Geometry of String Theory Solitons

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by
Magnus Holm
Institute of Theoretical Physics
Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University – Göteborg 1999

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Abstract
In recent years there has been a dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of various physical theories.
In particular string theory has been vastly developed during these years, where a lot of duality conjectures between the different string theories have arisen.
The introductory text of this thesis is an attempt to describe this development in short and to make a brief overview of the subject.
Special focus is put on solitonic solutions in various field theories, which is the corner stone for these duality conjectures.
The introduction of supersymmetry is also essential for the understanding of duality by its natural way of handling BPS-states through the algebra.
In string theory, which is not only a supersymmetric theory but also includes gravity, these studies are put together through the discovery of various p-brane solutions to the background field equations.
The geometrical structure of these solutions is studied in some of the papers in this thesis.
In a generalization to the treatment of p-branes as solutions which break the local vacuum symmetry, the theory of almost product structures (APS-theory) has arisen as the natural candidate to the study of the intricate geometry of these solutions.
The last two papers deal with this ansatz where it is also seen that APS-theory is the most natural way of treating all kinds of splitting of manifolds including fibrations, Yang-Mills theoryand Kaluza-Klein theory.
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391 comments to Geometry of String Theory Solitons

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christian Scholl:
    We will make versions with all the kind of heat exchangers the market will demand.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Christian Scholl

    Dr Rossi:
    The commercial E-Cat is intended to produce hot water; for the Lugano test you made a hot air version: do you plan to deliver two versions?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Shandra Mcvea:
    The 1 MW E-Cat has problems with a leak that we are repairing.
    The E-Cat X is fused because we reached a too high temperature and critical components are fused. We have to invent a new material for it and I am studying a new alloy that could have the necessary characteristics. I think we will have the new one in operation within a month. The materials existing in the market are not good, for one reason or another. We have to make a material that does not exist, but we know enough to make it.
    Today is a hard day.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Shandra Mcvea

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    How are going the 1MW Ecat and the E-Cat X today?
    Thank you,
    Shandra

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jacques Rezek:
    Our Customers will have nothing to do with the R&D and the tests we are making now upon this first plant delivered to an industrial Customer. They will receive a product certified, off the shelf and all they will have to do will be follow simple instructions, while the E-Cat, whatever the model and the power, will be completely controlled in automatic mode. Thank you for your kind attention, even if it drives you sceptic.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jacques Rezek

    Dr Andrea Rossi: OK, gauges speak to your brain, stethoscope speakd to your guts, but then: with whom will have to speak with what a customer that has not Andrea Rossi inside the plant ?
    Cheers,
    A sceptic friend

  • Andrea Rossi

    Nelson Charles:
    You are totally right: we have not to invent or to proof the Carnot Cycle.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Nelson Charles

    Dr Rossi,
    I read around in the blogosphere many questions regarding when you will produce electic power with the E-Cat, but I think this is a false problem: what is important is that the E-Cat makes steam at high temperature ( as the Lugano test gave evidence it can) , eventually to make electric power with steam is not a problem of the E-Cat, any expert engineer of the field can make electricity with the Carnot Cycle! Isn’t this true?
    Thyank you for the time to read and answer this comment,
    Nelson Charles

  • Andrea Rossi

    DTravchenko:
    To catch the essence of Parity, you can imagine to look at a mirror : the image you see of yourself when you look at you in a mirror has your left side and right side swapped: your right ear seems the left ear and vice versa. 3 of the 4 foundamental forces – strong, gravitational and electromagnetic- respect the parity in this sense, not so the weak forces: let me start a little bit from a deeper level.
    Massless particles can spin left handed, or right handed; in the weak interactions there is a symmetry only for the left handed elementary particles and the associated force, therefore the weak interactions violate Parity, because they discriminate between left and right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • DTravchenko

    Dr Rossi:
    Is there any relation between symmetry and parity?
    Warm Regards,
    DT

  • DTravchenko

    JR:
    I do not agree with you. I too think that Wladimir Guglinski’s theories are very audacious, but Curiosone has to thank him because he has answered to his question based on his ideas, as well as he could.
    Warm Regards,
    DT

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thomas Florek:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • While we wait for the independent report, here is an exclusive radio interview with Andrea Rossi. He discusses his feelings about music, and his experience playing the drums. This appears this week’s “Tom and Doug Show” which is broadcast on WOOL-FM, KHOI-FM and other stations on the Pacifica Network.

