Relation between short-range forces and the concept of neutrality

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by
Jacques Chauveheid
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Introduction:
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A. Preliminary remarks
If quantum mechanics can provide quantitative expressions of forces in conformity  with the work of Erhenfest and the principle of correspondence, recognized quantitative expressions for nuclear and weak forces do not currently exist. In addition, the four basic forces do not depend on temperature, since measured in vacuum between particles.
In one of his books, Abraham Pais recalled a comment by Rutherford during the 1914-1919 period: “the Coulomb forces dominate if v (speed of alpha particles) is sufficiently small”, evidencing by these words the velocity-dependence of the strong-nuclear force. However, since Rutherford did not apparently refer to temperature, optimal conditions for nuclear fusion do not necessarily arise in disordered configurations characterized by extremely high temperatures, such as those encountered in stars like the sun. Even compared with galaxy formation, hot fusion in many stars seems the slowest and most inefficient physical phenomenon in the universe, because the sun’s ten billion year lifetime has an order of magnitude similar to the age of the universe, this circumstance having been highly beneficial for the life on earth.
Although not based on equations, Rutherford’s conclusion constitutes the essence of the “cold” approach to nuclear fusion and reactions starting from moderate energy levels, instead of extreme temperatures hardly controlling with precision the physical parameters ruling nuclear phenomena. In this view, a better theoretical understanding of these parameters will help nuclear technologies.
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B. Theoretical antecedents
Eddington mentioned the concept of asymmetric affine connection in 1921 and pointed out applications in microphysics, but he did not pursue this idea [5]. In 1922, Elie Cartan introduced geometric torsion, as the antisymmetric part of an asymmetric affine connection. In May 1929, Cartan wrote a letter to Einstein in which he recommended the use of the differential formalism he developed, but Einstein did not follow Cartan’s advice.
Between 1944 and 1950, J. Mariani published four papers dealing with astrophysical magnetism and introduced an “ansatz” structurally similar to that used in the present theory. The German word “ansatz”, used by Ernst Schmutzer (correspondence), refers to a supposed relationship between fields of distinct origin, for example geometric contrasting with physical. Einstein also used an ansatz when he identified gravitation with the 4-space metric, but he did not put it in the form of an equation, presumably because being trivial.
The organization of the paper is the following: Section II details the Lagrangian formulation and the calculus of variations. Section III is about field equations and quantitative expressions of forces. Section IV introduces the short-range force between charged particles, first referred to as strong-nuclear between nucleons. Section V is on Yukawa and complexity. Section VI details the short-range forces in both systems electron-proton and electron-neutron, evidencing a weak nuclear mechanism in LENR technologies.

When not stated otherwise, mathematical conventions are those of reference.
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708 comments to Relation between short-range forces and the concept of neutrality

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jacqueline:
    In the test that we are making with the Hot Cat in the container of the computers we are making many experiments with different temperatures, also with the temperatures reached in Lugano.
    It is a long work of patient collection of data aimed to design a reliable small unit also for domestic utilizations. The COP is higher, because we apply the ssm, for long periods.
    Again: at the end of this period of tests the results can be either positive or negative, but the work is intense.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jacqueline

    Dr. Rossi:
    The Hot Cat that you are testing in the “container of the computers” is reaching the temperatures obtained in the Lugano test of the Independent Third Party ? Is it also reaching the same COP?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Jacqueline

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for the update.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea I have had some interesting discussions with Dave & Axil Axil at MFMP at Franks E Cat World this evening & post it below for your information on our thinking in moving your (ssm) process up & down load ramps & tripping from self sustained infinite COP states of operation at different temperature?

    “Dave & Axil I don’t think there is a magic fuel formula at all or the Cat & mouse are necessary to raise power or if that is what Rossi does? In conventional nuclear power plants we raise the power generation level to any place we want by putting the neutron flux in an increasing or decreasing mode & then stop it to generate stable power in BWRs, PWRS, Gas cooled reactors, Nuclear Rockets etc and the same applies for the Rossi (ssm) mode of power generation. In all these ramps & attempts a (ssm) has visited us & we & Rossi for a long time & led to numbers of lost fuel elements to burnout because our controllers can’t handle the non linear process of generating power as we approach large values of (ssm) LENR power with respect to external input power on our move up in temperature ramps. We need some good nuclear control engineering ideas to make a moving power process out of this. The source is so strong that we don’t need more fuel or a helper Cat to be successful at this.

    Rossi just moves his Hot E-Cat to a high thermal out put to provide energy to his current client at infinite COP thru self regulation buy radiant self regulating feed back process. The controlling ultra low momentum process for thermal neutron generation can be disrupted or helped to move up or down by the proper input of external power pulse to influence neutron generation & isotope decay process as we do to move conventional nuclear plants & MFMP will eventually show us how that’s done I am sure.

    How else does Rossi shut down successfully an element in the self sustaining mode of full power or partial power generation, that is the question we must address & it has been solved in conventional nuclear power plants developed & tuned by smart government funded research information available to us now!

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for the interesting link.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea another beautifully done set of slides by Larsen, what is your take?

    https://twitter.com/JAROVNAK/status/606554393316491265

    I think there is a lot of good information here that I sort of comprehend & thought I’d share with your blog. I like your recent paper & co authors book also. A lot of food for thought. I must admit I’m a visual concepts man, not steeped in theory, advance matrix math or QM but I love reading in the area of the nucleus – always have.

    Have a nice evening, Your friend Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Anna:
    As I said in my first answer to you, having read it, I return on the book E-Cat 2.0 written by Eng. Roberto Ventola and Dr Vessela Nikolova.
    It is composed by series of comments related to the reports published regarding the tests made with the E-Cat. The book has been written without we had any knowledge of it, without any discussion with us before publishing it and we have been anaware of this publication until the book has been available for sale. The comments made in it have to be considered totally independent from us; we never worked with Eng. Ventola; his innuendos regarding the charges and how the E-Cat “really” works have been speculated by the Authors without any collaboration with us, or suggestion from us, therefore must be considered totally independent from any kind of connection with our work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Anna:
    No, Eng. Ventola is a skillful engineer, I never knew him personally and he did not work with us. I read in the preface of Vessela Nikolova that he is a professional expert in computer science. I ordered the book, of which I have been informed yesterday ( I never knew before about it), and after reading it I will be able to comment; in the meantime, from the introduction published in the blog you saw, I understand that Eng. Ventola has collected many papers related to the Hot Cat and made personal considerations. The guy is skillful and intelligent, nevertheless what he writes is totally independent from us.
    This said, I like to renew my wishes of good luck to the Authors!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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