Relation between short-range forces and the concept of neutrality

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by
Jacques Chauveheid
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Introduction:
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A. Preliminary remarks
If quantum mechanics can provide quantitative expressions of forces in conformity  with the work of Erhenfest and the principle of correspondence, recognized quantitative expressions for nuclear and weak forces do not currently exist. In addition, the four basic forces do not depend on temperature, since measured in vacuum between particles.
In one of his books, Abraham Pais recalled a comment by Rutherford during the 1914-1919 period: “the Coulomb forces dominate if v (speed of alpha particles) is sufficiently small”, evidencing by these words the velocity-dependence of the strong-nuclear force. However, since Rutherford did not apparently refer to temperature, optimal conditions for nuclear fusion do not necessarily arise in disordered configurations characterized by extremely high temperatures, such as those encountered in stars like the sun. Even compared with galaxy formation, hot fusion in many stars seems the slowest and most inefficient physical phenomenon in the universe, because the sun’s ten billion year lifetime has an order of magnitude similar to the age of the universe, this circumstance having been highly beneficial for the life on earth.
Although not based on equations, Rutherford’s conclusion constitutes the essence of the “cold” approach to nuclear fusion and reactions starting from moderate energy levels, instead of extreme temperatures hardly controlling with precision the physical parameters ruling nuclear phenomena. In this view, a better theoretical understanding of these parameters will help nuclear technologies.
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B. Theoretical antecedents
Eddington mentioned the concept of asymmetric affine connection in 1921 and pointed out applications in microphysics, but he did not pursue this idea [5]. In 1922, Elie Cartan introduced geometric torsion, as the antisymmetric part of an asymmetric affine connection. In May 1929, Cartan wrote a letter to Einstein in which he recommended the use of the differential formalism he developed, but Einstein did not follow Cartan’s advice.
Between 1944 and 1950, J. Mariani published four papers dealing with astrophysical magnetism and introduced an “ansatz” structurally similar to that used in the present theory. The German word “ansatz”, used by Ernst Schmutzer (correspondence), refers to a supposed relationship between fields of distinct origin, for example geometric contrasting with physical. Einstein also used an ansatz when he identified gravitation with the 4-space metric, but he did not put it in the form of an equation, presumably because being trivial.
The organization of the paper is the following: Section II details the Lagrangian formulation and the calculus of variations. Section III is about field equations and quantitative expressions of forces. Section IV introduces the short-range force between charged particles, first referred to as strong-nuclear between nucleons. Section V is on Yukawa and complexity. Section VI details the short-range forces in both systems electron-proton and electron-neutron, evidencing a weak nuclear mechanism in LENR technologies.

When not stated otherwise, mathematical conventions are those of reference.
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712 comments to Relation between short-range forces and the concept of neutrality

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Dear Curiosone

    the nonsenses of Mr. JR make us to remember those said by Simplicius in Galileo’s Dialogue:

    http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Extras/Galileo_Dialogue.html

    So,
    we realize that people never change.
    Simplicius tried to save the wrong Aristotle’s concepts. And Mr. JR is trying to save the flawed concepts of current Nuclear Physics.

    Changes the scenery of human theatrical comedy, but the characters are always the same.

    regards
    wlad

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Dear Pekka Janhunen,

    I think the chemistry sets things up for the sort of reactions you’re proposing.
    If there are no gamma rays or neutrons, I think that the chemistry would set it up for the following nuclear reactions. Nickel hydride absorbs a proton to become cuprous hydride in an excited state. Cuprous hydride absorbs its proton to become zinc in an excited state. Zinc in an excited state, fissions into nickel (with two fewer neutrons) and helium.

    NiH2 >CuH*>Zn*> Ni + He

    For example:
    H(1) + Ni(62) > Cu(63)* Step1
    H(1) + Cu(63)* > Ni(60) + He(4) Step 2
    ________________________
    Over all
    2 H(1) + Ni(62) > Ni(60) + He(4) 9.87 MeV

    For example:
    H(1) + Ni(64) > Cu(65)* Step1
    H(1) + Cu(65)* > Ni(62) + He(4) Step 2
    ________________________
    Over all
    2 H(1) + Ni(64) > Ni(62) + He(4) 11.8 MeV

    And other isotopes:
    2 H(1) + Ni(N) > Ni(N-2) + He(4)

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Andrea Rossi wrote in August 28th, 2014 at 4:55 PM

    Argon:
    Your pre-order, as all the pre-orders for domestic E-Cats, will be satisfied as soon as we will obtain the safety certification for the domestic E-Cat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    ======================================