    Here is a link to the internet version of the program:
    http://tomanddoug.com/podcasts/TDShow470.mp3

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ville Kanninen:
    Thank you, very good point.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hermano Tobia: I totally understand Andrea Rossi position with eCat IP as he nailed it down once again in his answer. In the case of Google, Linux open source operating system code in Android is good choice for Google business strategy. But keep in mind, that Googles most valuable IP is in their superior Internet search algorithms and technology, which are strictly secret, closed source and proprietary software.

    kind regards

    Ville Kanninen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    It is true that now and again I make a phone call to the Professors to ask about the scheduling of the publication. It is absolutely not true that we talk of the report’s content. I have no reason to be happy or unhappy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alessandro Coppi

    Hi Andrea, now you have certainly spoken with the professors that have written the report.
    While we all are waiting for the publishing, how are you? Much more happy or not?

    Best regards
    Alessandro

  • Andrea Rossi

    TO THE READERS OF THE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS:
    Today has been published on the JoNP the paper
    “Relation between short- range forces and the concept of neutrality” , by Jacques Chaveheid ( time of peer reviewing: 6 months).
    JoNP

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini:
    I edited your text for obvious reasons, conserving the meaning of it. You must know that the peer reviewing of a scientific publication usually takes 6 months as an average.
    The experiment made by the Third Independent Party is important, as you correctly wrote, and the Professors, to avoid criticisms, need all the time necessary to publish results of which they need to be sure beyond any reasonable doubt, also considering all the experience and the critics made during and after the 2013 experiment. It is not just matter of patience, it is also matter of respect for serious scientific work. The reviewing must take all the time it needs on the base of a serious and exhaustive analysis of the results, positive or negative as they might be.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Andrea,
    the impatience is not anxiety or curiosity, but it’s something related to the huge importance of the issue: why does take so much time to make the publication of the report of the 2014 experiment?
    Best regards,
    Giuliano Bettini.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Angel Blume:
    We will give detailed public information about the 1 MW plant in operation in the factory of the Customer when the visits will start. At the moment we cannot give any specific information. It is matter of months, not years, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Angel Blume

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    What COP figure is expected at the new 1 Mw plant in construction?
    Thanks and good luck

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hermano Tobia:
    You are right, but, as I said, after a technology is spread in the market it is normal its expansion with open sources. Our situation is totally different now, while it will be similar to what you describe several years after the mother-technology will have been consolidated in the market. Good point, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hermano Tobia

