To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

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by
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U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
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.
Introduction
In this paper by highlighting the following 28 major short comings of modern big bang cosmology the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way [1-3].
From now onwards instead of focusing on ‘big bang cosmology’ it is better to concentrate on ‘black hole cosmology’.
Its validity can be well confirmed from a combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena.
It can be suggested that, there exists one variable physical quantity in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude can be considered as a “standard measure” of the present “cosmic rate of expansion”.
Michael E. McCulloch says [4]: For an observer in an expanding universe there is a maximum volume that can be observed, since beyond the Hubble distance the velocity of recession is greater than the speed of light and the redshift is infinite: this is the Hubble volume.
Its boundary is similar to the event horizon of a black hole because it marks a boundary to what can be observed.
This means that it is reasonable to assume that Hawking radiation is emitted at this boundary both outwards and inwards to conserve energy, and any wavelength that does not fit exactly within this size cannot be allowed for the inwards radiation, and therefore also for the outwards radiation.
According to Hawking, the mass of a black hole is linearly related to its temperature or inversely-linearly related to the wavelength of the Hawking radiation it emits.
Therefore, for a given size of the universe there is a maximum Hawking wavelength it can have and a minimum allowed gravitational mass it can have.
If its mass was less than this then the Hawking radiation would have a wavelength that is bigger than the size of the observed universe and would be disallowed.
The minimum mass it predicts is encouragingly close to the observed mass of the Hubble volume.
Thus it is possible to model the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon.
According to Tinaxi Zhang [5-7], the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses and gradually grew up through a super massive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes.
According to N. J. Poplawski [8-11], the Universe is the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole and began with the formation of the black hole from a supernova explosion in the center of a galaxy.
He theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.
Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.
Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.
The rotation of a black hole would influence the space-time on the other side of its event horizon and results in a preferred direction in the new universe.
Most recently cosmologists Razieh Pourhasan, Niayesh Afshordi and Robert B. Manna have proposed [12] that the Universe formed from the debris ejected when a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole – a scenario that would help to explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.

629 comments to To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Dr. Rossi prejudice, it seems that China is making a push…

    “An estimate power of excess heat is about 600 W. The ratio of excess heat of 600 W to input power of 780 W is 0.77.

    The consumption of nickel container and Ni + LiAl4 calculated energy density is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the value of gasoline. Therefore, the origin of excess heat cannot be explained by any chemical energy. The isotope abundances of nickel and lithium in the fuels after experiment will be analyzed by mass spectrometry technique. A further experiment will be carried out. The powders is checked to be less than 1 g after experiment.”

    http://nextbigfuture.com/2015/06/chinas-lenr-is-getting-excess-600-watts.html

  • Andrea Rossi

    Kraig Ferrales:
    To explain the nucleons masses the 3 quark representation is very limited: this is an incomplete point of the Standard Model. By QCD is postulated a “sea of quarks interacting via gluons”, but it is far from being rigorously specified, I didn’t find mathematically quantified equations for this specific issue. I think to resolve this problem it is opportune to adopt the lattice-fcc model I learnt fom the theory of Prof Norman Cook ( Models of the Atomic Nucleus, Springer Berlin 2010).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Kraig Ferrales

    Dr Andrea Rossi: do you think the 3 quark desciption of the standard model is enough to explain the nucleons mass?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for this very important information. Congratulations to the Chinese colleague!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello dr. Rossi:
    there are new results on the anomalous production of heat coming from China .

    “New Result of Anomalous Heat Production in Hydrogen-loaded Metals at High Temperature” New Report by Songsheng Jiang of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/05/30/new-result-of-anomalous-heat-production-in-hydrogen-loaded-metals-at-high-temperature-new-report-by-songsheng-jiang-of-the-china-institute-of-atomic-energy-ciae/

    Summary:

    The anomalous heat production in the Ni+LiAlH4 fuels has been observed repeatedly. The heat production can be controlled by input power and can last for a long time. The T2 temperature placed on the outer surface of the fuel cell is about 405C greater than the T1 temperature, T1 is placed on the outer surface of the reaction chamber and near the heater. An estimate power of excess heat is about 600 W. The ratio of excess heat of 600 W to input power of 780 W is 0.77. Considering self-sustaining effect, the input power might be significantly decreased if a chopper supply can be used to keep excess heat production. How to calculate the ratio of total produced heat energy to electrical input energy remains a question in present work. The consumption of nickel container and Ni + LiAl4 powders is checked to be less than 1 g after experiment. The calculated energy density is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the value of gasoline.
    Therefore, the origin of excess heat cannot be explained by any chemical energy. The isotope abundances of nickel and lithium in the fuels after experiment will be analyzed by mass spectrometry technique. A further experiment will be carried out.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello Dr. Rossi, here are the photos of the visit of prof. Alexander Parkhomov c/o prof. Levi in Bologna.
    It can be downloaded from here:
    http://bit.ly/1HXbmKA

    Sorry it’s written in Russian!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone.
    Yes, I suggest to our Readers to check every day http://www.rossilivecat to find all the comments of the day published on this blog without having to check all the posts where comments are put for pertinence..
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    Testing and evaluation could require a long process, involving many changes. I believe we will always be evolving as other technology and customer need evolve.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Curiosone

    I double clicked http://www.rossilivecat and found all the comment of this blog clear and straight , without going to every post to find all of them: this is real useful!
    W.G.

  • Curiosone

    Hi, Andrea Rossi:
    Do you think you will have further evolution after the end of the test, in short time?
    Thank you,
    W.G.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Kiefer Goodwin:
    Yes. In this very moment ( 8 p.m. of Monday May 25th) I am working on the Hot Cat. we are succeeding to extend relevantly the ssm period. So far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Sorry, I cannot comment and give further information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Nils Fryklund:
    I have not been able to find in the spam your comment that you sent to me by email, so I repeat your question hare for our Readers: you asked if we have ever measured radiations in the environment around the E-Cats, in particular during the bursts of temperature.
    Answer: we always have instrumentation to measure ionizing radiations outside the E-Cats during their operation and tests and we never measured values higher than the background. The results reported by Dr David Bianchini in the paper of the third independent party after the test of Lugano mirror exactly the measurements always made by us.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Wesley great suggestion to Andrea on SIC. Worked on Nuclear Rocket in the early 1960 using pyrolitic graphite in the nuclear core with great success. Too bad the Vietnam war intervened or we would already be on Mars which was our mission. I stopped trusting my government blindly during that fiasco & question everything they do since! SIC would probably worked even better in the fuel element of the rocket.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea I think Denis at MFMP is experiencing a negative thermal system curve causing his controller to oscillate just below 1000 C. I think when LENR comes in at 1000 C the system curve has three different power inputs for the same temperature just like a tunnel diode has an impedance inflection in its curves which is used to build electronic oscillators. That’s why I thought Denis could walk system thru this point with manual control? Have you been bothered by such oscillations while in automatic control? His Russian Thermal controller has an automatic tuner built in which also might be causing problems as it self tunes PID controller. Jim I had a little trouble getting a translation of the controller functions?

  • Kiefer Goodwin

    Dr Rossi:
    You said that the Hot Cat technology is improving in the experiments you are doing in the “container of the computers” at the side of the 1 MW E-Cat. Do you think that the Hot Cat will arrive to the same COP of the low temperature E-Cat?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Wesley:
    Also your comment has been recovered from the spam, where the robot placed it: many, many comments are put in the spam… I only can recover the ones in the first page of the spam list, because I have no time to go through all of them ( a thousand a day of spammed comments!). So, please, all the Readers that do not see their comments published are kindly invited to send their comments to:
    info@journal-of-nuclear-physics.com
    Returning to Wesley: thank you for your kind words; about the wire constituents, I cannot give information regarding this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wesley

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    it is pleasure to see you are very open to communicate with us. At least your sessions in the container may be even more usefull and engaging.

    For Hot-Cat I can recommend SiC heater elements. I think that it can make construction faster and more reliable instead of using wire.
    But maybe you have tried it already. What is your opinion?

    I wish you all the best and only positive results.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes. I think this week.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for the information, good luck to MFMP !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Another attempt at replicating you today on MFMP with two fuel elements in series in electrical circuit – one fueled the other empty. Right now about 800 C. Just thought you would want to know. http://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/index.php/CustomPage/?id=10 Keep up the good work & hopefully introduce that certified Hot W-Cat to the world soon! Jim Have the highest regard for you, Parkhomov & Godes!

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Will you publish your photo on Andrea-Rossi.com?