    Dear Andrea,
    please dont forget my pre-order of 1.000 domestic E-Cats.

    regards
    wlad

  • Andrea Rossi

    Argon:
    Your pre-order, as all the pre-orders for domestic E-Cats, will be satisfied as soon as we will obtain the safety certification for the domestic E-Cat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Argon

    Dear Andrea! Many months ago, i deliver to pre-order yours small domestics LENR heater . Wanted to show students. Many papers descriptions of experiments can never replace training laboratory work. It is clear that the students can not afford commercially megawatt LENR system for 2 million dollars. Please suggest a simple version of the demonstration non-chemical power in the NI-H systems for students range tens-hundred watt power. Or do you think it premature and inappropriate to inform young people about the actual running LENR?

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    JR wrote in August 28th, 2014 at 8:40 AM

    Why on earth would Curiosone want to thank Wladimir for totally ignoring the question that was asked and then using it as an excuse to post yet another error-riddled comment? Wlad’s comment is almost entirely incorrect and even if it had any meaningful content, it wouldn’t address the question of symmetries in any useful way.
    ===========================================================

    Daar Curiosone,
    Mr. JR is the person who claims that in the Figure 1 of the link bellow the shape is spherical:

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v487/n7407/full/nature11246.html

    So, Mr. JR is a theorist able to avoid the breakdown of the current Nuclear PHysics by changing the fundamental principles of the Geometry.
    According to Mr. JR, a sphere has ellipsoidal shape.

    regards
    wlad

  • Dear Andrea,

    For your reaction, some speculation, for whatever it’s worth:

    1) List of exothermic p reactions of stable Ni and Cu isotopes
    (radioactive isotopes are marked with *):

    p + Ni58 –> Cu59* + 3.41861 MeV
    p + Ni60 –> Cu61* + 4.80002 MeV
    p + Ni61 –> Cu62* + 5.86565 MeV
    p + Ni62 –> Cu63 + 6.12181 MeV
    p + Ni64 –> Cu65 + 7.45291 MeV
    p + Cu63 –> Zn64 + 7.71373 MeV
    –> Ni60 + He4 + 3.75744 MeV
    p + Cu65 –> Zn66 + 8.92561 MeV
    –> Ni62 + He4 + 4.34708 MeV

    2) Postulate that reactions producing radioactive isotopes are
    suppressed (maybe because they produce less excess energy):

    p + Ni62 –> Cu63 + 6.12181 MeV
    p + Ni64 –> Cu65 + 7.45291 MeV
    p + Cu63 –> Zn64 + 7.71373 MeV
    –> Ni60 + He4 + 3.75744 MeV
    p + Cu65 –> Zn66 + 8.92561 MeV
    –> Ni62 + He4 + 4.34708 MeV

    3) Postulate that when there is a choice, reactions producing two
    output particles are strongly favoured (perhaps natural from reaction kinematics):

    p + Ni62 –> Cu63 + 6.12181 MeV
    p + Ni64 –> Cu65 + 7.45291 MeV
    p + Cu63 –> Ni60 + He4 + 3.75744 MeV
    p + Cu65 –> Ni62 + He4 + 4.34708 MeV

    4) Then the net reactions would be:

    2p + Ni62 –> Ni60 + He4 + 9.87925 MeV
    4p + Ni64 –> Ni60 + 2He4 + 21.6792 MeV
    p + Cu63 –> Ni60 + He4 + 3.75744 MeV
    3p + Cu65 –> Ni60 + 2He4 + 14.2263 MeV

    in other words, this kind of reasoning would predict formation of Ni-60. Since you say that Ni-62 is produced, instead, then the above reasoning cannot be entirely correct.

    regards, /pekka

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    Yes, we have a pretty precise idea, but I have to remind you that the results of the tests could be positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • silvio caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    It’s time to ask you the simplest and the more difficult question: do you have any idea about “from where” e-cat excess energy comes from?
    Which are the particles that are “consumed” in the so called Rossi effect producing heat?

