BCC lattice model of nuclear structure

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by
Gamal A. Nasser
Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Egypt
E-mail: chem.gamal@hotmail.com
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Abstract
This model is development of solid nuclear models. Like FCC model, this model can account for nuclear properties that have been explained by different models. This model gives more accurate explanation for some nuclear properties which are Asymmetric fission, Nuclear binding energy and the most bound nuclei, Natural radioactivity and Number of neutrons in nuclei depending on the structures of these nuclei. The structures of nuclei in this model have special advantage, as there is separation between lattice positions of similar nucleons giving new concept for nuclear force.
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561 comments to BCC lattice model of nuclear structure

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christopher Calder:
    It does not work that way. First, we need the safety certification, then we can sell the domestic units. We need several years of proper operation of the industrial application, then there will be the base for a certification protocol. it is true that our 1 MW plants have been put for sale in the late year 2012, but the first plant that has been sold to an industrial Customer and that can generate statistics for the certification is quite recent.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea and JoNP Readers,
    in this apparently calm period after the ITPR I will use the occasion to mention some other consequences of the “electron mediated LENR hypothesis” I mentioned in my previous recent posts. Always in the hope that someone will comment/criticize/suggest.

    Ni64 is the Source of Copper 65
    The experimental results say that Ni64 is depleted by the LENR. I therefore gather that Ni64 has a magnetic moment (quadrupole or higher) that allows it to react and become Ni65. Ni65 then decays beta to Cu65 (with a half-life of 2.517 [h]):

    16: Ni64+e+p ->Ni65+neutrino+ (max) 5.15 [MeV]
    Ni65 ->Cu65 + e- + antineutrino + (max) 2.138[Mev]

    I think this is the origin of the isotope shift described in the Rossi-Focardi paper “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”. In that report the natural isotope ratio between Cu63 and Cu65, equal to 2.24, was found to have shifted to 1.16 in the ashes. I suggest that that shift was due to the addition of Cu65, in an amount exactly equal to the Ni64 that reacted.

    Decay of Ni69
    Ni69 is radioactive, with a half-life of 76,000 years, and decays almost exclusively via electron capture. The branching to positron emission is only 0,000037%. Therefore if this isotope remains in the charge only as traces it will not cause significant gamma radiation (for a 0.55 [g] Ni charge …). A problem remains in the fact the that the X ray emissions (in the range of a few [keV]) that follow the electron capture should have been measured.

    Lithium Isotopic Shift
    The LENR I propose for Lithium, differently from what happens for Nickel, lead to an enrichment in Li6 only because the two become He4 at different rates. This means that the total amount of Li should decrease together with the Li7/Li6 ratio.

    Reactions that Generate Power
    It is interesting to note this: if the main source of energy of the tested Hot-Cat were the isotopic shifts of Nickel and Lithium, the net power should have decreased during the test, simply because the amount of reactants decreased progressively (confirmed by the isotope analyses). Instead the net power production remained quite constant, and even grew during the last 4 days. This fact suggests that a progressively growing part of the energy of the test came from reactions that are different from the isotopic shifts. I think that these reactions are the reaction 1-4 of my first post on this.

    Andrea Calaon

  • Dear Dr Rossi:

    You have industrial use certification for the E-Cat. My suggestion is to design and sell a 10 kilowatt industrial use only portable space heater. That would prove the technology works, provide you with a stream of income, and over time convince the certification agencies that it was also safe for home use. That would require only one E-Cat unit to be used and controlled, and the reactor would only be heating air with radiant reflectors and a simple fan mechanism. You could design the unit then get a preexisting factory somewhere to build them for you by the thousands.

    Just a thought.

    Best Regards, Christopher Calder

  • Joseph Fine

    Koen Vandewalle,

    Thanks again for shedding some light on this matter.