    Many thanks,

    Frank

  • Andrea Rossi

    Noe Cozzolino:
    We are preparing a photo, it is not easy: our specialists must limit the definition to forbid enlargements, avoid to show confidential particulars, eliminate particulars that could identify the place, etc etc: it is not easy, our photos are always a compromise and such have to remain until the test on course will have been completed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Noe Cozzolino

    Andrea Rossi:
    You promised some new photo of the plant in operation, taking away confidential particulars: when will we ba able to watch it and where?
    Thank you for your work,
    Noe

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Good luck! Your enthusiasm merits it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea talked to me356 today & I do believe he successfully excited “The New Fire” in his test yesterday & have attached talk for your information. He did not extremely high temperatures on taking fuel element apart. It was great fun yesterday! Keep up your good work & thanks for sharing!

    time decay of temperature from last run indicated to me possible nuclear source of decay heat in results
    23 minutes ago
    NEW
    me356 wrote:
    I am now 80% convinced that there was excess heat but it was not possible to measure it as the reaction is happening in a different place always.
    Thermocouple was not mounted exactly at the center of the reactor.

    From the previous run there was similar scenario where the fuel container looked like it was partially melted (only 1/3). So the temperature was significantly higher there too.
    If there was excess heat then it mean that there was used fuel from the first run and it worked – same as Parkhomov reported.

    So for the future it will be better to get at least good pyrometer or to make calorimetry test or to place more thermocouples around the reactor or to use materials that are conducting heat much better.

    I also thought you had something generating additional heat in your last run by just observing the extended time constants in the thermal shutdown profile. I think I am more than 80% sure we have witnessed the presence of “The New Fire” in your work! Great job I really had fun watching the last experiment & being able to comment on your manual & automatic control moves as well as the thermal response I observed. In my working career which ended about 10 years ago I have simulated the dynamics of fossil, nuclear & petrochemical plants including Nuclear Rockets 😉 & compared result with test data as well as tuned controllers & to me I think I could see “The New Fire” in your results Great job me 356 had great fun yesterday & tried to get Andrea Rossi involved also but he has some restrictions! The process is pretty straight forward & a simple themal model with the radiant heat transfer & themal masses could easily be constructed to follow your temperature curves with a predicted value & and attribute large deviations to LENR action.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for the interesting information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Parkhomov visits Levi, discuss with Hoistad and Peterson, and they have a device that they would show in May: see below.

    Alexanger Parkhomov made a short message in Russian, about ICCF19 and visited Levi in Unversity of Bologna…
    The really surprising news is that Giuseppe Levi, Bo Hoistadt and Roland Peterson, who tested the E-cat in Lugano
    can show a device (what is it), that they would show in May.
    On Ego-out, Mats Lewans confirms that these physicists in Upsala have a reactor ready, and are about to calibrate, with a run in May.
    Here is the communication of AG Parkhomov translated by Google:
    Conference ICCF -19 was quite successful. 470 delegates, 98 reports. This is a record performance. Characterized by optimism, a premonition of great achievements. The conference was held in the most prestigious indoor Padua Palazzo della Ragione, in the grand hall with 800 years of history, with frescoes by Giotto and Miret.
    I attended the University of Bologna at the invitation of Giuseppe Levi, one of the experts who observed the operation of the reactor Rossi in Lugano. He showed his experimental setup and organized a communication on Skype with the University of Uppsala (Sweden) with other experts related to the Lugano report: Roland Peterson and Bo Hoistad. They showed their devices to be launched in May. Then our Skype – conference joined Rossi. This has been the first time I was able to talk with this extraordinary man. He plans to visit Russia.
    http://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/news/index.php/News/90-Parkhomov-visits-Levi-discuss-with-Hoistad-and-Peterson-and-they-have-a-device-t/

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    To go to high temperatures poses very complex problems for the reactor, the resistances, the charge. We burnt hundreds of reactors to find the solutions, in parallel with a very throughly study before and after every experiment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    I cannot comment until all the data are published regarding the measurements.
    I sympathize with the enthusiasm that fuels this work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea Me356 said he did see some excess heat above 500 C today & it was probably not necessary to go to 1200 C. He also said a wire shorted out & everything else seemed OK. I didn’t start following test till about 900 C and noticed thermal time constant of about 4 minutes. Should have made estimate below 500C as the 4 minutes may have LENR power generation transient as well as system thermal. On last test he thought low temperature time constant was about 30 seconds. I thought I saw some LENR power in his shutdown transient then as it was even much longer than 4 minutes. Very interesting Saturday afternoon. I sent you a random screen capture with live transient screen of temperature measured and setpoint as well as Triac current input to fuel element heater. Also a picture of the Chat session going on during the test. Best Regards Jim
    Keep up your good work!
    PS So test was probably a success, will have to wait on confirmation from Me 356 himself!

