Relation between short-range forces and the concept of neutrality

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by
Jacques Chauveheid
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Introduction:
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A. Preliminary remarks
If quantum mechanics can provide quantitative expressions of forces in conformity  with the work of Erhenfest and the principle of correspondence, recognized quantitative expressions for nuclear and weak forces do not currently exist. In addition, the four basic forces do not depend on temperature, since measured in vacuum between particles.
In one of his books, Abraham Pais recalled a comment by Rutherford during the 1914-1919 period: “the Coulomb forces dominate if v (speed of alpha particles) is sufficiently small”, evidencing by these words the velocity-dependence of the strong-nuclear force. However, since Rutherford did not apparently refer to temperature, optimal conditions for nuclear fusion do not necessarily arise in disordered configurations characterized by extremely high temperatures, such as those encountered in stars like the sun. Even compared with galaxy formation, hot fusion in many stars seems the slowest and most inefficient physical phenomenon in the universe, because the sun’s ten billion year lifetime has an order of magnitude similar to the age of the universe, this circumstance having been highly beneficial for the life on earth.
Although not based on equations, Rutherford’s conclusion constitutes the essence of the “cold” approach to nuclear fusion and reactions starting from moderate energy levels, instead of extreme temperatures hardly controlling with precision the physical parameters ruling nuclear phenomena. In this view, a better theoretical understanding of these parameters will help nuclear technologies.
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B. Theoretical antecedents
Eddington mentioned the concept of asymmetric affine connection in 1921 and pointed out applications in microphysics, but he did not pursue this idea [5]. In 1922, Elie Cartan introduced geometric torsion, as the antisymmetric part of an asymmetric affine connection. In May 1929, Cartan wrote a letter to Einstein in which he recommended the use of the differential formalism he developed, but Einstein did not follow Cartan’s advice.
Between 1944 and 1950, J. Mariani published four papers dealing with astrophysical magnetism and introduced an “ansatz” structurally similar to that used in the present theory. The German word “ansatz”, used by Ernst Schmutzer (correspondence), refers to a supposed relationship between fields of distinct origin, for example geometric contrasting with physical. Einstein also used an ansatz when he identified gravitation with the 4-space metric, but he did not put it in the form of an equation, presumably because being trivial.
The organization of the paper is the following: Section II details the Lagrangian formulation and the calculus of variations. Section III is about field equations and quantitative expressions of forces. Section IV introduces the short-range force between charged particles, first referred to as strong-nuclear between nucleons. Section V is on Yukawa and complexity. Section VI details the short-range forces in both systems electron-proton and electron-neutron, evidencing a weak nuclear mechanism in LENR technologies.

When not stated otherwise, mathematical conventions are those of reference.
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712 comments to Relation between short-range forces and the concept of neutrality

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Without asking what is going on within the eCat reactor but based on your experimental history:

    1. I suggest that nanospheres of some material other than nickel or palladium could be coated with nickel or palladium. The difference in the thermal coeffcient of expansion would cause stress when the material is heated. When heated to the Debye temperature, nano-sized cracks could appear which would form localized reaction areas. What is your opinion of this approach?

    2. What about carbon-coated nickel nanoparticles? What is your opinion?

  • Joe

    Dr Rossi,

    If you believe that a particle is a wave, and since a wave exists in a medium, does that mean that two different particles (electron, neutrino) would each have a different medium associated with them? Or would their respective waves be situated within only one shared fundamental medium (aether)?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    As you see, I have edited a little bit your question to make it correct.
    Matter is made by waves, which are quantum fields. Everything in the elementary particle world is made by waves and are the vibrations in the waves quantum fields that make the difference between one particle and another, or between a Fermion and a Boson. Therefore, if you look carefully among waves, you can see particles, which are particular vibrations in a particular field; here is an analogy: if you look at a photo in the screen of your computer , you see images ( waves in a quantum field); but if you look more precisely, you see in them pixels ( particles).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Curiosone

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    When you have time ( repeat: when you have time, I want not to steal your time) can you answer to this question that nobody has been able to answer me, since I was in the high school: matter is made of waves or of particles?
    Thank you,
    W.G.