  • JR

    Why on earth would Curiosone want to thank Wladimir for totally ignoring the question that was asked and then using it as an excuse to post yet another error-riddled comment? Wlad’s comment is almost entirely incorrect and even if it had any meaningful content, it wouldn’t address the question of symmetries in any useful way.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    Not for dummies, just for not professionals. I am sure you also want to thank Wladimir Guglinski.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Heath:
    The Rossi Effect is something different from the F.P. effect, as you can easily understand studying both. The F.P. system is an electrolysis based concept, the R.E. is a H-Metal reaction.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    We think that our process, the so called “Rossi Effect”, is , as a serendipity, also a system to produce 62Ni, because only this fact can explain the formation of atoms of stable Cu, even if in very small amounts; we also noticed that using eventually powders of Ni enriched this way, the efficiency of the E-Cats increases. But we are not sure of this fact, because there may have been errors in the analysis, so we are studying , as a side effect , this phenomenon. Obviously, I cannot add information regarding this issue, pending the patents relative to it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Heath

    Thank you. I knew it was a very basic question when I asked and one that is much discussed. A few have wondered (ecatworld) if now you understood it to be something unrelated to LENR in theory and something different from Pons and Fleischmann so many years ago. I’m just hoping to clear up the small things. Good luck on the things to come!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Heath:
    Whatever definition you want to give them, obviously yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Heath

    Dear Andrea.
    I am new to commenting on this site but greatly appreciate your work in the invention, design and understanding of the e-cat. And I am certainly excited for the report soon to come and the reactor for Industrial Heat’s customer. Do you still believe that the Rossi Effect involves low energy nuclear reactions?

  • Curiosone

    Thank you for your “Simmetry” analogy, as usually you gave a model to understand for dummies.
    W.G.

  • Curiosone

    Do you use different isotopes of Ni in your reactions?

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Curiosone wrote in August 24th, 2014 at 6:06 PM

    When you have time: in your answers regarding Physics, you said that Higgs boson breaks the “symmetry”. What is exactly the simmetry?
    Thank you for your patience,
    W.G.
    ——————————————————————

    .

    Andrea Rossi wrote in August 25th, 2014 at 10:18 PM

    Curiosone:

    As we saw, from symmetry arise the 4 forces: strong force, electromagnetic force, weak force and gravitational force arise all from symmetry: let’s try to see how.
    ========================================================

    COMMENT:

    Dear Curiosone,
    actually all the Modern Physics was developed on the concept of symmetry. So, the current Nuclear Theory is also based on the concept of symmetry.

    That’s why, according to current Nuclear Physics, even-even nuclei with the same quantity Z of protons and N neutrons, Z=N, as 2He4, 4Be8, 6C12, 8O16, 10Ne20, etc., would have to have spherical shape.

    However experiments have detected that even-even nuclei with Z=N have non-spherical shape:

    How atomic nuclei cluster
    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v487/n7407/full/nature11246.html

    Look at the Figure 1 of the paper the elipsoidal shape of the nucleus 10Ne20.

    .

    According to the current Nuclear Physics, there is only one way to explain such eliposoidal shape of the even-even nuclei with Z=N:
    There is need to consider a fifth fundamental force existing in the Nature

    .

    Other experiment detected that the nucleus 224Ra has a pear shape IMPOSSIBLE to occur, according to the current Nuclear Physics:

    Pear-Shaped Nucleus Boosts Search for Alternatives to “Standard Model” Physics
    The strange shape of radium 224 could lead to new physics:
    http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/pear-shaped-nucleus-boost-search-for-alternatives-to-standard-model-physics/

    That’s why some theorists are thinking that it is unavoidable to consider a fifth force beyond the four fundamental forces proposed in the Standard Model, otherwise it is impossible to explain such anomalous shape of the Ra224.

    In the link posted above, Stephen Batters says:
    “Even more enticingly, the experiments could probe basic physics. The standard model of particle physics, which describes the strong and weak nuclear forces and the electromagnetic force, leaves several basic questions unanswered.”

    And nuclear physicist Gavin Smith of the University of Manchester, UK, says:
    I believe that this will eventually lead to results of much broader impact than this experiment alone, with the possibility of placing constraints on the standard model,”

    regards
    wlad

  • orsobubu

    In the answer to Italo R., who says that wars are due to oil, Andrea Rossi writes that “the roots of wars are deeper: during the stone age men killed each other not for lack of stones. Cain did not kill Abel for lack of apples.”

