To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

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by
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U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
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Introduction
In this paper by highlighting the following 28 major short comings of modern big bang cosmology the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way [1-3].
From now onwards instead of focusing on ‘big bang cosmology’ it is better to concentrate on ‘black hole cosmology’.
Its validity can be well confirmed from a combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena.
It can be suggested that, there exists one variable physical quantity in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude can be considered as a “standard measure” of the present “cosmic rate of expansion”.
Michael E. McCulloch says [4]: For an observer in an expanding universe there is a maximum volume that can be observed, since beyond the Hubble distance the velocity of recession is greater than the speed of light and the redshift is infinite: this is the Hubble volume.
Its boundary is similar to the event horizon of a black hole because it marks a boundary to what can be observed.
This means that it is reasonable to assume that Hawking radiation is emitted at this boundary both outwards and inwards to conserve energy, and any wavelength that does not fit exactly within this size cannot be allowed for the inwards radiation, and therefore also for the outwards radiation.
According to Hawking, the mass of a black hole is linearly related to its temperature or inversely-linearly related to the wavelength of the Hawking radiation it emits.
Therefore, for a given size of the universe there is a maximum Hawking wavelength it can have and a minimum allowed gravitational mass it can have.
If its mass was less than this then the Hawking radiation would have a wavelength that is bigger than the size of the observed universe and would be disallowed.
The minimum mass it predicts is encouragingly close to the observed mass of the Hubble volume.
Thus it is possible to model the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon.
According to Tinaxi Zhang [5-7], the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses and gradually grew up through a super massive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes.
According to N. J. Poplawski [8-11], the Universe is the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole and began with the formation of the black hole from a supernova explosion in the center of a galaxy.
He theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.
Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.
Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.
The rotation of a black hole would influence the space-time on the other side of its event horizon and results in a preferred direction in the new universe.
Most recently cosmologists Razieh Pourhasan, Niayesh Afshordi and Robert B. Manna have proposed [12] that the Universe formed from the debris ejected when a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole – a scenario that would help to explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.

635 comments to To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    The Carnot cycle needs series of apparatuses that are unthinkable to be applied in a house.
    As for the commercial and technological allegiances, any synergy can be taken in due consideration.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fyodor

    Hello Mr. Rossi

    I hope that all is well with you? I
    had a question about something you said

    “to apply the Carnot cycle to a domestic E-Cat is, obviously, impossible and all the possible alternative we have found are not applicable to small units”

    Why is it impossible-are there just not good solutions for operating at lower power levels? Does the temperature not go high enough? Are the solutions just inappropriate (too loud, hot, dangerous, etc.?)for home use?

    On the industrial front, have you considered partnering with third parties that make steam turbine generators or boilers or other heat-to-electricity solutions or are you primarily working to develop solutions in house?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco Serra:
    SSM are made longer by a synergy between the reactors for what concerns the “drive” they need. I cannot reveal more particulars.
    The drive will be always necessary, due to safety issues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco Serra

    Dear Andrea
    I’m glad to hear that the ssm phases are becoming longer and longer every day even if I struggle to contain my curiosity about how long they are (and I’m not the only one).
    At my previous question “is ssm still a mystere?” your answer was “it’s not a mystere at all”. Ok. But what these ssm improvements are sons of ? Aren’t you discovering new ways to induce the ssm state ? Or new ways to last it for much time ? Aren’t you deeepen your knowledge of the ssm ? Or do they simply come from a better archestration of the haet produced by the units ?

    Now please take off the crystal ball 😉
    Do you feel that there are spaces for further grow in ssm periods ? Do you think it will be possible to get a system of reactors working 24h ssm (after a startup phase)? In think this will be the future and can’t wait that time.

    God bless you

    Marco Serra

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    I’ll remember!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle,
    Thank you for your suggestions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,

    You wrote:
    Frank Acland:
    Yes: with the Hot Cat we are reaching here inside the computers container very long ssm.
    Also its test will last one year. It has been strongly modified after the Lugano test.

    Do you consider it possible to make a synergy of Hot-Cats in optimized SSM ? Or could that be a too complex and too expensive machine ?

    Just a thought: if a Hot Cat is put in a cyclone, or in a funnel, both with IR-reflecting walls and with a rotating flow of steam there around, the extraction of heat could be regulated by the height of the hot cat in the funnel.
    I don’t think this kind of experiments will fit in your container with the computers.