  • Curiosone

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Thank you for your answer about gravitons.
    Thank you also for all your answers even if you have to respect your NDA.
    Godspeed,
    W.G.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tony Mc Connell:
    Ancona is a nice town, with a beautiful sea-coast along the Adriatic Sea. Close to Ancona is Florence ( couple of hours of train), where the cultural and touristic references are infinite for importance and quantity.
    About the toast, I suggest to avoid sayings and say your sincere and personal words.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tony Mc Connell:
    Ancona is a wonderful town, in particular the sea-coast is like a necklace of jewels. You also are not far from Florence ( couple of hours of train or drive). Any comment is useless…just go.
    About the toast: avoid sayings, say your sincere and personal words: much better.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tony McConnell

    Dear Andrea,

    Firstly, congratulations on your successes so far, and long may they continue!

    This is a little off-topic (well, a lot off-topic, really). I am lucky enough to be invited to a wedding in Ancona this year; is there a place you can recommend visiting whilst there?

    Also, are there suitable Italian sayings I could learn to toast the happy couple?

    Thank you

    Tony

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    1- This information is confidential for commercial reasons, so far. I can say, though, that the production cost in $/Kw is very competitive with the cost of power of traditional power and heat generation systems.
    2- Next third parties will be the Customers, but, obviously, our R&D activity will never end, as well as it never ended for any technological production and manufacturing, like cars, computers, whatever.
    3- Technical data will be given in due time.
    4- Maybe
    5- I passed your information to our commercial department. I put under “omissis” the name you suggested and their production because we cannot name a company without their permission, nor describe their production.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ashley Hurtis:
    We will give due information when visits will be allowed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    I’ve been attempting to think of some questions you may be allowed to answer. Here goes:

    1 – Regardless if the one megawatt plant satisfies the customer or not, how much did it cost to build in parts and materials. (This does not include labor but only the container, electronics, plumbing, reactors, etc.)

    2 – Are there any other third parties testing, with industrial heat’s permission, E-Cat reactors other than the TIP? (Even if the testing is private and results will not be disclosed publically.)

    3 – What temperature range of steam is the one megawatt plant designed to produce?

    4 – When the one megawatt plant is demostrated and allowed to be visited, would you consider releasing some of the more facinating videos of your private testing? For example, reactors intentionally being allowed to self destruct.

    5 – Have you considered reaching out to ( omissis) as a potential customer?

  • Ashley Hurtis

    Dear Andrea,
    Are you saying that the new 1MW plant has been installed and been operating for some time now? Currently, You are collecting and solidating data to determine positive or negative commercial operations.

    Ashley

  • Andrea Rossi

    Georgehants:
    In Italy they say: ” Ogni scarrafone è bello a mamma sua” ( translation: “every beetle is beautiful for his mother”). Let’s see the objective results, than we will be able to answer objectively.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gillana:
    It is extremely important that the 1 MW plant does not work well for any days, but reliably for at least one year without major problems, because what we are aiming to is the real industrial application of the so called Rossi Effect, not another test. The next 1 MW plant has the task to open the era of the industrial utilization of the so called Rossi Effect, with ratings supplied not from experimentalists, but from satisfied Customers that make money with our plants. Obviously R&D will continue for ever, but the next 1MW plant will close the experimentalism era and will open the commercial era, in which we will no more discuss if the so called Rossi Effect works or not, but the discussion will be about its industrial evolution and, eventually, its domestic application: provided the results of the TPR2 and the 1 MW plant will be positive, and not negative, because: THE RESULTS COULD BE POSITIVE, BUT ALSO NEGATIVE AS FOR WE KNOW SO FAR.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    1- Confidential
    2- Confidential
    3- Confidential
    As you know, any information regarding the process of the so called Rossi Effect are so far confidential.
    By the way: a precise reading of the TPR1 can give you information that answer, at least partially, to your questions. Maybe the next TPR will have results more interesting, because based upon a much longer period of operation. I think the TPR2 will teach us things that I myself do not know, due to the sophisticated analysis the Professors are doing. Hoping that the results will be positive, or at least not negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In your theory of eCat operation,

    1. do you believe the eCat reaction is taking place at a finite number of locations (hotspots) or do you believe the reaction is uniformly distributed over the fuel?
    2. If a finite number of hotspots, do you believe the number of hotspots reoughly remain constant over the operating lifetime of the eCat?
    3. If finite, do you believe that most hotspots are dynamically destroyed and created during the process and perhaps is a function of fuel temperature?

