The gravitational constant and its relationship to the properties of virtual particles

.
by
Sundar Narayan
Lambton College – Sarnia, Ontario, Canada
Abstract
This paper derives a formula for the lifetime of an unbound or free neutron and shows that neutron lifetime can be related to Newton’s gravitational constant, G, providing a much-needed theoretical formula for G, enabling G to be computed with greater accuracy than today’s experiments allow.
Another equally accurate formula for G is derived based on the properties of the virtual electrons that very briefly exist in a quantum vacuum.
Also, Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s electrostatic law are derived from the same equation, providing a simple proof of the well-known connection between these two laws.

.
Read the whole article
Download the ZIP file
.

137 comments to The gravitational constant and its relationship to the properties of virtual particles

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dave Lafleur:
    Thank you for your attention.
    The marketing will be unleashed after the completion of the R&D cycle on course in the 1 MW plant that has been supplied to the first Customer . We cannot risk to have many Customers with major problems without having reached the consolidation of the technology.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dave Lafleur

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    You have commented that the e-cat in not ready for the domestic market and your points seem very reasonable to me. This blog has certainly shown demand however.

    Meanwhile, you must be getting many inquiries from industrial users who would be more discrete than to blog. The potential of the e-cat must make some CFOs eyes roll, yet you have not unleashed your commercial market let alone the domestic potential. Do you care to comment on what must be a good problem to have?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Industrial plants are mature, and at the end of the R&D period of the plant supplied to the Customer of IH the expansion will be already on solid ground, if the final results will be positive ( I must remind you that the results could be also negative, and in this case things will be more difficult). The domestic E-Cats are the big issue we are working on for what concerns the future. We are testing a new design that is extremely interesting and, in parallel, our experts are working on the safety certification side. When I talk of million pieces I am talking of domestic apparatuses, of course. Somebody said: ” I have a dream…”. Me too.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ian Walker:
    He,he,he…but the role of the papa is made by our Team, not just by me!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ian Walker

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    I guess sometimes you get to feeling like papa in those long car journeys to the holidays on the beach with the children in the back asking “Papa, are we there yet?”

    Kind Regards walker

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    When you talk about preparing one million pieces per year, are you talking about industrial or domestic E-Cats?

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giorgio:
    Likewise,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jane Gooders:
    Thank you for your comment. We cannot give particulars yet, because the product is in preparation and still immature.
    I share your desire, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jane Gooders

    Hi Andrea,
    Very good news about the progress on domestic units. When these were discussed a year or so ago, the time taken for the unit to go from cold to operating temperature was apparently half an hour or so – this is fine for many applications, but would not suit a home heating system where that system is only used intermittently for a couple of hours a day, or for an “on demand” hot water service. Have you managed to decrease the time taken to complete the end to end start up cycle at all?
    I’m looking forward to the day I can install a domestic unit on my sailing boat for heat and hot water, and in the future replacing our diesel engine with a steam E-Cat propulsion system!
    Many Thanks
    Jane

  • Thanks for your reply and I wish you and your Team good work and good luck !
    Giorgio Cerrina

  • Joe

    Steven,

    You are right. In today’s Universe of lower densities and speeds, the probability of neutrons encountering hydrogen atoms in Space is also lower. Add to this the neutrons’ unstable nature, and the probability is reduced further. All this adds up to a sparsity of neutrons in Space.

    The reality, though, is that all neutrons would have been used in the early Universe to form first 1H2, followed quickly by 2He4. Any free neutrons that are observed in Space today would necessarily have their provenance in local phenomena (stellar activity primarily).

    Any credible cosmological model would have to first and foremost explain the abundance and distribution of 2He4 in the Universe. The reason for this is that 2He4 is hard to destroy or couple up to other nuclei. Therefore we can be certain that most of the 2He4 in Space was formed soon after the Big Bang. So the presence of 2He4 in Space should act as an important anchor for the creation of a credible cosmological model.

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giorgio:
    To make a forecast is very difficult, and if I say a date I will be assailed if the date will not be respected. We are working very hard both for the certification and for the industrialization to be able to manufacture million pieces per year. We are working on this much harder than you can imagine.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Dr Rossi
    I’m following you from 2011 when you introduced your first E Cat to the people and the Sweden scientists understood the importance of the instrument; now have passed 3 years and much way and progress, 2 validations from respectable University opened the way to this new energy. Now many authoritative scientists
    changed idea about Lenr and step by step many scientists will be able to replicate the lenr energy, so everything looks good. But for the layman when this technolgy will be usable?
    Thanks
    Cerrina Giorgio

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hugh DeVeies:
    Thank you for your suggestion.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Hugh DeVries

    E-CAT semantics revisited:

    I believe there are two parts to the semantics with regards to the “Rossi Effect”. The first is the semantics for the product(s) and the second is the semantics for the phenomena.

