To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

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by
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U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
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Introduction
In this paper by highlighting the following 28 major short comings of modern big bang cosmology the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way [1-3].
From now onwards instead of focusing on ‘big bang cosmology’ it is better to concentrate on ‘black hole cosmology’.
Its validity can be well confirmed from a combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena.
It can be suggested that, there exists one variable physical quantity in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude can be considered as a “standard measure” of the present “cosmic rate of expansion”.
Michael E. McCulloch says [4]: For an observer in an expanding universe there is a maximum volume that can be observed, since beyond the Hubble distance the velocity of recession is greater than the speed of light and the redshift is infinite: this is the Hubble volume.
Its boundary is similar to the event horizon of a black hole because it marks a boundary to what can be observed.
This means that it is reasonable to assume that Hawking radiation is emitted at this boundary both outwards and inwards to conserve energy, and any wavelength that does not fit exactly within this size cannot be allowed for the inwards radiation, and therefore also for the outwards radiation.
According to Hawking, the mass of a black hole is linearly related to its temperature or inversely-linearly related to the wavelength of the Hawking radiation it emits.
Therefore, for a given size of the universe there is a maximum Hawking wavelength it can have and a minimum allowed gravitational mass it can have.
If its mass was less than this then the Hawking radiation would have a wavelength that is bigger than the size of the observed universe and would be disallowed.
The minimum mass it predicts is encouragingly close to the observed mass of the Hubble volume.
Thus it is possible to model the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon.
According to Tinaxi Zhang [5-7], the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses and gradually grew up through a super massive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes.
According to N. J. Poplawski [8-11], the Universe is the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole and began with the formation of the black hole from a supernova explosion in the center of a galaxy.
He theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.
Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.
Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.
The rotation of a black hole would influence the space-time on the other side of its event horizon and results in a preferred direction in the new universe.
Most recently cosmologists Razieh Pourhasan, Niayesh Afshordi and Robert B. Manna have proposed [12] that the Universe formed from the debris ejected when a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole – a scenario that would help to explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.

629 comments to To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    @ Orsobubu

    A Quantum Leap in world politics and social progress everywhere, would be to accept a steering role of the United Nations (UN), to create a world-economy with ‘a human face’. At the moment, our world-economy is too competitive (deadly competitive), and should be transformed by a truly humanity serving system, steered by the UN, so that all countries are helped and developed in a co-operative spirit of working together for a better world. In such a system, Capital and Labour would work and SERVE together to create a better world for all (in all countries). To refer to your message, this is also a Fabianistic view, but one with good intentions and good working out. I don’t believe in Bolsjevism and the ‘dictatorship of the working classes’, because it also is too extreme, and puts the balance wrongly at the other extreme side, and causes too much destruction and wars. In my view, capital and labour should be balanced (by political representitives with good will), to create a better society for all. And probably the ILO (= the International Labour Organization = part of the UN), should have a stronger voice and more power, to create sustainable (social and environmental friendly) conditions everywhere. And this really would be a quantum leap towards a better world.

    Kind Regards,

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Other important data:
    Price and geographical limitations for the supply

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I see three important data AFTER the end of your 1MW eCat commercial system testing:

    a. Some form of energy coefficient (COP, etc.) that describes the energy output versus the energy supplied.
    b. The System Availability (percentage of time it actually worked within specification) and component failures/replacements over time.
    c. The amount of software changes, re-designs, manual interventions, etc. – to show the system configurations maturity. Hopefully an exponentially decreasing curve with time.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Drew Glista:
    The Creator rested on the seventh day because He had finished the job on the sixth. I have to complete the test ! When I will have finished, and communicated to Orsobubu the COP ( if any) I too will rest, as the Creator did after completing his job ( more complicated than mine, though, even if He too has been, and probably is, an experimentalist in the field of tansmutations).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Drew Glista

    Dr. Rossi:

    “16 hours per day, no holidays, rain or shine” Even the Creator rested on the seventh day. One day of rest per week is warranted and well deserved.