  • gillana

    Dear Dr. A. Rossi
    Allow me to propose a few questions that maybe a little somewhat provocative.
    If, as I read, the experimental phase is over, and now scientists are analyzing millions of data so that the results are incontrovertible because positive issues may have serious consequences, and these data will be published in a scientific accredited peer-reviewed journal I have reason to believe that if the results are positive I can watch news on TV waiting for a sensational announcement by the media.
    If the 1MW plant will be operating, even if only for a few days, will be commercially a disaster but successful from the point of view of science.
    Warm regards,
    Gillana

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr. Rossi, you have described your new Cat as a Masterpiece, are you referring just to it’s Wonderful looks or do you mean that it works pretty good as well.
    Best wishes

  • Andrea Rossi

    George M.:
    I cannot give answers in positive or in negative: obviously I would receive one thousand questions: ” is this? Is that? ” and, by exclusion, I would end up giving confidential information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • George M

    Andrea
    Is the application, industrial food processing production? (hope this is not a NDA) or cleaning?

  • Andrea Rossi

    George M: The 1 MW plant is not a demo, is a plant in operation to work for a Customer. It is a factory, not a show room !
    Visits will be allowed when the Customer will allow them, maybe within the year. This plant will make history, if the results will be positive, and every step has to be calculated with precision.
    I have to add that the results could be positive, but also negative and that the results will be considered positive only after months of regular and reliable operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Toussaint:
    In due time we will publish the photographies of the plant in operation. Anyway: the new series of 1MW ECAT ha substantial differences from the original prototype, but, yes, we use a standard container as external case. More compact, though. We maintained this solution to make the plants easy to transport and faster to build up.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • toussaint

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Is your new 1MW plant is still inside a container

    For your US customer ?

    Kind regards.

    Toussaint françois

  • George M

    Dear Andrea,
    Do you think your 1MW plant will be ready for demo within this year.
    Regards. George M

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bob:
    1- No
    2- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Wladimir Guglinski:
    Thank you, very interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Satellite galaxies put astronomers in a spin
    http://phys.org/news/2014-07-satellite-galaxies-astronomers.html

    “Today, everything appears to indicate that the standard model provides a faithful representation of observations at the largest scales of the Universe (“Weak lensing mass map and peak statistics in Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 survey”), but that, for the moment, we are overlooking something fundamental at smaller scales”.

    .

    So, something fundamental is wrong with the Standard Cosmological Model at smaller scales, as also happens with the Standard Model of Particle Physics and the Standard Nuclear Physics.

    Each day new discoveries are showing fundamental wrong things in Physics.

    It’s hard to believe that current Modern Physics is able to explain LENR.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Satellite galaxies put astronomers in a spin
    http://phys.org/news/2014-07-satellite-galaxies-astronomers.html

    An international team of researchers, led by astronomers at the Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg (CNRS/Université de Strasbourg), has studied 380 galaxies and shown that their small satellite galaxies almost always move in rotating discs. However, such satellite galaxy discs are not predicted by current models of the formation of structures in the Universe. This discovery could cause modelers serious headaches in the years ahead. The results of the study are published in the 31 July 2014 issue of the journal Nature (“Velocity anti-correlation of diametrically opposed galaxy satellites in the low-redshift universe”).

    These findings call into question the predictions of the standard model at galactic scales. This is because, if this phenomenon were linked to the accretion of satellite galaxies along filaments of dark matter in the Universe, it would be necessary to explain why these rotating structures are much thinner than the filaments that gave rise to them, and also why the two brightest satellite galaxies, which are the two that can be seen, systematically always come from the same filament. Alternatively, the discovery may mean that our current models need to be completely revised. Today, everything appears to indicate that the standard model provides a faithful representation of observations at the largest scales of the Universe (“Weak lensing mass map and peak statistics in Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 survey”), but that, for the moment, we are overlooking something fundamental at smaller scales.