    This is absolutely correct. Most of the wars today are placed in the new framework of global relations that began to take shape in the 90s, with the federation of the Euro and the rise of Asia and China in particular. In the relations between powers, what matters is not the specific event but the historical process leading to the event and that is intrinsic to the structure of the system itself, the capitalistic production system and the imperialistic political order (Kissinger). It is from the womb of politics that the wars take their origin (Klausewitz), being the result of objective causal chains, from a society in which the human species is not consciously master of its own destiny. The states and the wars between the states are irreconcilable expressions of the conflict between classes: the uneven economic and political development changes the relationship between the powers, calls for a strength showdown and leads to the breakdown of the international order. (Guido La Barbera, La nuova fase strategica, 2014)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini:
    4
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Andrea,
    do you hear some other rumors, other than Brumm Brumm? :)
    I mean:
    I know you cannot “give informations either in positive or in negative”, but what are, at this moment, your feelings about the Report?
    1. None?
    2. Positive?
    3. Negative?
    4. Too many Harley Davidson all around?
    (Of course, answer “1” is not allowed. It’s not credible ….).
    Regards,
    Giuliano Bettini.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    I cannot comment on this in positive or negative and will publish nothing before TIP’ s Report publication.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Alessandro Coppi

    In add to the last post of Steven we could imagine that we have in front of us a nickel plated iron surface, and I observed that the nickel plated surfaces if printed by laser beam becomes like sponge, could be this one a good way to go?
    When you will own the report of trp2, will you publish something here before the TRP2 public release?

    Best regards
    Alessandro Coppi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Obviously, I cannot comment in positive or in negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    Thank you for your comment, but the mechanism is much more complex. Obviously in the proposed analogies I have to simplify enormously, otherwise instead of giving a simple nutshell I make things more complicated. The same analogies are misleading, being semplifications, if referred to a rigorous interpretation. Who wants to have a rigorous explication of the Higgs mechanism can go to:
    Standard Model Lagrangian with explicit Higgs term ( T.D.Gutierrez, 1999)
    An introduction to Quantum Field Theory ( M.E. Peskin, D.V. Schroeder, 1995)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    A Look at the eCat Nickel Surface – A Guess

    We understand that approximately 5 grams of nickel powder are contained within the eCat. We also know the dimensions of the eCat reactor are 33 cm in length and a diameter of 9 cm. We further understand that the nickel particles have an average diameter of 1 micron. So what does the nickel layer look like?

    Assumptions:

    1. The nickel particles are coated by some means on the interior of the outside cylinder probably through the use of a highly thermally conductive adhesive.
    2. The dimensions of the interior cylinder are 32cm in length with an interior diameter of 8.5 cm.

    Calculations:

    The area of this interior surface would be 32cm x pi * 8.5 cm or 854.5 cm2. The density of nickel is 8.912 grams per cc. So 5 grams of bulk nickel would occupy a space of 0.561 cc.

    If the nickel were bulk (not particle shaped), the nickel layer on the interior cylinder would be 0.561 cc / 854.5 cm2 or 656.5 microns. To account for the spherical particle shape we multiply by 4 / pi to estimate a nickel particle thickness of 835.9 microns. The actual adhesive and nickel particle will be thicker to accommodate imperfect packing geometry so we can assume a coating thickness of around 1 millimeter.

  • Dear Andrea,
    The Higgs mechanism can give mass to gauge bosons and to fermions, but it does not turn bosons into fermions. Turning bosons into fermions would need more mathematical machinery, because one cannot reach half-integer numbers by doing additions or subtractions of integers.
    regards, /pekka

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    The concept of Symmetry in Physics is not substantially different from the common use: in the common language we define “symmetric” an object that reflects the same shape in two parts of it, for example a face is symmetric if its left side is equal to its right side. In Physics is defined symmetric a characteristic that is equal separately at every point ( in case of “gauge symmetry) or uniformely everywhere at the same time ( in case of global symmetry).
    As we saw, from symmetry arise the 4 forces: strong force, electromagnetic force, weak force and gravitational force arise all from symmetry: let’s try to see how.
    Imagine gauge symmetry to be like a system of trails along which multiplets of particles travel like trains and imagine that the trails are not straight and flat, but like roller coasters; now imagine that the wheels of the train are of four type: one type feels the strong forces, one the e.m. forces, one the weak f., one the gravitational f.: imagine that the strong forces are the ones that push the wheels rightward, the e.m. the ones that pull and push the wagons up and down, the weak the ones that try to slow down the trains, the gravitational the ones that try to make the train fall along the perpendicular of the train’s axis: obviously, these examples have nothing to do with the reality, are just analogies; where these forces are felt is because the displacement from the position of the trail respect the straight and flat position is filled up by means of the FIELD relative to the specific force, so that are the fields that vibrating make the train subject to their force: so we can say that forces arise from symmetry. All this would conserve the gauge symmetry, should not exist the Higgs Field. Imagine that upon the top of the wagons there are pebbles. Now imagine that the train arrives to a terrain full of grass, high grass that makes fluffy the space between the two leads of the trails and upon the trails: obviously the attrite between the wheels and the grass covering the trail will slow down the train, and the wagons would feel their mass, mainly the wheels, while the pebbles not being affected by the attrite, are projected ahead: the grass ( the Higgs Field) breaks the symmetry, now wheels feel their mass because the attrite with the grass slows them down, while the pebbles are not affected and continue to go ahead. Now if we make bosons correspond to the train before the Higgs Field, photons the pebbles, we can say that the Higgs Field has turned the Bosons into Fermions breaking the symmetry.
    As a matter of fact, symmetry is a much more complicated thing, but I think this analogy can give an idea of a possible model.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    DTravchenko:
    All this kind of information will be given in due time.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    No, the efficiency remains the same during the 6 months of scheduled operaton.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Silvio:

