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Virtual neutrons and miniatoms in low energy nuclear reactions of hydrogen and deuterium

by
Lino Daddi
Retired Earlier Professor
at Naval Academy Leghorn, Italy
Abstract
They are considered the roles of miniatoms and virtual neutrons in LENR reactions of hydrogen and deuterium absorbed in solids.
Has highlighted the role of virtual neutrons in restructuring of the nucleus, when the strong force provides the required energy for the virtual neutrons becomes real neutrons.

Some behaviors can be facilitated in hydrogen by alternation of the proton-electron system between the condition of miniatom and the condition of virtual neutron. This alternation could increase range and duration of the compressed system <p/e> to allow the proton to meet with a nucleus of the solid.
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311 comments to Virtual neutrons and miniatoms in low energy nuclear reactions of hydrogen and deuterium

  • Andrea Rossi

    Greg Leonard:
    Surely the heat production for direct use of heat is the more efficient, for the first and second thermodynamic principle.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Greg Leonard

    Dear AR and Rodney Nicholson,
    To heat an object, the heat source needs to be a some significant higher temperature.
    I can imagine that a gas powered burner would work fine here.
    What I am unsure about is whether the temperature difference between the ‘heater’ ecat and the ‘heated’ ecat will be enough to get the ‘heated’ ecat into self-sustain mode.

    I imagine the gas powered ecat would be extremely useful when the output requirement is simply heat, and in a place far from the electric grid.
    Greg Leonard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rodney Nicholson:
    We are considering this, as you correctly write.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Regarding:

    Andrea Rossi
    December 17th, 2014 at 3:31 PM
    Koen Vandewalle:
    The gas fueled Hot Cat is a logic evolution of the Hot Cat, due to obvious economic considerations.
    Warm regards
    A.R.

    While it appears some electrical stimulation is essential for the functioning of the Ecat, might it be possible in a multiple unit system for the energy required to heat units not in self-sustain mode to be provided by heat from the units in self-sustain mode? This way, from the heat input point of view, the entire device would be self sufficient and a gas supply would not be necessary? No doubt you have already considered this.

    Rodney Nicholson.

  • Hi Dan C.:

    “When Rossi says all energies will be integrated, he is just being realistic. it will take many decades to transition. ”

    I have to very much agree with this. If you take the energy content of the entire current annual consumption of crude oil, natural gas and coal, and add present nuclear power generation which will be phased out eventually as the plants exceed their useful lives; then calculate how many one megawatt units are required to displace it, you will see it will take a long time.

    Even assuming initial production of 10,000 one megawatt units a year and doubling production each year for a few years it will still take a long time, simply because the current usage of coal, natural gas and oil is so huge. Having said this, though, it didn’t take very long to install optical fiber and related equipment across the entire world when the internet appeared.

    The critical factor permitting the rapid expansion of *any* business is that the product be sold at a price which allows profits to be high enough so that they can be reinvested in the construction of larger and larger manufacturing plants quickly. If a company is making only small profits it will not have the resources to expand quickly, if at all. LENR will be no different.

    Charging a high enough price will be critical in determining how long it takes for LENR technology to achieve maturity. If E-cat units are sold at prices sufficient to finance rapid expansion, then it will certainly not take 100 years.

    Of course the profits must also be high enough to finance both research into new products and the improvement of existing ones, to stay ahead of potential competitors. Also, when competition eventually appears, in order to continue to thrive it will be critical for the company to maintain a very strong balance sheet so it can take on competition likely to come from some very large and very well financed companies in the energy and transportation industries.

    Rodney.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rodney Nicholson:
    Usually I ignore stupid comments, but sometimes I get nervous.
    Sorry.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Thank you, Andrea, for your wonderfully entertaining reply which started:

    “Andrea Rossi
    October 10th, 2014 at 3:05 PM
    TO THE READERS:
    I have been informed right now that on a blog a person whose nickname is Raman has said a curious thing I want to deal with because is a paradigmatic example of fake professionality used to perpetrate an agenda.”

    It brought a huge smile to my face!

    Thanks also to Hank Mills for his quote from Jonathan Swift!

    Rodney Nicholson.

  • To Steven N. Karels:

    Questions about how much longer the fuel charge could have continued providing heat in the ITP test may not have much relevance to the performance of a commercial E-cat because in the ITP test the investigators ran the unit with power continuously ‘on’.

    I understand this was to make it simpler to calculate both the energy input and heat output. In previous experiments, in order to keep the unit functioning it had only been necessary to provide input power intermittently. With the continuous power input during this test the fuel may have been used up at a faster rate than would have been the case with only intermittent power input.

    This will also likely be a factor in the COP. If in this ITP test the power had indeed been applied only intermittently, when strictly necessary, then the amount of power input would have been reduced, and the power output likely would not have been diminished as much. So I believe this is one of the reasons the COP in the ITP test came out to less than 6. There may perhaps be additional reasons also.

    Rodney.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rodney Nicholson:
    1- I do not know why the Professors of the ITP decided that way to publish. They, as I always said, are totally independent from us. If they did so, means they had a reason for it. The report has been written by them, obviously; today I have contacted their spokesman, who confirmed that the report published is the original version, uncut; the version that will be published in a scientific magazine will have to be reduced within 15 pages. They told me it was necessary a publication with all the 54 pages, because every page has a specific importance.
    2- the charge had been made for a 35 days test. This is the test duration agreed upon when the experiment has been started
    3- I cannot enter in this particular
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi:

    Many questions have been answered in the paper. But more arise:

    1) Was it originally intended that the paper be released on sifferkoll? Or might
    this be some kind of unintentional leak? And if it was unintended, from what you know is the information contained in the report accurate?

    2) It seems that in the ITP test the content of 58Ni was reduced almost to zero after one month of operation. That leads to a conclusion that maybe some route of conversion of 58Ni to 62Ni may be a significant source of the energy relaeased. But if the E-cat can function for as much as six times longer than the 32 days of the ITP test, then that cannot be right because there would not be any 58Ni available for the next five months.

    3) I had previously thought I had understood that hydrogen was supplied in gaseous form under pressure. But I do not see mention of that in the paper. It seems that it is available only in the form of AlLiH4. Is that correct?

    Please feel free to modify, or completely erase, any of the above questions if you feel discussion of them might not be helpful.

    Again, wonderful (positive?!) news. Congratulations.

    Rodney Nicholson.

  • A STUNNING (dare I say “positive”?) result.

    Congratulations.

    Rodney.

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