    Joseph Fine

  • Rafal Krych

    Dear Andrea,

    After looking at recent 3rd party report I’ve noticed that Hot E-Cat can keep high temperature like 1400 °C for long periods of time.
    It actually makes it a perfect candiate to replace burners used in Lime Kilns:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lime_kiln

    The limestone calcination process requires temperature below 1000 °C and consumes around 20kWh of electric power per tonne of lime. The coal fired lime kilns produce additonally 259 kg/t of CO2 and natural gas fired produce 206 kg/t of CO2. The Hot E-Cat might be in form of hollow pipe (similar to October 2011 model shown in Bologna) throuh which air is being pushed and heated. This air can be then used to heat limestone inside kiln. Lime kiln example, just imagine that burner is replaced with Hot E-Cat:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GU4KNV1hRiQ
    Usage of Hot E-Cat here will cut both heating costs and carbon dioxide emissions drastically. Sounds like good business oportunity when you finally start introducing your technology to market.

    Regards
    Rafal

  • Andrea Rossi

    John Atkinson:
    Thank you for your kind words.
    Our R&D continues , focused upon the 1 MW plant, I am not able now to know which information will be given day by day, but now we are working exclusively on the commercial breakthrough and the theoretical problems regarding the results of the Report. Anyway: any information that will be fit to be given, will be given to our Readers. This answers also to many other Readers that have commented on the same topic.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Joseph Fine,

    “Let there be light”. There seems to be proof of that : http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_16-5-2014-15-32-44

    A little further in the abstract (of the previous experiment that you mentioned), after a lot of subsequent details, is written that there are created “two lights”.
    At that time, they had no blogs to fill yottabytes with, so there might be some confusion about how to understand this concept of “two lamps”.
    But officially, there is room for a second lamp, independent from the bright and hot one.

    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • John Atkinson

    Mr. Rossi,
    I have followed your hard work and dedication for several years now. I believe it has been through the grace and shield of God you have been able to withstand the ridicule and slander thrown your way throughout the independent study process. I realize the commercial plant completion and assimilation is now your primary focus, and with Gods continued guidance will shine the light on the path you will follow.I have one question. For the next year, what new developments should we look forward to and or information given to us while the plant is being built and tested? Thank you you for all of your hard work and dedication.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1- yes
    2- confidential
    3- confidential
    4- mostly yes
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In your internal testing, have you:

    a. Run an eCat reactor to fuel exhaustion?
    b. If yes, then what was the lifetime of the run?
    c. If yes, Did the thermal output begin to decrease as the fuel was consumed or did it remain constant and then suddenly decrease?
    d. Was the run what you expected based on your theory of operation — i.e., you got a certain amount of excess energy out and this corresponds to the fuel mass?

    I understand you may not want to release this information but this does not deal with the internal workings of the eCat so I think it is a fair question to ask.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    We are working on all this issue in all the due directions. We are throughly studying the results and I am convinced that we should arrive to a reconciliation, taking in account all the results of the data regarding the heat excess, the Ragone diagram and the isotopical shift. Crossing all these data we are formulating a theory. No doubt about the increase of 62Ni, which we found many times, about the entity measured a strong work is in the making. Until this work is finished, I cannot comment on it. Many explications are under inspection.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    Welcome back.
    Since the set up of the test has been totally made by the Professors of the ITP, the assumptions and the innuendos of the usual imbeciles are just insults to the integrity of 6 Professors whose entire lifes give paramount evidence of their honesty and of their knowledge in the field of Physics. For this reason such assumptions, as you correctly mean, does not merit to be taken in any consideration.
    Said this, I totally adhere to the Standard Model, with all respect for the sincere anf honest work of Wladimir Guglinski, albeit I am perfectly conscious of the fact that theories are made to be overcame. Not bad your idea of a fund to defend the mavericks.
    The 1 MW plant in the factory of the Customer should be the first stone of the commercial breakthrough, and a commercial breakthrough resolves all the discussions. The 1 MW plants are for sale since 2012, now, for the first time, we have the possibility in the USA to control the operation of our plants in a factory where they are applied to an industrial production and not in a situation of internal tests .
    In the late seventies the “experts” used to say that the idea to produce computers for “housewifes” was ridiculous and technologically impossible.
    Whatever they are saying now is totally insignificant, as well as what they said in the past.
    The Sword will annichilate them.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • orsobubu

    Dear Andrea, I am very very happy with the results of your work. The same history of your life is a source of great inspiration for me. I think you will become a hero! The whole event is also taking funny implications: I’m reading about respected scientific commentators speculate that you spend your time studying how to install laser hidden in the ceiling, creating special compartments like a magician’s trick box where one thing goes in and a different one comes out, depending on how the box is manipulated, or by training several hours a day in manual dexterity for the replacement of dusts. Honestly, I think, since you’ve risked everything in this adventure, also those who publicly denigrate you should not get away with it, from the point of view of their reputation and their careers.