    Thank you for sending me (and the readers) the link to Reciprocal System Theory.

    It looks very interesting but I will refrain from making any comments until I have read and studied it more.

    Reciprocal Regards.

    Joseph Fine

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, one source claims that 14,500 wars have taken place between 3500 BC and the late 20th century, costing 3.5 billion lives, leaving only 300 years of peace.
    3500 + 1980 = 5480 years.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
    USA

  • LENR-to-Market Digest — August 22, 2014 – It’s been 4.5 months since I compiled a digest. While I’ve not been able to be comprehensive this time, pulling from the many news sources, I was able to organize most all of the 120 E-CatWorld articles Frank posted, which gives an exciting overview of the burgeoning stage of development the industry is at. (PESN; August 22, 2014)

  • silvio caggia

    @joseph fine
    Your link about radiactive isotopes and neutrinos
    m.phys.org/_news201795438.html#jCp
    says:
    “No one knows how neutrinos could interact with radioactive materials to change their rate of decay.”
    This is false, try the Reciprocal System theory:
    rs2theory.org/atoms/isotopes
    Good luck (warning: you need to be very open minded about phisics to accept RS2).

  • Curiosone

    Does the fuel efficiency decrease during the 6 months of scheduled operation?
    W.G.

  • Curiosone

    When you have time: in your answers regarding Physics, you said that Higgs boson breaks the “symmetry”. What is exactly the simmetry?
    Thank you for your patience,
    W.G.

  • DTravchenko

    By the way: can ou tell us in which state of the USA is the customer who bought the 1 MW plant from IH?
    DT

  • DTravchenko

    I bet a supper in Moscow and I lost. It’s yours if you come here.
    Warm regards
    DT

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    The roots of wars are deeper: during the stone age men killed each other not for lack of stones. Cain did not kill Abel for lack of apples.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini:
    1- no
    2- yes
    3- 3 to 4 days
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear A.R.
    I had intentionally left ambiguous the question.
    =D
    I specify:
    1. you will post the Report on the JoNP, before the publication?
    2. they will deliver to you the Report several days before the publication?
    3. what’s the meaning of “several”? One day? One week?
    Regards,
    Bettini.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, don’t you think that in future, when your QUAR will be applied all over the world in hundreds of million pieces, there will be less wars due to oil?

    Peaceful Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    George:
    The events in M.E. are a tragedy. Oil is doubtless an issue on that field. Let’s hope a peaceful solution is found.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini:
    Can you specify your question? What do you mean with “it”?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Andrea, I read on JoNP:
    ——————————————————-
    H-G Branzell, July 1st, 2014 at 2:23 PM
    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    (…)Why don’t you just publish the report here (…) ?

    Andrea Rossi, July 1st, 2014 at 3:43 PM
    (…) Our protocol so far says that they will deliver to me the report several days before the publication.
    ——————————————————-
    Can you confirm that it will be done? Thank you.
    Giuliano Bettini.

  • George

    Good morning dr. Rossi is following the events in the Middle East? where the nations are at war for the procurement of energy based on oil?
    The situation is very serious!
    See the video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrhZwWWMmAk

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Interesting, anyway. To study wrong ideas can bring us to good ideas.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    DTravchenko:
    Do you know that 75% of the motorcycles in the USA are Harley Davidsons? This is why I hear only their rumors: they are so many!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    p.s.
    What did you bet?

  • Joseph Fine

    AR,

    I’m sorry. I stated it backwards. If the decay rate of a radioactive element gets smaller due to reduced solar neutrino flux, it becomes less radioactive and the half life would get longer. So the way to get rid of radioactive wastes is be to shield materials from neutrinos as much as possible. (Seems like an impractical idea!)

    And, unfortunately, I have no idea how to do that as of now. Oh well, the article was interesting. :)

    Joseph Fine

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