    @Andrea Rossi
    While I agree in priciple with your IP position, I don’t think the Linux / MS / Apple / Opensource comparison is appropriate nowadays: in the exploding smartphone mobile market, Android, which is basically free, and built upon Linux + AOSP (opensource) + Google apps has globally 80% market share, Apple has 16% and Microsoft 3-4%.
    But Google is not run by communists, it has simply a different business model in respect of its competitors.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: Thanks again for you answer about IP, you must have answered that question ten times in the last four years. (: Of course you are right, IP is what makes the Tech world go around, without profit motive, very few new high tech inventions. Even China has learned that lesson. You are headed for exciting times in the next few months. Good luck.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dtravchenko:
    Some of them are making a very good work, mainly the ones that have worked to repeat our technology after it has been published in 2009 by the Patent Office, some are not, but I never comment specifically the work of our Competitors. A team of specialists funded by us is studying all the Technologies published and/or patented by our Competitors, replicating exactly what they describe, to check the real worth of their IP. So far we obtained the same results described in their publications only in three cases, regarding a Swedish, a Japanese and a USA LENR scientists. All the others have not given any anomalous amount of energy, honestly, even if we have spent substantial time and money to check the real status of their potential competitivity. I must add that many of the Technologies that did not produce any anomalous excess of energy can be considered all the same interesting and good, so that maybe in future will be improved.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    DTravchenko:
    I answered many times about this issue, this is the last one, because I cannot continue to repeat the same things…
    As many Readers invited me to do, I should give away as a gift the Intellectual Property portfolio to make everybody happy and energized, as well as many other LENR researchers declare would do should they be in my same situation.
    Let me tell you a story.
    Before the fall of the USSR, in the seventies, when the Italian Communist Party ( PCI) was one of the pillars for the communist parties in Europe, an Italian Comrade ( “compagno” in Italian language) had to sustain an exam to become the chief comrade of the communist section of his neighborood. His examiner asked him: ” Should you be the owner of two skyscrapers in the centertown of Milan, what would you do?” Promptly the wannabe chief comrade answered: ” one to me, one to the PCI”.
    The examiner raises a bit his eyebrows and says ” I was hoping you could answer both skyscrapers to the Party, but enough is better than nothing, so I take for good, even if not perfect, your answer…second question: should you be the owner of 2 Ferrari cars, what would you do?”
    Again promptly the wannabe chief comrade, looking straightforward in the eyes of the examiner, answers: ” one for me, one for the Party “.
    Coherently, the examiner says ” I would have preferred you could answer both to the Party, but nobody is perfect, so I accept for good also your second answer…now third and last question: should you own two bycycles, what would you do? ”
    At this point the wannabe chief comrade doesn’t answer, drops of sweat begin to wet his forehead, becomes first red faced, than white…until the examiner says: ” What’s the matter with you? You were ready to give to the party one skyscraper in downtown Milan, then a Ferrari and now you remain mute and scared to give to the Party a bycycle? ”
    The wannabe comrade turns the eyes toward nowhere, cocks the head between his shoulders and whispers: ” As a matter of fact, I really own two bycicles “.
    The sense of this story is, as everybody surely has understood, that the generosity to give away for free the Intellectual Property portfolio is inversally proportional to the square of the worth of its content.
    To give away for free the Intellectual Property of a technology is a mistake that takes away from the real business that technology, because nobody invests seriously in a technology if there is not the right of the ownership of the connected IP. The history gives a lot of even recent examples: compare what happened with Linux vs Microsoft, compare what happened with the open source high technologies vs Apple…Obviously, eventually the technology becomes universally known, once it is spread in the market, but in the meantime the companies that have put immense capitals to fund its development will have paid back their efforts with profit. Finally: look what happened in the communist Countries, where private property has been universally turned into common property and knowledge, frustrating ( and forbidding) private interest.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    He,he,he…when I will be retired ( after my hundredth ride around the sun) I will consider your suggestion…obviously the title you could like is, I suppose, ” The permanent revolution of energy production systems”: true?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    To the readers of the JoNP:

    Einstein proposed in his Special Relativity that space is empty.

    That’s why he proposed in his General Relativity that the space-time can be bent by big masses, and it originates the gravity.

    However a new experiment published in 2011 proved that space is not empty:
    Light created from vacuum shows empty space a myth
    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/science/Light-created-from-vacuum-shows-empty-space-a-myth/articleshow/10789049.cms

    So, it is obvious that Einstein theory of gravity is wrong.

    And now some theorists are dealing with the question of the gravity as it was be a fluid.
    Turbulent Black Holes
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.4859

    In another words, Huan Yang, Aaron Zimmerman, and Luis Lehner are dealing with the gravity from a new fundamental consideration: that space is not empty, as Einstein had wrongly supposed.

    As we realize, step by step the theorists are changing everything in the foundations of the Theoretical Physics.

    But obviously the problem is more complex, because there is need also to consider other fundamental question: how to conciliate the gravity with the Higgs boson, if they continue to consider that the mass of particles is caused by the Higgs boson.