    Do you think that would be helpful, once business gets permanent drive and you have more permanent free time, and since you risk becoming *very* rich, set up some kind of foundation to take care, protect and help, even financially, who is placed at the edge of the scientific establishment because of personal interests, or still suffered ostracism which have compromised his future as it happened to you? to make a case that we know well, mr Guglinsky has repeatedly stated here that he could not go in court, for economic reasons, to defend his rights against clear cases of plagiarism. There are several associations dedicated to fighting those who deviate from recognized knowledge, should there be even a few that deal with certain fundamentalism in the opposite direction

    another thing. are you reconsidering the possibility that Guglinsky’s hypothesis – or other versions different than the standard model – can explain the test results better than yours?

    One last thing, again about lasers. I saw the photos of alumina prototype of the new e-Cat. As I assumed for a long time, it is eventually taking the shape of the sword handles of Star Wars Jedi knights. Now it is clear to me which is the real hidden goal of your work. Very good, I’m a fan too. Don’t you think that now it is time you slow down with the 1MW plant and accelerate with the sword?

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi:
    assuming that on the beginning of the reaction the charge is formed with various components mixed homogeneously, and that during the reaction there are inhomogeneous variations within the charge. A sample taken at one point of the mixture is not representative of what has happened in the rest of the charge.
    Are we confident that the sample was taken significantly?
    After all, sampling is a science on its own.

    Kind Regards
    Italo R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    I take advantage to this comment of yours to inform that we have restricted the filter of the robot, due to attacks we received. I can assure you I have not spammed any comment of yours. When a Reader does not find published a comment, in most of cases is because there is contained a link that is taken as advertising. Please signal it, sending an email to
    info@journal-of-nuclear-physics.com
    with the text of the comment spammed.
    We will see what we can do
    As a matter of fact, dear Orsobubu, I was buffled by the fact that it was time you didn’t comment here. I was in permanent waiting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Few nuggets? In the Report of the ITP you got a Niagara Falls of nuggets!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    No offense taken. But I could not resist pouncing *like a Cat on a Mouse” on a possible Rossi revelation… (LOL)

    Seriously — I hope you are able, from time-to-time, to provide a few nuggets of eCat truth, theory and practice our way. We Thirst for your knowledge..

  • orsobubu

    This is only a test to see if the nasty robot keeps on spamming me

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    We cannot release videos related to our internal R&D.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Will you ever be able to release the video of the hot-cat from the 2013 tests that lost control and melted down?

    I think that was to-date your smallest 1 MW reactor.

    Paul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Ha,ha,ha,ha…Steve, I was just joking!
    Obviously, you are too intelligent not to understand that I am not laughing AT you, but WITH you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “When it produces 62Ni…” So from this I assume you mean that the reaction actually changes something (e.g., other nickel isotopes) into 62Ni, as opposed to devouring the other nickel isotopes and leaving 62Ni untouched?

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi, Koen Vandewalle,

    Andrea is 4 years younger than I am. Despite his youth, he knows much more about Physics and E-Cats than I do.

    My cat, Nina, sends regards to both of you.

    Joseph Fine

  • Joseph Fine

    Koen Vandewalle,

    Based on the previous experiment, first I would have to say:

    “Let there be light!” (Or FIAT LUX)

    All the rest are details.

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gherardo:
    Nice, thank you,
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Of course the E-Cat sings! When everything goes well, full power, he sings “Twist and Shout”, when things go not too well he sings ” Please don’t cry loving me”. When it produces 62Ni he emits dodecaphonic notes ( not easy to reconcile).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I know you cannot discuss what occurs inside the eCat reactor but will an operator hear any sound from the eCat during normal operation? Some devices have a pitch that operators know by experience whether the device is operating correctly. Does the eCat reactor “sing”?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    He,he,he…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    So, Prof. Joseph Fine: are you an alias of Andrea Rossi? I never knew, but you never know…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Professor Joseph Fine,

    Most of the time you very precisely comment on topic, besides some joke or a teaser to make us read on some very interesting subjects. Remember I suspected you of really being an alias of Andrea Rossi. I think he likes your comments, but maybe he might consider you a pain in the head.