    Kind Regards,

    Koen

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Looking into my crystal ball I would guess that during a typical 24 hour operating period that your 1MW eCat system is in SSM perhaps 15 hours. Which means that you are energizing the reactors an average of 9 hours at 250kW maximum, probably an average of 100kW. So in 24 hours you are generating 24MWhr of energy while consuming 0.9MWhr of input. So your effective COP over a 24 hour period would be about 27. Remember this number. If your average daily effective COP is larger at the end of the one year testing, you owe me a drink (glass of milk for me). If it is smaller, I will buy you a drink at the public celebration.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Neal Sladky
    kloeppel391468@yahoo.com

    In an email you sent to the JoNP you informed us that ( synopsis) “solar accounts for almost a third of new US capacity to produce electric power in 2014″ and asked for my opinion, saying that ” in few years all the necessary energy could be given by the solar plants”.
    Answer: you must make a distinction between power and energy. A solar power plant depends on the solar energy it actually receives to convert, as well as wind mills ( wind is anyway produced by solar energy, so indirectly also wind mills are solar plants). You can have a solar plant with a power of 1 MW, but actually it can produce at most 100 kWh/h of energy as an average, due to the fact that the solar energy that it is able to convert is the 10% of the solar energy it would need to produce energy at full power. This reduces to 3% the theoretical percentage of energy that solar plant are able to really produce respect the energy needs of the Country. To this you must add another factor, which is the cost of the solar energy, that is much higher than the cost of the energy produced by the classic sources. This high cost is paid by the taxpayer. Therefore the real situation of solar is not as much shining as it appears to be.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Sorry, I am not allowed to give information related to the contract between IH and the Customer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Not necessarily, theoretically the COP could be also 1 or worse. It depends on the production of energy. Certainly, should the consume of energy be 250 kWh/h and the production of energy 1 MWh/h the ratio would be 1:4.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In a previous posting, you indicated that the maximum Joule effect of the 1MW system was 250 kW. Can we therefore conclude that the design of the 1MW unit has an effective COP of greater than 4?

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You indicated that for your current eCat testing your company must demonstrate 350 days of operation within a 400 day period. You also had posted that operation was continuous except for scheduled maintenance periods. Are the scheduled maintenance periods part of the 50 day difference between the 400 day and the 350 day contractual requirement?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Nils Frylund
    nilsfrylund@telia.com

    You sent the following comment to our email address ( synopsis): ” Why the mainstream media are not talking of your 1 MW E-Cat in operation?”
    Answer: because there is nothing to talk about, yet, until the tests will have been completed. Now we are in a situation in which the results could be either positive or negative, so it is too soon for press conferences. We are declining all the requests on the issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Roberto Rampado:
    Thank you for contnuous interest: you honour us.
    Thank you as well for your interesting information. We’ll analyse the proposal.
    I know the industrial applications of the Rankine cycle, and they are not competitive with the Carnot cycle, not even in terms of pay back period. I will analyse the domestic applications in term of prices: the efficiency is very low, as you see. Also, for domestic applications, we have to consider the necessary room of the system.
    Let’s see.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes: with the Hot Cat we are reaching here inside the computers container very long ssm.
    Also its test will last one year. It has been strongly modified after the Lugano test.

    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Rampado Roberto

    Caro Andrea Rossi,
    ti seguo da sempre con ammirazione e un po’ di impazienza.
    Tu scrivi:
    “to apply the Carnot cycle to a domestic E-Cat is, obviously, impossible and all the possible alternative we have found are not applicable to small units. To make domestic heaters , to heat houses is the target where the sea meets the sky within my sight.”
    Se non l’hai ancora considerato, esiste un motore a tecnologia ultra-collaudata (Ciclo Rankine a vapore) che forse fa al caso tuo.
    Viene commercializzato dalla ditta “Lion energy GmbH & Co. KG” che ha sede nella città di Olsberg in Germania.

    http://www.powerblock.eu/de/lion-powerblock/Funktion-Animation.php

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qgrlJGJNVT0

    Il rendimento di conversione dato per un uso domestico a gas o pellets è di circa 10-12%, ma con semplici correzioni di temperatura e pressione, penso senz’altro concordabili con la ditta costruttrice, lo si può portare a rendimenti di conversione intorno al 20-25%.
    Questo significa che con COP pari a 4-5 l’E-Cat va in auto-sostentamento.

    Che strano se un leone viene nutrito da un gatto!