    .

    Velocity anti-correlation of diametrically opposed galaxy satellites in the low-redshift Universe
    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13481.html

  • Bob

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    1. Do you know whether the so called Rossi effect occurs in nature (that is, not within an e-cat device)? If so, is there evidence of such occurrence? What is the evidence?

    2. The operation of the e-cat has been described with these steps:

    a) A separate energy source is used to provide start up heat.

    b) Some time later, the e-cat will will run in self sustain mode and the start up heat is no longer needed.

    c) At a later point in time additional heat from another outside source is again required.

    d) The cat and mouse design may provide additional heat to the e-cat.

    Does the so called Rossi effect account for the need for additional energy at step c)?

    Thanks

    Bob

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frederic Maillard:
    We tested many combinations, but I cannot give information in positive or negative about our R&D. In due time we will give the necessary specific information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frederic Maillard

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Have you tried an E-Cat with molybdenum instead of nickel ?
    Is it useless to try molybdenum ?

    FM

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gherardo:
    Still few persons have understood well the difference between power and energy. To install 1 MW of power by wind mills, photovoltaics, etc does not mean to substitute 1 MW of power of not alternative energy facilities, because the actual energy produced by the alternative energy plants is at most the 10% of the installed power. In a nutshell: to install a 1 MW power windmill and to have a wind energy that can yeld an average of 50 kWh/h is like to have a Ferrari with 10 liters ( 2.5 gallons) of gasoline per month. The only way to make these alternative energies work is to fund them with the backing of the taxpayer. This is the truth. With the obvious exception of particular cases, like, for example, remote installations where no grid arrives.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gherardo

    A curious situation generated by renewable energy in german electric grid.

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-07-24/german-utilities-bail-out-electric-grid-at-wind-s-mercy.html

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    Let’s try this.
    imagine that the Universe is like a model made by a bundle of elastic strings, an enormous amount of them, equally distributed and symmetrically placed. Imagine that inside this bundle of symmetric elastic and vibrating strings there are dispersed pebbles of different mass too distant from each other to break the symmetry.
    Now imagine that the elastic strings vibrate regularly maintaining the symmetry.
    In this model the elastic strings are gravitons on a still Universe.
    But Universe is not still and stars,planets etc move fast, so that the elastic strings are pulled and when they are pulled the symmetry is broken and they force the close pebbles to get closer:we could say that the gravitational field (the elastic strings bundle) has been distorted, so that the force of the elastic strings is exchanged between the closer pebbles. Sometimes this force makes the smaller pebbles fall on the bigger and what happens is a mess; sometimes the smaller pebbles orbit around the bigger one with a momentum that compensates the force of the elastic strings (the gravitons)
    like Earth makes around the Sun.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    I will continue to pray God every morning.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alain Co:
    interesting,
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Since you seems to have studied the question of water treatment, which is a key point for poor and emerging countries, you may be interested (if you did not study it already) in the Boron-doped diamond electrodes.
    This technology allow to treat water without chemical, by violent electrolysis.
    This market is hard to develop because like LENR it is changing the market.
    There was a project for a babywater machine like expresso machine, but it failed, for many reason implying insurance and liabilities, and market disruption of established business.(it will remind you something).
    The company Adamantec tried the market of pool water cleaning, but get bought by AquaDiamante
    http://www.aquadiamante.com/13.0.html
    This company works on the domain too
    http://www.neocoat.ch/en

    there is some interesting review
    http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijelc/si/450284/

    water treatment with autonomy of years may create niche market, whatever is the price, whatever is the size.

    hope this helps (but maybe you are enough busy while disrupting a trillion dollar market, not to disrupt a trillion more on water).