    Having a teacher like you, would make me want to become a nuclear scientist.
    But what happened yesterday is very uncomprehensive to me.

    Suppose, for once, that you have to create a universe. How would you begin ? For now and for the simplicity you can omit side-effects as organic life. Just to create some matter.

    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Alessandro Coppi

    Hi Andrea, you should say soon that E-CAT doesn’t work at all, because the prices of the Brent and WTI are dropping silently, and many rich guys will lose a lot of money around the world.
    Great days we are going to live!

    :-)

    Grazie
    Alessandro Coppi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giovanni Guerrini:
    I think you are right, but nobody can stop a commercial breakthrough. This is why we have now to focus excusively on our 1MW plant and the related R&D and nothing else.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    in these 3-4 years I have seen a strange phenomenon.
    There are some people (and in some groups a lot of people)who,when I speak about this concrete chance to make better this world for all,oppose without know what I am speaking about.
    They don’t want listen and seems to me that they have fear.
    So I have asked to myself: why fear?!
    I don’t know,but I have a hypothesis.
    It could be that these people feel good because they are in a position better than a lot of other people and they have fear to lose their comparative privilege.
    So they become clowns who follow,unawares,their instict of “homo homini lupus” and “mors tua vita mea”.
    I hope my hypothesis is wrong,because it would be very sad.
    Culturally today the idea that “I have ergo sum” is still strong and I think that a thecnology that give more well being to all will be a great gift also for these people because they will be forced to evolve.
    But I hope my hypothesis is wrong.

    Regards G G

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the Readers:
    One of the few clowneries around, regarding the Report, on some blog, merits a comment, just to put in evidence the total lack of “bona fides” of the usual persons:
    1- ” The clamps of the electric power have been inverted”: obviously it is a false innuendo. The clamps have never been inverted.
    2- ” The resistances of the dummy were different from the resistences of the Hot Cat”: obviously it is false, because there was not a dummy and a Hot Cat, the same Hot Cat has been measured without charge ( and in this status has been defined “dummy”) and with charge ( and in this status has been defined “Hot Cat”); the behavior of the resistances, as I explained already, changes and is not linear, because it interacts with the reactor and the reactions. I cannot give more information about this particular, for obvious reasons.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curbina:
    Positive. Important. Problematic under a theoretical point of view, and we are working on this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Curbina

    Dear Mr. Rossi:

    I haven’t asked anything here in a long time (last time was around 2012), but I’m curious of one thing that I haven’t seen yet asked to you after the release of the report: In your opinion the results were Positive or Negative? (For me they were very positive, but I’m more interested in your perspective, of course, the results, as you also announced a few days before the release of the report, are tremendously important).

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    I am receiving a snowball of comments, in any form and with the most creative excuses, to get more information regarding the reactor tested by the ITP: questions regarding charge,powders, alumina, resistances, photographies, cables, you name it, you got it. For me it is not a pleasure to spam all of them. For this reason, please take notice of the fact that I cannot give any more information about the reactor in positive or in negative. I cannot, as well, give any information, so far, regarding the R&D and the theoretical study started from the publication of the Report.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    I cannot give information about our R&D.
    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    Have you ever placed one of your filled Alumina tubes without any external connections on alumina blocks inside a microwave oven and observed the tube with an IR camera while irradiating it with the microwaves? Might be an interesting easy to do test.
    Regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Yona:
    The visitors will be accepted to visit the plant after the period of perfectionment of the set up. You know plants problems ( I know who you are) and you know perfectly well that a complex like this needs up to 1 year to go through all the problems that come out by the day, when you put at work a new technology in operation for a production process that implies 24 hour per day of labour of the plant, 350 days per year.
    Thank you for your distinguished attention.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr :
    Unfortunately, we HAVE TO climb the Everest !
    We are studying throughly the results and some light is beginning to be turned on.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I apologize for writing relativistic ‘photons’ as all photons travel at the speed of light. I meant there could be a gravitational red-shift operating on the gamma rays (due to the mass of the nucleus) and if the gammas were close enough, under the proper conditions they would bend and lose energy (be red-shifted or increase wavelength) to the lattice.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound%E2%80%93Rebka_experiment

    I’d prefer climbing the Appalachians. It’s much warmer and there’s more air to breathe.