    The name “Energy Catalyzer” was first selected as the product name for marketing a “Rossi Effect” based product line and from this start a very good product acronym,the E-CAT was created. The acronym works well for the product oriented literature and sales related semantics. It certainly works well in the official ECAT web site.

    As a sales point of view it would be very beneficial if there was a clean transition of semantics between E-CAT and the start of a sales explanation of the “Rossi Effect”. When one starts with the description of the E-CAT technology and refers to it as “Energy from Cold Atomic Transmutation” you start with a clean slate and a direct association with the product you are trying to sell. All very beneficial.

    If the salesman’s pitch has to transition to LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reaction) which carries little meaning as to the “Rossi Effect”, the sales description becomes disconnected from the product and less effective. The “nuclear” word mention also opens up many possible negatives in the customer’s mind, all which takes time to overcome to close the sale.

    Best regards,
    Hugh

  • Steven N. Karels

    Wlad, Joe and JR,

    An interesting discussion. Although outside of my primary field, I do recall that for neutrons to be absorbed into a receiving nucleus, the neutron can only be a thermal neutron, that is having the amount of energy typical of thermal temperatures (e.g., 20C). Given the limited lifetime of neutrons (around 15 minutes) and their low speed because of them being thermal neutrons, would that not limit the distance over which they could seek and find a hydrogen nucleus before they decayed?

    So even though we have billions of years since creation, it would seem to me the opportunity for neutrons causing 1H to become 2H is quite small. Comments?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dima Redko:
    The results of the analysis made upon the ashes are what they are. I did not do the sampling and I did not do the analysis, so all I can do is take notice of the results and study them under any thinkable point of view. I can confirm or disconfirm nothing. What I can say is that we are working very well on the reconciliation of all the consolidated data and the publication of the mechanism will be made at the conditions I have explained in former comments.
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dima Redko

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    In the past the origine of the excess heat produced inside the e-cat reactor was explained as fusion of hydrogen and nikel to produce copper. Now after Lugano report wich reported no copper in the ashes, can you confirm that this initial idea of producing copper is totally dismissed?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hugh DeVries:
    Rethinking: my opinion is that we have not to disguise the technological bases, but we have to be sincere and explain. Then it will be the intrinsic safety of the operation to consolidate the diffusion of the product. I trust the intelligence of people, we do not need to make fancy names to hide anything. The issue is too important to be reduced to a semantic trick, that could resemble the attempt to hide an elephant behind a fig leaf.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hugh DeVries:
    Thanks for the semantic opinion. To be taken in consideration.
    Warm regards
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    The paper mentions “astroparticle” and “cosmogenic origin”, so I assumed that the neutrons were incoming from space and measured underground, as hard as it was to comprehend.

    1. Neutron formation that is linked to the heaviest of elements will never be the source of a universal neutron background. How much U and Th do you think exists in the Universe? And why do you use data from geophysics and apply it to astrophysics? If the neutrons are confined to rock, how can they possibly be responsible for contributing to the creation of a universal neutron background?

    2. How do these confined neutrons even make contact with surface water?

    3. In QRT, you mention that if the neutron’s energy is too small, neutron and proton could never couple since the neutron would never be able to penetrate and place itself in the proton’s gravitational flux n(o). And if too large, no spin-interaction between the two would be possible. So how does QRT explain the formation of 1H2? Should there not be a “right energy” as I have already stated?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Hugh DeVries

    Andrea,
    There is a case for not having the word “nuclear” as part of the name referencing the E-CAT.

    The “nuclear” word as part of the name associates the Rossi effect with all of the negative history of the nuclear bomb, nuclear radiation, nuclear power plants, etc. This immediately triggers a negative reaction to the E-CAT as a new product entry as just another “nuclear” device.

    As a suggestion the E-CAT product line can still be defined without the use of the word “nuclear”. One suggestion would be to promote “Energy from Cold Atomic Transmutation” or E-CAT as the proper acronym.

    Best regards.
    Hugh

  • Andrea Rossi

    LeDahu:
    When we will put in commerce the domestic version, the excess of heat will not be a problem, but now I cannot enter in particulars for a thing that is not yet ready to go.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • leDahu

    Dear Andrea,

    The heating sytem of my house is air conditionning with fuel oil.
    I also managed to distribute warm air from the firework through the same circuitry.
    It works fine.
    Since a long time and for many reasons I want to couple a “new clean energy source” via an air/water heat exchanger.
    The heat pump is an option providing good flexibility, but here in the North East of France the COP is not high enough in the middle of winter.