  • Curiosone

    Dear Andrea Rossi
    can you explain with your skill to make easy difficult things how gravitons work in quantum theory?
    Godspeed
    WG

  • Curiosone

    Dear Andrea Rossi
    after the publication of the TPR2 you will be attacked very strongly and devastatingly in the whole world. Are you prepared for that? What will you do in this case?
    W.G.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    The fact that when and if we will be able to sell electric power producing E-Cats will make cheaper electricity is true and, in this case, convenience should be generalized, but the desalination made by steam is not competitive with the reverse osmosis by an order of magnitude.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dave Lafleur,

    This topic has been discussed before so I will summarize what I believe are the issues. To boil water at room pressure takes a large amount of energy.

    India has demonstrated a prototype program using the relatively warm ocean seawater and evaporating it by pumping it into a reduced pressure (partial vacuum) chamber that is cooled by ocean water brought up by pumps from the relatively cold ocean depths. So perhaps eCat technology could generate the electricity to do this. This would be a continuous operation at a constant power so eCat would be ideally suited for this purpose.

    In other ocean locations where this might not work, reverse osmosis techniques are more energy efficient than boiling the sea water. Again, eCat could provide the electricity needed.

    ECat waste heat would also assist the effort.

    Your suggest is correct. It is just that there are more efficient ways of doing this.

  • Dan C.

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    As to desalination, most think of the boiling or flash steam process. From their point of view, the E-cat would be cheaper. They are unaware of the magnitude of the effects that mineral scaling have on the water vessel. This requires continuous labor intensive maintenance, so while using E-cats would make this process cheaper, it is still an expensive process. A Reverse Osmosis filtering system will eliminate many of these associated problems.

    I would point out that with R.O. filtration systems, an electric E-cat would still contribute in significant cost reduction. The electricity used for ionizing the filters, UV sterilization treatment, and pumps to name the obvious.

    The less obvious would be when the E-cat, both electric and heat processes are integrated into the manufacturing sector, the products used in building Desalination plants will be cheaper.
    There’s more than one way to skin a cat. “Skin as in Utilize”

    Regards,
    Dan C.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Herb Gills:
    Brian Ahern is one of the few scientists in the LENR field that I think is making something that can have success. Said this, I must add that:
    1- I cannot discuss issues that would force me to disclose information that is still confidential.
    2- in principle, I respect the opinion of Dr Ahern, but I disagree, on the base of experiments we made with the E-Cats and the Hot Cats
    3- I wish good luck to this competitor of ours
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Useful information, as usually happens when you send a comment. As a matter of fact this treatment is very competitive and my opinion is that the E-Cat is not competitive for the desalination.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christopher Calder:
    Interesting opinion, but I think differently, based on my experiments. The work of Brian Ahern is interesting, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    This fascinating YouTube interview gives some possible explanations as to how your reactor works. It’s about magnetism in LENR.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_kID_E-3tY

    “Dr. Brian Ahern: Nanomagnetism, Cooperative Modes, & Non-Linear LENR”

    All the best, Christopher Calder

  • Joseph Fine

    AR, Dave Lafleur,

    Here is a web resource on desalination and also of desalination filter membranes made out of graphene sheets. You can find further information on this website on a variety of subjects related to desalination.

    http://www.desalination.com

    http://www.desalination.com/wdr/50/9/graphene-membrane-technology-update

    Fresh regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Herb Gillis

    Dr. Rossi:
    Brian Ahern has expressed the opinion that LENR is not a nuclear phenomenon but instead an electromagnetic one. If that is true it raises the question of what the ultimate source of the observed excess energy might be. It clearly cannot be chemical, if your observations and the “third party test” results are accurate. Ahern said in a recent interview that the source may be some kind of vacuum energy (or the so-called “zero-point” energy of the vacuum). Do you think he might be right? If so; are there any limits to how much usable energy could be extracted from such a strange source?
    Kind regards; HRG.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dave Lafleur:
    I have no idea. I am not an expert of desalination, but costs of desalination are already very low, as far as I know: experts in past analyzed the possibility to desalinate with the E-Cat, but it turned out not to be competitive.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dave Lafleur

    AR,
    I would think that desalination would be an easy application of your technology, as all that is needed is boiling water and a condenser- and your low cost energy to make it practical.

    To make a quantum leap, pardon the pun, could you irrigate the deserts? Could you turn the Sinai Desert into an oasis instead of a war torn wasteland?

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