To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

.
by
.
U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
.
S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
.
.
Introduction
In this paper by highlighting the following 28 major short comings of modern big bang cosmology the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way [1-3].
From now onwards instead of focusing on ‘big bang cosmology’ it is better to concentrate on ‘black hole cosmology’.
Its validity can be well confirmed from a combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena.
It can be suggested that, there exists one variable physical quantity in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude can be considered as a “standard measure” of the present “cosmic rate of expansion”.
Michael E. McCulloch says [4]: For an observer in an expanding universe there is a maximum volume that can be observed, since beyond the Hubble distance the velocity of recession is greater than the speed of light and the redshift is infinite: this is the Hubble volume.
Its boundary is similar to the event horizon of a black hole because it marks a boundary to what can be observed.
This means that it is reasonable to assume that Hawking radiation is emitted at this boundary both outwards and inwards to conserve energy, and any wavelength that does not fit exactly within this size cannot be allowed for the inwards radiation, and therefore also for the outwards radiation.
According to Hawking, the mass of a black hole is linearly related to its temperature or inversely-linearly related to the wavelength of the Hawking radiation it emits.
Therefore, for a given size of the universe there is a maximum Hawking wavelength it can have and a minimum allowed gravitational mass it can have.
If its mass was less than this then the Hawking radiation would have a wavelength that is bigger than the size of the observed universe and would be disallowed.
The minimum mass it predicts is encouragingly close to the observed mass of the Hubble volume.
Thus it is possible to model the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon.
According to Tinaxi Zhang [5-7], the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses and gradually grew up through a super massive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes.
According to N. J. Poplawski [8-11], the Universe is the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole and began with the formation of the black hole from a supernova explosion in the center of a galaxy.
He theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.
Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.
Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.
The rotation of a black hole would influence the space-time on the other side of its event horizon and results in a preferred direction in the new universe.
Most recently cosmologists Razieh Pourhasan, Niayesh Afshordi and Robert B. Manna have proposed [12] that the Universe formed from the debris ejected when a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole – a scenario that would help to explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.

629 comments to To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven:
    Thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Stevennig

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Congratulations for your theoretical paper written in collaboration with Prof Norman Cook, the Author of the book “Models of the Atomic nucleus” !
    What has impressed me is the progress you made in these last 3 years also under the theoretical point of view. It appears clearly the enormous effort you put in the study of Physics.
    Godspeed,
    Steven

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers of the JONP:
    After due peer reviewing, has been published on Arxiv the theoretical paper written by Prof. Norman Cook and Andrea Rossi:
    Please find it here:

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.01261

    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    The rules of the market are totally strange to the chattering: if the test on course will confirm that the E-Cat works and the Customer is satisfied, the E-Cats will invade the market.
    I give you a simple example: when cars have been invented ( late XIXth Century) most of experts said that those things could never substitute horses, for a lot of reasons, theoretical and experimental.
    But cars worked, people bought them when the industrial manufacturing made an accessible price available and from then the contrary opinion of the experts counted nothing.
    This is how things go: what is important is not what sceptics say, what is important is the product works properly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: There are so many super skeptics ready to discredit your results (should they be positive (: ) what steps have you taken to insure the results are “iron clad” showing your customer has saved x amount of dollars during your year long test?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    Musically speaking, yes ( he,he,he)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea,
    Concerning your answer to JC Renoir. “Re-percussion” is probably a drummer’s delight!
    Best regards, /pekka

  • Andrea Rossi

    JC Renoir:
    I mock nobody and respect the work of everybody who works seriously, as the scientists of ITER and NIF.
    I am not worried of any repercussion, I just am worried to do well my work, together with my Team.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- I hope what is happening now will continue for the whole test.
    2- probably, after the test will have been completed
    3- we are working on it
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    DTravchenko:
    First and foremost, many scientists of the “mainstream” Physics community are approaching LENR unbiased after the enormous work that has been done in the last four years, mainly by me and my Team ( honestly and sincerely, without hypocrisy). For example, all the Professors that made the ITP Lugano Report belong to the mainstream as well as the scientists of NASA, Airbus, Lockeed Martin, Boeing, DOE, DOD, MIT, the Nobel Laureate Brian Josephson, the Russian scientists Alexander Parkhomov, Irina and Vitaly Uzikov of the Science Academy of Moscow,etc. that started at various levels a serious R&D program on LENR. This said, the so called LENR community did its best to transform itself into a sect in a ghetto, writing a lot of stupidities ( think to the electron capture saga) among some very good paper ( Mizuno, Ikegami, Ahern, etc). Most of all, what made ghettized the so called LENR community is the attitude to write a lot, talk a lot vociferate the most, working and studying as less as possible and over all not spend their own money to make R&D, but only search for money of others ( which shows that they are the first not to believe to what they say; I do not know of any of them who sold his house to finance themselves, as I did in 2012 ) . I calculated in 1:100 the mean ratio between pages of Physics studied and pages of Physics written by most of the wannabe scientist self defined “nuclear physicists” inside the so called “LENR” community. As my friend Sergio Focardi said many times: ” The problem is that they are searching for new physics without studying the existing physics before”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You have recently mentioned improved self-sustained mode operation for your plant.

