ( 1 gram of mass is equivalent to 25 000 000 kWh of energy)
    comes from the Einstein’s equation
    E = mc^2
    There was a typo, sorry: 25 x 10^6 = 25 000 000 kWh, as I had written many times in this blog. I have corrected the typo, I wrote kWh instead of MWh. My mistake.
    Obviously, only a minimal part of mass is turned into energy, but the part of Ni that is not turned into energy is not lost, because can be recycled as nickel scrap from any nickel producing facility. This is why the impact of a widespread diffusion of the technology will not affect substantially the reserves and the production of nickel.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Andrea,
    a debate has happened with regard to the sentence
    “1 g of mass yields 23 000 kWh.”
    Did you mean to refer to Einstein’s equation on the equivalence mass > energy?
    (possibly with a typo kW > MW?).
    Thanks
    Giuliano Bettini.

  • eric ashworth

    Andrea, Italo R stated ‘I wonder why it is necessary to change the charge after 6 months etc, etc. Your reply ‘we are making more tests’. I am guessing, of course, but could it be that half the charge has to be replaced because of a systemic system with regards to the evolution of nickel. I say half because of four potentials between the octahedral cavity and the hydrogen gas which constitutes upon completion a neutral cube of six comprised of two powers and four potentials. This I realise is not from an academic level of understanding so it may make no sense to you but I am curious. Regards Eric Ashworth.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    6 months is a period we have chosen conservatively. We are making more tests also upon this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Kind Dr. Rossi:
    I wonder why it is necessary change the charge after 6 months.
    What has happened to the charge after that time? After all, almost all the Nickel is yet there.
    Kind Regards,
    Italo R.

  • JR

    Dear Wladimir,

    You said “For example, when they had measured the quadrupole moment of nuclei as 8O16, 10Ne20, etc, the theoretical prediction was not taken in consideration.

    Therefore the quadrupole moment of those nuclei would have to be quoted by 0+-0.1 in the nuclear table.”.

    The problem is that the quadrupole moment is, by definition, equal to zero for a spin zero nucleus. So it’s not that they don’t measure it because the prediction is zero, it’s that they don’t measure it because it IS zero. For 7Be, the nuclear spin is non-zero, and therefore it makes sense to consider the quadrupole moment. For your other examples, it’s nonsensical to ask for a measurement of the quadrupole moment.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Wladimir Guglinski:
    We did not absolutely cut your comment. We published it as it arrived to us. Probably there has been some problem in the transmission. If you re send us your cut comment in integral form we will obviously publish it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Herb Gillis:
    I just mean that when the Ni is no more useful for us can be recycled as scrap nickel, therefore the mass that is lost is only the mass converted into energy, which is really small, due to the equation
    1 g = 23 000 kWh.
    This was to answer to the Reader that was worried about the eventual lack of nickel in case of widespread diffusion of the E-Cat. As a matter of fact, the global loss of Ni should be irrilevant.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- the exchanges will be made by our specialists
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    1. When an E-Cat reactor is replaced (every 6 months, you mention), will the used nickel in the reactors be reprocessed in your facilities for the manufacturing of new E-Cat reactors?

    2. Will all used reactors from plants around the world be sent back to the central manufacturing facility (presumably in the USA) for reprocessing?

    3. Will all rector exchanges be carried out by authorized agents of yours, or can plant owners change their own reactors?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Herb Gillis

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    When you say the nickel that has been used in the Ecat is “anyway recyclable for all the other uses”, that implies the nickel is indeed acting as a fuel and not a catalyst for some other (unknown) reaction? Have you established that implication to be correct (that nickel is in some sense “burned up” and therefore not a catalyst)?
    Kind Regards; HRG

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe,
    there is no way to post the two hypothesis with no problemn

    regards
    wlad

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Dear Joe,
    I dont know why, but the blog had suppressed the second hypothesis in my last post.

    ===============================================
    Now consider the 4Be7, in the Fig. 37 pag. 48.
    ===============================================

    It is flat, so y= 0.

    Suppose the following coordinates:

    Deuteron: (+z, -x)
    proton: (-z , -x)
    ======================================================
    First hyphotesis:

    If z = x, then 4Be7 has Q(b)=0, by no considering the shake.

    Therefore, in the case of z = x the 4Be7 would have Q(b) x.
    In this case 4Be7 has Q(b)> 0, by no considering the shake.

    So, as the shakes contribution is Q(b)< 0, then the total Q(b) due to the two contributions give a Q(b) of 4Be7 very close to zero, Q(b)~ 0 .
    =====================================================

    regards
    wlad

    I hope this message be posted with no problems

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe,

    I dont know why, but the blog is not posting my posts as I had written them.

    Again, the blog did not post the second hypothesis, and only a portion of it (but suppressing some words)

    regards
    wlad

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Dear Joe,
    I dont know why, but the blog had suppressed the second hypothesis in my last post.

    ===============================================
    Now consider the 4Be7, in the Fig. 37 pag. 48.
    ===============================================

    It is flat, so y= 0.

    Suppose the following coordinates:

    Deuteron: (+z, -x)
    proton: (-z , -x)
    —————————————————-
    First hyphotesis:
    If z = x, then 4Be7 has Q(b)=0, by no considering the shake.

    Therefore, in the case of z = x the 4Be7 would have Q(b) x, then 4Be7 has Q(b)> 0, by no considering the shake.

    As the shake contributes for a negative Q(b) x, the nucleus has Q(b)> 0, if we do not consider the shake.