    They have hard questions to solve, indeed…

    regards
    wlad

  • orsobubu

    Andrea, will you find the time to write an autobiography? I can already see the hardcover, with a photo of yourself in running shoes standing next to a small shining Ecat placed on the ground. In the background, a big rusted Petroldragon tank with the cat logo and the book title painted on in capital yellow letters: The Caterpillar. As a bonus, a DVD is included with the complete JONP database and the catalyzer formula. Also a voucher is inserted for the new Wladimir’s book.

  • DTravchenko

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    Strong suggestion from a Russian friend: you too make open science of your technology, as Others LENR researchers did: this choice from you can help the development of your technology.
    From Russia, with love and “Warm Regards!”
    D.T.

  • DTravchenko

    Another question: what do you think of the results so far got from your competitors? Can you make a sort of a rating?
    Warm Regards
    D.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    The two issues are unconnected.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Will your plans for the 1MW plant visitations by invited persons be affected by the third party report? In other words, will you wait for the publication of the report before the visits are allowed? Or are the two issues totally unconnected?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    When I applied for that patent I was 27 years old, with a 6 years experience in production of waste to energy plants and air pollution control systems. I designed, patented and manufactured my plants, and used to go personally to sell them. At those times my competitors called me “the Caterpillar” for the amount of work I was able to do…wherever there was a plant to do, I was there ( he,he,he…it was not easy to beat me in a competition to get a Customer). Then I put in the tech of this patent all the money earned, and lost everything in 1995 ( see http://www.ingandrearossi.com).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    For anyone interested, here’s a link to your 1978 patent, “Procedure for the recovery of industrial and urban waste”. Thanks to Mats Lewan for providing this.

    http://www.scribd.com/doc/231423045/BREVETTO-PETROLIO-1978

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Curiosone wrote in June 25th, 2014 at 6:38 PM

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    one question of physics: when an accelerator like CERN finds antimatter is because antimatter is inside the matter and crushing it the antimatter is made free?
    W.G.

    ————————————-

    Dear Curiosone
    I supppose you are asking it because of the paper published in 22 June 2014 in the journal Nature:
    Evidence for the direct decay of the 125 GeV Higgs boson to fermions
    http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphys3005.html

    However, the role played by the Higgs boson for the mass of the particles is the same role played by the Yukawa’s meson within the structure of the neutron.

    Yukawa proposed a theory according to which the neutron is formed by proton+meson, and he awarded the Nobel Prize in 1949 because the meson was detected (the existence of the meson was unknown before Yukawa’s proposal).

    Today we know that the meson plays no any role in the structure of the neutron, because according to Standard Physics the neutron is formed by two quarks down and one quark up , n=(d,u,d).

    So, in spite of the LHC had detected the Higgs boson, it does not mean that the detected boson is responsible for the mass of the particles, as proposed in Higgs theory.
    In 2015 the LHC will work with its full potency, and probably many other bosons will be found.

    The Yukawa’s meson and the Higgs boson are two examples on how the development of Physics advances via misunderstandings and “coincidences” which induce the theorists to believe that they are in the correct way.

    regards
    wlad

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mark Saker:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    All the particulars regarding the 1 MW plant, as I said already, will be given when the visits will begin, not before.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark Saker

    Dear Andrea,

    An enjoyable (well enlightening) read for you on the origin of creativity I have just read and recommend. It’s approximately fifteen minutes worth of words! :)

    http://goo.gl/eUdmRF

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    How are the current eCat reactors configured in the 1 MW commercial unit that you are working on?

    1. Are you using the same eCat reactor the independent party report reviewed or a later model?
    2. What is the nominal thermal output of each eCat reactor used in the 1 MW system?
    3. How many eCat reactors are used in the 1MW system.
    4. Is the power input electrical (e.g., 220VAC)?
    5. Can individual eCat reactors be replaced while the 1MW system is continually operating?
    6. How far can the 1MW control unit be from the 1MW unit?

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