    1. Is this something you are continually trying to improve with this plant, or are you satisfied with what you have achieved so far?

    2. Will you eventually publish data about ssm improvements over time with this plant. It would be very interesting to see a history of the performance of this plant.

    3. Have you been able to transfer the ssm improvements in this plant to the Hot Cats you are testing?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    Yes, very interesting. They will find new horizons in the subatomic universe.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gherardo:
    Thank you, likewise to you and again to all our Readers
    A.R.

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    Buona Pasqua
    Gherardo

  • DTravchenko

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Why do you think the LENR are so fought against from the mainstream science?
    Warm Regards,
    DT

  • JCRenoir

    Dr Rossi:
    From the article published on the April 2015 issue of Science & Vie, it seems your 1 MW E-Cat is considered something that sounds as a mockery toward the multi-billion ITER and NIF, because you succeeded to make with small money what they didn’t with enormous funds paid by the taxpayers… are you afraid of repercussions from this?
    JCR

  • Curiosone

    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    Did you see this from the CERN of Geneva?
    “The large Hadron Collider is back and stronger than ever”
    http://www.engadget.com/2015/04/05/large-hadron-collider-returns/
    W.G.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your important social endeavour. I will help you as soon as we will be able to.
    You have chosen the best possible way you could to celebrate Easter.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    April 11, I head to Guatemala to install three Village Water Purification Systems as (VWPS) part of my church’s mission trip. Looking forward to the day when I can include village-level eCat units to reduce the cost of electricity and to increase availability of electricity. Each VWPS is designed to provide potable water for 200 persons at very low cost per person (less expensive than boiling to purify the water).

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul Swanson:
    all the reactors of the 1 MW E-Cat have been manufactured in the factory of IH.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    What are the people who manufactured the e-cat reactors for the 1 MW plant doing during the one year of testing?

    Idle hands are are the hallmark of someone else’s workshop.

    Paul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paolo Edmondo:
    The E-Cat is certified only for industrial applications.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • paolo edmondo

    hi
    I’m interested to using an e-cat in Italy, this is possible?
    For the energetic use of a communal swimming-pool, thanks

    P.E.T

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    We all are making History together.
    Happy Easter to you,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: Happy Easter. I am going to take this opportunity to thank you for answering our questions and letting us watch important history unfold in real time. It feels to me like you are headed down the home stretch to a Nobel Prize.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thomas Florek:
    Thank you, likewise to you and all our Readers.
    We will spend Easter inside the plant, with the occasion asking God to help us as He did so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hi Andrea,

    Wishing you well during this most Holy of all Holidays. I hope you get to have an enjoyable time this weekend.

  • Andrea Rossi

    TO ALL THE READERS OF THE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS:
    WE WISH YOU ALL HAPPY EASTER HOLYDAYS !
    THE JONP TEAM

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    Thank you for your wish and for your consistent attention to our work.
    I prefer not to talk of the paper I wrote with the Professor before its publication. I said it is based upon the work of the ITP. You know that I do not like to talk of things that did not yet happen. The paper is under peer reviewing. When it will be published ( if it will be published) we will talk of it. I cannot add anything to what I already said.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    Do you have more ash analysis than what was published by the 3PT? If you do, was it important for development of your theory to be published in conjunction with the professor? If you do, will it be disclosed in the paper to be published?
    Regards and good luck with the referee.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pierre Clauzon:
    Can you kindly send us the link to see the article about LENR published on the French mainstream scientific magazine Science et Vie on the April 2015 issue ?
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    He,he,he…
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • silvio caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Note the Eagle defeating the Snake,
    With a feet on the italian fico d’india,
    Over the hot-cat tube showing the resistor coil and the energy irradiated…
    And the Italian flag in background
    :-)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    nice thought!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • silvio caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    It’s all symbolically explained in this hermetic image:
    http://www.bandiere-nazionali.it/media/flags/flagge-mexiko.gif
    :-)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Same answer I gave to Marco a minute ago.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    Thank you for your insight. We have various combinations for the maintainance scheduling, depending on the situation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pietro F.:

    He,he,he…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gio 51:
    I must confess that this information is correct. Valid from 1.00 a.m. of April 1st 2015 through 12.00 p.m. of the first day of April 2015. I suppose you will celebrate this scoop with a fish based feast.
    Sobby Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Se ama scherzare, oggi é il 1° aprile,
    le suggerisco un piccolo scherzetto; potrebbe far credere che qualcuno, stanotte, si é introdotto nel sito dove provate l’ecat, ed ha sotratto alcuni moduli e i pc che li controllano. Arrestati nei pressi cittadini di nazionalità russa…. poi farcisca Lei come desidera.
    Buon lavoro

    Pietro F.

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    the questions about the possibility to change only one moudule made me think a strategy to have zero stop time for a big plant: changing progressively the modules without turn off the plant.

    If you provide a 110 10Kw module plant for a nominal 1Mw plant, you can turn off for maintenance up to 10 modules at once (e.g. a day) without going out of nominal output power and so doing a progressive module substitution. The maintenance cycle will last e.g. 11-12 working days and only the first maintenance cycle will give you different aged modules (anyway the difference in age is less than two weeks between the older and the younger module).

    If the time to substitute a module is low, even the current 6 module overprovisioning (as far as I remember) can be enough, since you can turn off and replace only 1-2 modules at once in a couple of hours and in an entire day you can reach the 10/day (or even more) replace rate, to achieve a total maintenance period less than 2 weeks: even if it is without power interruption, a maintenance cycle is better to be kept as fast as possible…

    Regards,
    Marco.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “…since we expect that the charges will consume moreless equally; the maintainance will not involve only the charge replace, but many other issues, so it will be less time consuming a global intervention presumably of a week.”

    It sounds like the maintenance options are:

    Replace an entire 1MW eCat unit at the end of some period of time (6 months, one year, or as detected or estimated fuel runs low). Shut-down the old 1MW eCat unit. Disconnect the plumbing and electrical connections. Move in a newly refurbished 1MW eCat unit to replace the old unit. Re-connect plumbing and electrical and Turn-on the new 1MW eCat unit. I assume this could be done in a day.

    Or

    Shut-down the old 1MW eCat unit. Replace the expended eCat reactors. Do other maintenance actions to the 1MW eCat unit. Turn-on the refurbished 1MW eCat unit. This would take about a week.

    Or in the case of an eCat reactor sub-unit failure

    Leave the 1MW eCat unit running. Remove and replace the defective eCat reactor sub-unit with a replacement unit and continue to run. Perhaps run the replaced unit more to effect fuel consumption. Probably done in a few hours. Hopefully, this is a rare occurrence.

    Is this essentially correct?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    I am not able to answer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    Many people are trying to duplicate the hot cat. I have not heard of many attempts to duplicate the cool cat. Am I missing something or are those attempts being kept secret(DOD, NASA etc).
    Regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    in this case, “if opportune” means that we do not expect that will be necessary to make the maintainance to one or few modules per time, since we expect that the charges will consume moreless equally; the maintainance will not involve only the charge replace, but many other issues, so it will be less time consuming a global intervention presumably of a week. But this is an opinion, not based upon experience, that’s why I said “if opportune”. We’ll see.
    Warm Regards, from all our team “in our containers”.
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea and team in your containers.
    You really are an example for many, the way you work and why you work.

    Congratulations whith the enhanced SSM ! A giant leap, it seems.
    The principle of this improvement can also be applied to the driven mode?

    I have a question that arises from your answer to the previous question of Nils Fryklund:
    The answer is: yes, it is possible, if opportune.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S. I preferred to answer here because your question maybe of interest also for others.

    What do you really mean with: “If opportune” ?

    Kind Regards
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your insight.
    I cannot comment.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In you answer to Nils Fryklund you indicated it is possible to stop a single module of the 1 MW E-Cat and perform maintenance of the single module, change the charge while all the other modules are in operation. This suggests to me that:

    a. The eCat modules are individually controlled (as opposed to belonging to a group of reactors).
    b. I would further guess that you may be doing load balancing between eCat reactors to obtain maximum useful working time.

    Comments?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    You are asking how to contact me personally, here is the address:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>