    So, as the shakes contribution is Q(b)< 0, then the total Q(b) due to the two contributions give a Q(b) of 4Be7 very close to zero
    —————————————————–

    regards
    wlad

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Dear Joe,
    let me explain you a little more about the quadrupole moments.

    ==============
    Nucleus 3Li6
    ==============
    Look at the 3Li6 in the Fig. 20 page 26 of my paper Stability of Ligth Nuclei, published in Rossi’s blog:
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Stability%20of%20light%20nuclei.pdf

    3Li6 is flat , and so y=0.

    Let’s suppose that the deuteron in the Fig. 20 has the following coordinates, with regard to the center of the central 2He4, crossed by the z-axis:
    z = x
    In this case it would have to have quadrupole moment Q(b)= 0, if we do not consider the shake due to unbalance.
    By considering the shake, such 3Li6 with z=x has therefore Q(b) x.
    In this case it has Q(b)> 0, if we do not consider the shake.
    If the contribution of the shake is larger than the contribution due to z > x, then Q(b) 0.

    ===============================================
    Now consider the 4Be7, in the Fig. 37 pag. 48.
    ===============================================

    It is flat, so y= 0.

    Suppose the following coordinates:

    Deuteron: (+z, -x)
    proton: (-z , -x)
    —————————————————-
    First hyphotesis:
    If z = x, then 4Be7 has Q(b)=0, by no considering the shake.

    Therefore, in the case of z = x the 4Be7 would have Q(b) x, then 4Be7 has Q(b)> 0, by no considering the shake.

    As the shake contributes for a negative Q(b)< 0, then the combination of the two contributions give a quadrupole moment of 4Be7 very near to zero.
    —————————————————–

    regards
    wlad

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Reply by Dr. Attila Csoto

    ====================================================
    From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    Date: Fri, 9 Aug 2013 15:56:02 +0200

    Note, that after the model nuclei in the Nature paper are built up from the clusters, the wave function must undergo a rotation, to project out the correct spin, resulting in a spherical shape.
    For example, even though it is known, that the second 0+ state of C12 is a linear chain of three alpha particles, after rotating this state to project out the zero spin, you end up with a spherical shape.

    Besides, He4 and O16 on your list are double magic, the most perfect spheres in nuclear physics.

    But we went far from the original problem. You have strange ideas of how experimental physics works, if you believe that someone measured the quadrupole moment of Be7, found it very small, and therefore did not publish the result. It does not work that way. If they could measure a value, then they would publish it. If they found that the quardupole moment was smaller than what they could measure, then they would give an upper limit (like I said, 0+-0.1, or something like that).
    ====================================================

    ====================================================
    From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com
    To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu
    Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    Date: Sat, 10 Aug 2013 10:59:32 -0300

    Dear Dr. Attila
    the experimentalists do not take in consideration the theoretical prediction based on current nuclear models so that to quote the values in the nuclear tables.
    They are interested only in the results of the experiments.

    For example, when they had measured the quadrupole moment of nuclei as 8O16, 10Ne20, etc, the theoretical prediction was not taken in consideration.

    Therefore the quadrupole moment of those nuclei would have to be quoted by 0+-0.1 in the nuclear table.

    But let’s forget such question. The imporant matter is to get the measurement of 4Be7, or, in the case it was already measured, to discover if it really has Q(b)=0, as I suspect.

    Dont you know any experimentalist in your university, so that to ask him ?

    The response for such question is very important for the development of Theorecal Physics.

    regards
    Wladimir Guglinski
    ====================================================

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    The amount of Ni used by the E-Cat, even in a widespread situation, would not affect the world production of Ni.
    1 g of mass yields 23 000 000 kWh and the used Ni is anyway recyclable for all the other uses.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • orsobubu

    Giovanni Guerrini, two concepts:

    – Big wars are not fought because of specific reason, like property of an oil field; this could be the trigger, but conflicting blocks go to war for well wider geostrategical considerations. National dominant classes know in advance that the narrowing of “vital space”, due to market competition, is costantly endangering their absolutely necessary capitalistic expansion. Under the pressure of the economic crisis factors – inflation, deflation, unemployment, fall of the profit sage, overproduction, failures – the political actions develop along five main imperialistic axes, monopoly strenghtening, capital exports, financiarization, market quotas stretching and geopolitical influence sphere stenghtening. When all of these strategies fail, usually the last weapon is protectionism. From this tragic point on, only the armies will decide who will redevide the cake at the winners’ table. Look at the current situation, for example. We have plenty of cheap energy, commodities and resources, so that finance have to invent every financial instrument and trick to artificially boost the sagging prices, and at the same time each generation of western countries’ population had at least a war to fought, so to maintain an imperialistic advantage in the competition with the east. Now, the rise of China, India, Russia, etc will make the theatre more and more complex.

    – In a war, countries could easily reach an agreement not to deploy specific technologies; they also did this way during WW2 about gas weapons. They have plenty of systems to play with, robots, drones, stealths, satellites, lasers, computer viruses …

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If eCat techncology is successful and becomes in widespread usage, do you think Nickel will be as highly sought after as oil is now, even to the extent of armed conflict?

  • JR

    Dear Wladimir,

    As I’m sure Dr. Csolo will confirm, these nuclei DO have Q(b)=0, because Q(b) has a specific, well defined meaning. There is no inconsistency with having Q(b)=0 and having cluster structure or other non-uniform, non-spherical structures

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dott Rossi
    I agree with you and I think that E-Cat will contribute to avoid conflicts of control.

    Regards G G

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