    E-Cat seems to be a much better candidate.
    High and constant COP. Investment, fuel and maintenance very attractive.
    Two 10Kwh units would do the job.
    One or two would be active depending on the needs.

    The very important question for the next future:
    How flexible would be the E-Cat for running the process?
    The project is to have a constant air flow and to modulate air temperature.
    Given a nominal power of 10 Kwh per unit what is the lower rate it can achieve.
    Can we cycle the power and in which extend?
    What about the timing for switching on, getting power and switching off?
    Would such a modulation seriously affect COP?

    My fear is what to do with the excess of energy…when the demand is low!

    Is there any engineering study available in that regard?

    Thanks for you kind attention.

    Bernard

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe wrote in January 15th, 2015 at 2:16 AM

    Wladimir,

    1. =============================
    Does the paper that you link specify if neutrons travel all the way to the surface of the Earth? Usually they are produced by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere but decay quickly into other species.
    ===================================

    Joe, didnt you read the paper?

    The neutrons are produced in deep underground labs , in the Pyhäsalme mine, by spontaneous fission (mainly U238) and reactions due to U, Th traces.

    .

    2. =========================================
    If the neutrons do hit the surface of the Earth, do they have the right energy for a successful coupling with protons in order to form deuterium (and subsequently D2O)?
    =============================================

    So, they heat the surface of the Earth, since they are produced inside the Earth.

    What do you mean with the right energy for a successful coupling with protons in order fo form deuterium ???????????????????

    This is just the point.
    According to the Standard Model, neutrons with low energy between 0 and 1,5MeV have to have a successful coupling with proton in order to form deuterium, because:

    1- There is not repulsion between protons and neutrons

    2- There is strong attraction when the neutron hits a proton, due to the strong nuclear force

    regards
    wlad

  • JR

    Joe,

    You’re right to ask about the details of the neutrons, as the details of where they are formed and how likely they are to form deuterons is important. But even if we ignore that and assume that all 5×10^10 neutrons/second are captured, that’s a tiny number in this context.

    At about 3×10^7 seconds per year, you have roughly 10^18 captured per year, and 10^27 in a billion years. With two hydrogen per water molecule and 6×10^23 molecules per mole, you need 10^24 to convert one mole of water (which is about 18 grams). So this gives 1000 moles, about 18kg, of water being converted to D20 over a billion years. Not even a drop in the bucket.

    Also, as you may have guessed, his comment on inversion of causality is, as usual, nonsense. But it’s old nonsense so it doesn’t seem worth going into.

  • Andrea Rossi

    JonJon:
    I think that ” LENR “, in general, can be the definition of any low energy nuclear reaction, independently from the effect.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Wladimir,

    1. Does the paper that you link specify if neutrons travel all the way to the surface of the Earth? Usually they are produced by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere but decay quickly into other species.

    2. If the neutrons do hit the surface of the Earth, do they have the right energy for a successful coupling with protons in order to form deuterium (and subsequently D2O)?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • JonJon

    Andrea,
    Is LENR cold fusion or cold transmutation?

  • Andrea Rossi

    JC Renoir:
    Interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    DTravchenko:
    The replication made in Russia are very interesting. If confirmed, have a great merit.
    Thank you for your kind words,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the information. I am sure our Readers will make use of it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu,
    Thank you for the interesting links.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    LENR will supply a new fire, the effects of a new fire depend on the use men will make of it.
    I hope in a friendly integration with all the existing energy sources for the advantage of all mankind.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • orsobubu

    Andrea, I read your anecdote regarding UFO and Area 51, and then the interview with Yuri Bazhutov, these confirm you have amazingly powerful connections there in United States, perhaps you know something I don’t, maybe I’m starting to believe in your vision of a future world of peaceful market (ultimately not integrated?) evolution?? hehee

    Perhaps a remote possibility could exist, but LENR capabilities must be really astonishing, coupled with other impressive technological breakthroughs, able to rapidly expand mankind and robotization in space, before war, in capitalistic floating “islands”, I have to think about it

    Please Andrea confirm and reassure about LENR astonishing futuristic perspectives

    Anyway, this would spell disaster and defeat for my favored (after a chaos age) communistic/anarchic revolution, and this is not good

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe wrote in January 11th, 2015 at 12:04 AM

    Wladimir,

    You write,
    “So, the probability of fulfilling the two conditions is very small (there is need to hit the “hole” and at the same time to move along the z-axis direction).”