  • James Rovnak

    Something failed at 1073C but it was a nice effort & I thanked him for sharing & told him I was keeping you informed too! Thought he would do it this time, but maybe next time? Would like to have seen the temperature shutdown transient to see if I could detect any LENR present in the time constant as I did during last test!

  • James Rovnak

    Thanks Andrea at 1077 C now, this Me 356 is some engineer. Thats a hobbiest computer he is controlling with – Aduino a PID controller now in manual as he moves up toward 1200C I hope. Great fun about 5 amps out of his TRIAC controller. Just thought I’d share. Keep up the good work on your end, love following your efforts.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Obviously we have to see the complete data: emitting surface S, Epsilon, integral of T on time, integral of delta T across S,integral of V and of A, etc etc, but you are working with so much enthus, that I can only say you: good luck !!!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Good job.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea Me 356 at 1040C now! TRIAC putting about 5% steps into LENR fuel element heater with process time constant estimated crudely at about 4 minutes. Jim

  • James Rovnak

    me 356 at about 985 deg C right now Andrea!

  • James Rovnak

    Please join the fun & watch Me Andrea! Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing Michelangelo De Meo: thank you for the link.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Dear Dr. Rossi in this moment is on course an attempt to replicate live from utente356 . The temperature goes up and up !
    http://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/index.php/CustomPage/?id=9

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for your information.
    In this period of tests and RD made on the 1 MW E-Cat installed in the factory of the Customer of Industrial Heat and on the Hot Cat set up here in the control computers container of the above mentioned 1 MW E-Cat, I do not have publishable news, because all we do is confined in confidentiality by contracts.
    Please say hello to all the members of the group on Facebook: I am honoured from their attention to the work of my Team.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Dear Dr . Rossi , I want to inform you that on Facebook there is a group called ” E – Cat of Andrea Rossi ( Cold Fusion ) ” of about 450 people closely monitoring the cold fusion and its scientific evolution.

    May be going to honor us with some news unpublished ?

    Facebook: ” E-Cat of’ Ing. Andrea Rossi (Cold Fusion)”

    ITA: E-Cat dell’ Ing. Andrea Rossi (Fusione Fredda)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Andreas Moraitis:
    Data regarding the test on course of the 1 MW E-Cat will be released only after the test will have been completed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Doubtless this is a very important agreement that will trigger new discoveries.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andreas Moraitis

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    With a maximum continuous electric power of 250 kW, your plant could theoretically release 2.1 GWh of energy in 350 days (losses neglected). Any surplus would have to be credited to the “Rossi effect” (overall COP > 1).

    My questions are:

    1 – Did the output of the plant so far exceed 2.1 GWh?
    2 – If so, considering the prices of electricity vs. other forms of energy: Would the customer already have saved money, even if we assume that the plant will run only in ‘Joule heating mode’ for the rest of the time?

    Hoping for a double “Yes”,

    Best regards,
    Andreas Moraitis

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi and Readers, Google:
    US-CERN AGREEMENT
    Read about this very important agreement, I found it interesting, I think you will also,
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    William S. Hurley III:
    We received your interesting link, that is wrongly gone to the spam:
    http://www.clearsign.com/applications/duplex-technology-for-refinery-process-heaters
    This device has been applied to the heating pipes of the oil refinery of Tesoro Companies Inc, near Los Angeles, California. You asked me if it could be coupled with the E-Cats. The answer is: if the results of the tests on course on the 1 MW E-Cat supplied to the Customer of IH will be positive, the E-Cats will be fit to be applied everywhere heat has to be produced for any purpose, independently from the fluid, by means of proper heat exchangers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the Readers of the JoNP:
    Today has been published the paper ” Analysis of the performances od sealed timing resistive plate chambers”, by Khokon Hossen, Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics ( Heidelberg, Germany).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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