    Thank you,

    Joseph Fine

  • Yona

    Dear andrea Rossi. Now after the successful report, when it will be possible for visitors to come to see the 1mw plant ( as you said) ? Thanks and good luck

  • Andrew

    Andrea Rossi,
    How do you comment the fact that after thousand of tests you find out just now a such massive isotopical shift in Ni? Does this result somehow relates to the way the Cat was operated (Not Self sustained mode)?
    Beasides, are you aware of the value of the waste products that comes out of the Cat?
    If I am not wrong 1 milligram of Ni 62 at that purity (over 99%) can cost over 1000$.
    Seems you have in your hard a technology whose worthiness goes a lot beyond heat production.
    Always wishing best luck
    Andrew

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    I am studying the results of the test to reconcile the isotopical shifts.
    I am doing this with a nuclear physicist well known and expert of the matter and stronger than me in advanced mathematics. Perhaps we are approaching the beginning of a percourse to a reconciliation, remaining in the standard model, therefore avoiding dangerous exotic temptations. We want to find at any cost the solution. It is hard, it is not like climbing the Appalachian Mountains, but even the Everest has been climbed, at last. Just working.
    Lavolale, lavolale!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Dr Brian Ahern is a sincere and honest scientist. He says what he sincerely thinks to be right. Sometimes with excess of nerve, but I prefer go to the core of problems, ignoring the form outside.
    Speaking of things that count, and not of the useless blabla, the work made by Ahern with nickel and hydrogen is smart, as I already said in the period during which we got not very tender words from him. I confirm my opinion that he will be probably the first one to arrive to an industrial product after us. His publication has been very convincing for us.
    Thank you for the kind information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Hello Everyone,

    A new article on PESN has been posted about how Dr. Brian Ahern, a scientist and long time LENR researcher, has changed his opinion about the paper documenting the month long test of a high temperature E-Cat. Initially, he indicated that he believed no excess heat had been produced. Such a statement aligns with his previous skeptical comments about the technology. But after consulting with an expert in IR measurements – who declared the cameras and methodologies used during the test were correct and the same as he would have chosen – his doubts were resolved. He now feels the results are accurate. Please read the full article at:

    http://pesn.com/2014/10/13/9602546_Hell-Freezes-Over–Brian-Aherns_Doubts_on_E-Cat_Test_Resolved/

    Perhaps he will be one of many previously skeptical individuals to recognize the truth that the E-Cat works.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    http://lenr.qumbu.com/web_hotcat2_pics/141011_ragone_20.png

    If you divide the Energy Density of each dot (W-h/Kg) on the Ragone Plot by the corresponding Power Density (W/Kg), the result is the duration (in hours) of the test.

    The March 2014 E-Cat ran for (1.6/2.1)*1000 hours = 31.75 days while the Pu-238 system Energy and Power Densities appear to be based on projected operation of ( 9.7*10^9/500) hours or 2,215 years!

    The advantage in using the Pu-238 system seems limited if the user must wait over 2,000 years to get almost the same Energy Density as an E-Cat that operates for 6 months! Plus there are the Radiation concerns for any Pu-238 system.

    ( 6 * 1.6*10^9 = 9.6 * 10^9 W-h/Kg )

    How do you keep (most) Gammas in the nuclei? While staying within Standard Physics?

    (It seems to be a good question.)

    The following ‘crazy’ thought popped up (in a dream, as usual) that, at the femto-meter level, relativistic photons (when created in the nuclei) are extremely close to several femto-scale event horizons (tiny black holes) and rapidly lose energy to the lattice.

    I apologize for offending anyone with this crazy comment, but “is it crazy enough to be true”?

    (You don’t have to answer, but I have to ask.)

    Relativistic regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bill Conley:
    My presence has been clearly explained in the Report, as well as its limitations. The necessity of technical assistance in case of breakages is obvious. I am the sole guy that could repair any breakage. Luckily, no breakage happened. The commercial plant is not going to make a demonstration, it has to make a profitable work for the Customer who pays for it.
    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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