    Con stima

    Rampado Dr Roberto

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I always follow you with admiration and a bit of suspense.
    Some time ago you wrote:
    “To apply the Carnot cycle to a domestic E-Cat is, obviously, impossible and all the possible alternatives we have found are not applicable to small units. To make domestic heaters, to heat houses is the target where the sea meets the sky Within my sight. ”

    In my opinion a Rankine based technology (steam cycle) named Lion-Powerblock could be interesting for your E-cat.
    It is marketed by the company “Lion energy GmbH & Co. KG” at Olsberg in Germany.
    Here are two links at their website.

    http://www.powerblock.eu/de/lion-powerblock/Funktion-Animation.php
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qgrlJGJNVT0

    This apparatus is intended for domestic use. The steam arises from heat generated by combustion of natural gas or pellet giving an electrical conversion efficiency of about 10-12%.
    Please note that its performance may reach 20-25% with little corrections of operative conditions (temperature and pressure) and technical improvement can be studied directly by the german manufacturer.
    This means that an E-cat COP equal to 4-5 is enough to reach the self-sustained mode.
    The Cat that feeds a Lion – It sounds a bit strange but auspicious!

    With estimates

    Rampado Dr Roberto.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Thank you for you explanation. Does this mean you are able to achieve substantial periods of self-sustain mode with a single Hot Cat reactor?

    Many thanks,

    Frank

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Very interesting question.
    In domestic applications we will not have multiple reactors to make up synergies as it is happening with the 1MW plant; for this reason, the low temperature E-Cats are less efficient: the COP of the Hot Cat, when utilized in mono-assemblies, is higher. As I said before, E-Cats are very complex things, much more complex than it appears.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Can you explain why you now find the Hot Cat is more suitable for home heating than the lower temperature E-Cat?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    Now it is 10 p.m. of Saturday May 9, where I am, inside the 1 MW plant: I am bouncing between the 1 MW plant and the Hot Cat, both in operation, both stable. This enormous work that our team is making is aimed to arrive to the target you have given the description of. For the domestic unit it will be much easier to start with heat generating E-Cats, because to produce electricity with so small units is still an unresolved problem, notwithstanding many prototypes of direct conversion, too “green” to be taken as mature solutions; to apply the Carnot cycle to a domestic E-Cat is, obviously, impossible and all the possible alternative we have found are not applicable to small units. To make domestic heaters , to heat houses is the target where the sea meets the sky within my sight.

  • Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    Congratulations on the special results from the Lugano test. It has been my experience that simplicity becomes elegance (at least in mathematics) and the Lugano Cat is certainly an elegant system. I can tell that you are very excited about the major impact it has had on the design platform of the domestic system. Dare we hope that your new results may provide us with hope of the domestic E-Cat being able to power a few appliances in our homes?

    Looking forward to the excitement that each day holds,

    Tom

  • Andrea Rossi

    JYD:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • JYD

    Dear Andrea Rossi, Dear Steven N. Karels

    Cosidering the commercial marine propulsion, this could be interesting
    http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3321-steam-fires-underwater-jet-engine.html#.VU53tpMzIjI

    Could Mr Elon Musk be interested too ?
    PS: A little thing , Dr Rossi, to let in a bit of nature in your computer container !
    https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2pe4q1_la-cascade-irlandaise-qui-seduit-6-millions-d-insomniaques_news?start=5

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    As I said many times, I think that all the existing energy sources will integrate more than compete. The more this if we think to the far future.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Maybe you are right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I continue to think about technologies where eCats could make a significant improvement. It seems to me that commercial marine propulsion is an ideal application. Consider very large oil tankers, requiring around 40MW or more of power continuously for weeks or months. One of the design considerations is the speed of the naval ship. Higher speed burns more fuel in conventional fossil fuel driven applications but an eCat power steam turbine could provide added power without the normal need for carrying large amounts of consumable fuel.

    Temperature for the steam will be in the 500C to 600C region, so you might need an intermediate eCat design (or just run a Hot eCat at a lower temperature). With no appreciable onboard fuel consumption, faster ships could be designed to lower shipping costs and delays. Fewer ships to do the same transportation service.

    I also know it takes many years for marine certification so you and I may not be around to see this. But, I think, it is an interesting application.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    What you are competing with is the following: (1)A fuel that is abundant, easy to transport and relatively cheap and easy to obtain.(2)A fuel which is easy to ignite and control.(3)A fuel which is familiar to almost everyone on this earth as to how to use it.(4)Relatively cheap devices with which to make it useful. This is of course fossil fuel, used first by the cave man. Its downside is familiar to almost everyone and has been accepted as the lesser of two evils even by the staunches detractors(can you name some one who does not use it in some manner?). It will be a long time before all the autos in the world(hundreds of millions) will be retired, especially in third world countries let alone the billions of heating devices. However in the meantime you will be kept very active supplying replacements for those who can afford to replace these devices. I think that even if you can show that a suitable replacement is available, there will be many years passing before we will see a significant drop in the use of fossil fuels.
    Extended regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    He,he,he…
    Thanks to remind me “Le Concert”: I am inside the plant, She is stable , thanks to God, and I am tired, having to pass here the rest of the night…I right now put on the CD of “Le Concert” and watch it another time inside the computers container.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    May I suggest a name for the super-ssm mode ?
    “Canon of E-Cats in C-major”. With the “C” from “Container”.
    Fits with “Le Concert”.