    The meeting of proton and neutron does not need to be so exact. They can be prompted to alter their course by interacting with each other’s fields. An example is two permanent magnets that are pulled to each other’s pole even if their polar axes are not aligned. Eventually their axes do get aligned. Therefore, by QRT, 1H2 (and not 1H1) should be omnipresent in the Universe. There has been more than enough time for every atom of 1H1 to undergo enough collisions with neutrons to ensure a successful transmutation to 1H2.
    ========================================================

    Joe,
    you cannot compare the behaviour of a neutron with the behaviour of a magnet.

    The neutron needs to enter within the secondary field Sn(p) of the proton via the hole in that field, otherwise the neutron cannot get interaction with the proton.

    The “hole” in the proton’s field Sn(p) is situated in a distance of 10^-11m (radius Bohr).
    The radius of the proton is 10^-15m.

    So, the bodies of the neutron and the proton are separated by a distance 10^4 times larger than the radius of the proton.
    If we compare the body of the proton with a ball with 20cm diameter, the body of the neutron will be in a distance of 2km far away of the proton.

    With this very large distance there is no way to have alignment of their z-axis in order the neutron to hit the proton

    regards
    wlad

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    JR wrote in January 11th, 2015 at 2:49 PM

    Wlad,

    1) =====================================
    What makes you say that there is a significant neutron background throughout the universe?
    ===========================================

    http://ilias.in2p3.fr/ilias_site/meetings/documents/ILIAS_4th_Annual_Meeting/270207/E_Tziaferi.pdf

    Quantity of neutrons with energy between 0 and 1,5 MeV:

    26,1 x 10^-7 /cm² per second.

    By considering the diameter of the Earth d= 13.000km = 13.000.000m = 13×10^7cm, the area is:
    S= 3,14x(13×10^7)²/4 = 150×10^14 cm²

    Therefore the quantity of neutrons is 26,1×10^-7 x 150×10^14 = 4000×10^7 = 5×10^10 neutrons per second, which are hiting the protons of the hydrogen in the water molecules H2O of the oceans, per second.

    On Earth, deuterated water, HDO, occurs naturally in regular water at a proportion of about 1 molecule in 3200.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_water

    But with the emission of 5×10^10 neutrons per second by the background of neutrons of course the proportion of 1 molecule in 3200 would have to increase all the time, and by considering the billion years of the Earth the oceans would have to be formed by 100% of D2O.
    ================================================================

    .

    2) =========================================
    Even if you generated a large background of neutrons, their lifetime is only about 15 minutes so they will all decay away unless the neutron+proton fusion rate is extremely high. But the neutron-proton interaction has an extremely short range and…
    ===================================================

    WHY ???????
    The neutron-proton interaction has an extremely short range but this is an experimental fact detected by EXPERIMENTS.

    Dear Dr. JR,
    you cannot take the results of experiments so that to explain why a phenomenon occurs. The explanation of a phenomenon requires a THEORY.

    So, dear Dr. JR,
    AGAIN you are using the inversion of causality so that to explain a pheomenon from the principles of the Standard Nuclear Phycics.

    Look at the low energy neutron proton scattering:
    http://www.lns.cornell.edu/~dlr/teaching/p6574/lectures/lecture10-1.pdf

    In the paper they say:
    “As there is no J = 0 bound state, the interaction depends on spin.“.

    WHY????
    Why the interaction depends on the spin???????

    After all, as there is no Coulomb repulsion between a proton and a neutron, and they have a very strong attraction due to the strong nuclear force, then the scattering proton-neutron at low energy would have to produce a deuteron independently of their spin.

    The Standard Nuclear Physics has not explanation for this fact. Such conclusion is inferred from EXPERIMENTS.

    So,
    note that in the paper they try to explain the neutron-proton scattering from an experimental fact that cannot be explained from the principles of Standard Model.

    This is the reason why “the neutron-proton interaction has an extremely short range“, however the Standard Model cannot explain why.
    ===============================================================

    .

    3) ================================================
    so there is little chance that they will come close enough to interact at any reasonable densities, yielding a fusion rate that is negligible compared to the decay rate.
    ==========================================================

    We are not speaking about the interaction between ONE neutron and ONE proton.

    When the neutron is emitted, it moves crossing the matter wich composes the Earth (water, rocks, atmosphere, etc).