    Drew

  • Andrea Rossi

    Michael Schneider:
    You are absolutely right.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Michael Schneider

    Dear Andrea,

    You say that first commercial use will probably be the same as the actual test : heat for industrial processes. Maybe you should also consider a district heating project. That should be technologically very similar. But it would be tremendous PR in terms of public acceptance since the Ecat would heat homes ! It would make the technology a lot more tangible to the public and so, by gaining the hearts of Customers (versus Business), make it politically acceptable very fast. And suddenly permits for refurbishment of coal powerplants and such could be easy to get…

    Thank you for sharing this audacious venture us – and letting us give our 5 cents !

    Michael

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    The COP after 350 operative days will be published when the 350 operative days will have been completed. No data can be published before the end of the test.
    Thank you for your very permanent insight ( I tried to finish to read it, but it stuck permanently with lines left to read). Not to mention the Fabianism. Also our 1 MW E-Cat is Fabianist: in fact our chief electronical engineer’s name is Fabiani, and during the first period of operation our 1 MW E-Cat needed PERMANENT assistance of him. I suspect I didn’t get much of Fabianism as you explained it, but it is Sunday, I am here inside the plant, 16 hours per day, no holidays, rain or shine, and you put up Fabianism…… Thank you for your philosophical insight, and remember the Orsobubu mantra: ” The final results can be either…..”
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • orsobubu

    Mauro,

    I understand from Rossi’s answer that the various theories proposed as possible explanations of the Rossi effect are all close to quantum-leaps physics interpretation; it seems to me that also the E-cat/dogbones thermal behavior has more the characteristics of the jumps of power than those of continuous and gradual variations typical of classical physics.

    Even psychologically, in his communication strategies, Rossi seems to prefer a method of quantum leaps, because he doesn’t reports his progresses gradually, but with sudden and discontinuous episodes instead, each of them spaced months or years apart: Bologna test, tpr1, tpr2, MW1 plant test (positive or negative), etc. Meanwhile, large quantities of his exhausted fans sadly meet their natural death. For example, I’m sure Rossi will never say: today the COP is 0.9 …today is 1.0 … 1.1 … etc, but one day, with a quantic leap, he could suddenly say, my friends, I inform you officially that the outcome is positive, and the final COP is 1.5 (large numbers of self-hanging among the masses here).

    But we must say that Rossi is quantic in physics, and classic in everything else. For him, energy production systems will be integrated gradually with LENR. I would say that Rossi is less than gradually progressive, he’s even metaphysical on some issues: to him, darwinism can not explain the gradual evolution from amoeba to man as the only intelligent species; or, yes, capitalism can be gradually reformed, not abolished with a revolutionary leap, but it is essentially the final stage of human kind.

    So, comparing the classical continuous changes in classical physical theory with intermediate quantum jumps is a very attractive job even if applied to other areas. For example, if we accept the idea that the evolution of the species has followed closely the principles of the progressive darwinian natural selection, it is difficult to explain how it could have produced their enormous variety and complexity inside the time scale of biological history of the planet. Instead, scientists are understanding now the functioning of large obscure DNA parts, until a short time ago unknown, to explain this variety through the hypothesis of evolutionary jumps, able for example to form suddenly very specialized structures similar to a complex animal eye, starting from primitive cells.

    But above all, it is in the historical and political doctrines that we found most striking parallels. Now in short order I’ll convince Rossi to become a quantum guy in history as well.

    —————-

    Dear Andrea, Fabianism is a political and social movement of British social democratic inspiration, born in the late nineteenth century and headed by the Fabian Society, which claimed the gradual elevation of the working classes, to make them suitable to take control of the means of production. It took that name because of a gradualist and temporizing tactic reminiscent of the military policy of Quintus Fabius Maximus (il Temporeggiatore, the Procrastinator), who in the fight against Hannibal and his Carthaginian adopted a tactic of waiting, exhausting and slow attrition.