    Can you tell us which are the better singers ?
    The young ones, or the more experienced voices ?
    Do they change their voices and volumes during their lifetime ?

    Musical Regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    John:
    I cannot give information about these details, but I can confirm that it is important to have every available option for integrating into the energy infrastructure and to explore all available sources of synergies.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Now I have time to complete my answer: I am not able to extend further information about the Customer. Please, understand that the focus for me is now on the E-Cat’s operation and controls.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • John

    Dear Andrea,

    What does “being in contact” with Elon Musk mean? Have you exchanged e-mails? Or met in person? Or is the communication on behalf of Industrial Heat and not you personally?

    Best Regards,

    John

  • Andrea Rossi

    Josè Ricardo:
    Thank you for your philosophical insight. I respect it, as I respect any philosophical and religious point of view.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • jose ricardo

    Sr Andrea Rossi
    que opinas de esta teoria
    Todo el universo es sólido electromagnéticamente ablando, todo está conectado por átomos electromagnéticos, empezando por nosotros y terminando en la totalidad del espacio infinito que viene a ser un plasma general, donde evoluciono todo, lo que conocemos y desconocemos, este plasma es la fuerza de la naturaleza que es Dios o como lo quieras llamar, supremo creador de de todo, la velocidad y el trasporte es instantánea a cualquier lugar del universo atreves de este plasma estructura universal.
    Ricardo Noriega Prentice

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    The steam demand is constant with programmed mainainance periods.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rafal Krych:
    Very interesting as a storage of energy too.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Some questions on your current project:

    1. Is the customer’s thermal load exactly constant, 24 hours a day? Or does it fluctuate with work shift transitions?
    2. Is the demand constant even under holiday or weekend times? Is the customer’s requirement constant over the entire year?
    3. Has the customer scheduled downtime (for his own purposes) not related to the eCat needs?

  • Rafal Krych

    Dear Andrea,

    Best wishes for you.

    Tesla will start delivering its Powerwall storage this summer:
    http://www.teslamotors.com/powerwall
    It looks like must have addition to your E-Cat. It can provide initial energy to start the E-Cat reactions and then store extra energy produced by E-Cat for later usage.

    Did you ever considered to start some kind of co-operation with Elon Musk?

  • Andrea Rossi

    John:
    The story of ” the wonderful E-Cat logo”, as you call it: I forgot to say that it has been donated to me from a person who had attended a demo in Bologna in 2011 that we did with an E-Cat: we received many proposal of mark, but this silhouette was really beautiful, I loved it at first glance; I lost contact with this person, he has a company that sells climatization plants: I hope he reads this, because I invite him to contact me for important communications. I forgot his name, but I remember him perfectly.
    The logo ” The New Fire” has been said to me from a Russian scientist I met in San Francisco in 2011 with a meeting held to talk about the possibility to retrofit coal plants with E-Cats: she told me, talking of the E-Cat: ” This is the new fire!” . I liked that phrase so much, that I wrote it and conserved it to make the logo of the trade mark. She too is invited to contact me.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    Could be right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • silvio caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    This is my personal interpretation of various logo seen:
    – The cat with the red ball: Industrial version
    – The cat with the green ball: domestic version
    – The cat with the black ball: generic logo for both industial and domestic
    Am I wrong?
    Coloured Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    John:
    We have extended to the USA the registration of our trade mark.
    The red dot represents the new fire, the cat represents…guess what!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gio 51:
    Interesting, I didn’t hear of this organization before. Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • John

    Dear Andrea,

    What is the story of the wonderful E-Cat logo? What is the cat’s gaze transfixed on? To me, it looks like a dot from a laser pointer.

    Best Regards,

    John

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giovanni Guerrini:
    I did!
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dr Rossi

    Andrea,if you hear the 1 MW talking to you with a beautiful female voice,please take for you one hour to play tennis ! eh eh

    Regards G G

  • Andrea Rossi

    Patrick Ellul:
    Very nice!
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Patrick Ellul

    Dear Andrea,
    Have you seen “Her” the movie?
    It’s about love and artificial intelligence and even has some nice music.
    You might like it.
    Maybe you can watch “Her” inside Her while she’s behaving.
    Best regards,
    Patrick
    p.s. google “Her movie” to find out about the movie.

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