    So, ONE neutron has chance to have interaction with billion protons along the trajectory of the neutron.

    As 5×10^10 neutrons are emitted per second in the Earth, then the chance of collision proton-neutron is big, and by considering the billion years of the Earth’s existence, all the hydrogen of the molecules H2O would be converted to D2O.
    ====================================================================

    regards
    wlad

  • orsobubu

    Andrea, Koen Vandewalle, Joseph Fine, since you were interested in Seth Lloyd’s paper: The universe as quantum computer, here there are some links about an incredible experiment ongoing at Fermilab, exploring the nature of space-time as a sort of bidimensional simulation:

    http://www.nbcnews.com/science/weird-science/do-we-live-2-d-hologram-physicists-aim-find-out-n190406
    http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/188727-pixels-of-the-universe-experiment-begins-to-see-if-the-universe-is-a-2d-hologram
    http://holometer.fnal.gov/faq.html#location

    Even more strange than this, here there are some links about a new mathematical object recently discovered, able to challenge the notion of space-time (already posted here in JONP by another reader):

    http://discovermagazine.com/2014/jan-feb/10-shaping-the-future-of-physics
    https://www.quantamagazine.org/20130917-a-jewel-at-the-heart-of-quantum-physics/
    http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2014/03/31/guest-post-jaroslav-trnka-on-the-amplituhedron/

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    I wanted you to be aware that at E-Cat World I have started a Knowledge Base project that I hope will serve as a useful reference for all topics connected with LENR. It is built on the MediaWiki software, so it operates much like Wikipedia.

    Anyone is able to add or edit entries (if they abide by the rules): http://kb.e-catworld.com/index.php?title=E-Cat_World_LENR_Knowledge_Base

    Please use it and contribute if you wish!

    Best wishes,

    Frank

  • Andrea Rossi

    JC Renoir:
    Interesting. I cannot comment, since I have not knowledge of the particulars, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Curiosone

    Dr Rossi:
    Seems that several replications of the Rossi Effect have been made: congratulations!
    Godspeed,
    W.G.

  • DTravchenko

    Dr Rossi:
    Enormous work in Russia to replicate your effect, with great respect for your scientific work. I hope you understand you have big friends in our Country. We love your work.
    DT

  • JCRenoir

    Dear Dr Rossi:
    What do you tink about the article of Ing. Ventola on Ecatnewfire?
    JCR

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco Serra:
    There is a very big difference between the replication of the patented effect and the construction of an industrial plant, a difference that takes years of enormous work, a very difficult one. Sooner or later, obviously, this gap will be filled up by the Competition, but n the meantime our team will have reached an economy scale that will make the competition not that much convenient. This is the strategy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian:
    Honestly, in this period “rest” is not an option for our Team.
    About the link: I like also to remind the important article of Dr Vitaly Uzikov about our work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian:
    Thank you for the link : it is really interesting to read the opinions from Russian scientists regarding our work.
    The sole comment O want to write is that I hope this technology not will integrate with all the other sources, but also will help a peaceful integration between all the players. It is unavoidable that the relationship between all the main Countries of the world will reach a new peaceful order, for the good of the mankind. Industrial competition will generate market evolution in fovour of anybody. This is the essence of future, we hope.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • gian

    E questo è l’originale.

    http://vpk.name/forum/s188.html

    Sono rimasto fortemente impressionato da quanto i russi (questi russi) apprezzino gli e-cat e da quello che pensano dei rapporti fra Andrea Rossi e gli USA.
    Sarei veramente grato se Lei volesse fare commenti.
    Seguo la Sua attivitò da fine 2010.
    Molto caldamente auguro a Lei ed alla sua ricerca ogni bene.

  • gian

    I think you could be interested in

    http://coldfusionnow.org/interview-with-yuri-bazhutov-by-peter-gluck/.

    Andrea, Lei quando si riposa?
    Con stima e simpatia
    Gian

  • Marco Serra

    Dear Dr. Rossi
    in this days when the Rossi Effect seems to be almost easy to replicate (even if in its raw essence) I wonder how much your secret catalyst is a well kept secret. Do the people of your team know it?

    God bless you

    Mrco Serra

  • Marco Serra

    Dear Sundar Narayan,
    You are certainly aware of a most recent and precise determination of G using laser-cooled atoms and quantum interferometry performed by an italian team. As reported on Nature in 2014 (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v510/n7506/full/nature13433.html)
    they obtained the value G = 6.67191(99) × 10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2 with a relative uncertainty of 150 parts per million

    Best Regards
    Marco Serra

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>