    The Fabianism believes in the gradual evolution of the society, through reforms that progressively lead to socialism, unlike Marxism which preaches a revolutionary change and explains the entire evolution of political power by revolutionary leaps. But rejecting Marxism and judging it utopian, Fabianism proved utopistic itself. Over time, it has moved largely from a gradualism that leads to socialism to a reformism that accepts the capitalist system. All social democratic parties and reformists that refer today to “the third way” have been inspired by the Fabian Society. Trotsky wrote: “in the entire history of the British labor movement there has been pressure from the bourgeoisie over the proletariat through the use of radical intellectuals and church socialists who reject the class struggle, defending the principles of social solidarity, preaching collaboration with the bourgeoisie to bridle and politically weaken the depressed proletariat”. Also the concept of a world government advocated today by the Fabians, has lost the reference to socialist internationalism and resembles more like a Big Brother concocted by major capitalist economic institutions and banks as frequently described by conspiracy theories.

    Fabianism since 1900 was directed against the liberal individualism claiming that the classical liberal political economy was outdated, and that imperialism was the new stage of the international policy (by well-known writer G.B.Shaw). The question was whether Britain would be the centre of a world empire or whether it would lose its colonies and end up as just two islands in the North Atlantic. It expressed support for Britain in the Boer War because small nations, such as the Boers, were anachronisms in the age of empires. At that time the first concentration camps in the history of the world were also created.

    So we can see clearly how gradualism by Fabians is actually only a support to constant adaptation of the capitalistic ruling class to repel the onslaught of the working classes; after have taken the power themselves by means of revolutionary leaps, capitalists can change gradually everything about the political envelope just to leave untouched everything in the property assets and power relationships, so syntesizing their opportunistic maintenance of a social privilege. Also, Fabians contradict themselves even when they seem to describe their tactics more like a leap in power scale than as a gradual approach, when they strangely write in their motto: “you have to wait, have patience, as Fabius did when he fought against Hannibal, although many criticized the delay; but when the right time comes you have to hit hard, as did Fabio beating the enemy in the decisive battle, or your wait will be in vain and fruitless”.

    The concept too of permanent revolution you like so much, Andrea, in Lenin and Trotsky should be interpreted not as a gradual phenomenon, but as the need, in backward tsarist Russia, to perform even a double revolutionary leap, jumping in one step from being a feudal peasant economy to socialism, skipping the capitalistic phase by taking advantage of the weakness of this class in those underdeveloped lands when compared to western countries.

    ————

    Now, after have painstakingly persuaded Rossi of the virtues of quantum leaps in history and economics, to celebrate and immortalize the event he can quantically fill the space below with the result of the 1MW plant test well in advance of the classical test timeline, and give us the final long awaited COP:

    ==> copy and paste the damn COP here

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Prof Hideo Kozima’ s paper is very interesting. I think he has the potential to replicate the Effect and I am sure we soon will have interesting news from him, due to his Galilean approach.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Description of the 1 MW plant in operation will be given after the tests and the R&D on course will have been completed.
    I gave the information I could.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You mentioned in your post of April 3 about the measurement system used in the 1 MW plant that there were 56 thermocouples to measure steam, 56 thermocouples to measure water, and 56 pressure gauges — does this mean you have 56 reactors in operation in the plant?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Oeystein Lande:
    I cannot give this kind of information.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Øystein Lande

    Dear mr Rossi,

    Can you confirm if electromagnetic induction of the charge through ac heating cool or by other means is important part of the “Rossi effect”?

  • Robert Curto

    Hank Mills April 19 at 10:25PM
    I believe Einstein said the speed of light, about 186,280 miles per second is an absolute speed limit.
    Yet you said you would like to see a space craft go faster then the speed of light, with an E-Cat core !
    Me too…..in my dreams.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
    USA

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    At night, even more so than during the day, my mind races and attempts to comprehend topics that fascinate me – yet I do not fully understand. Last night something compelled me to compose the following document that contains a general synthesis of the information I’ve obtained from all my reading, discussions, and study of the Ni-LiAlH4 hot cat.

    Guideline Document for Basic Nickel-Lithium Aluminum Hydride Reactor Based on Rossi’s E-Cat by Hank Mills

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/04/25/guideline-document-for-basic-nickel-lithium-aluminum-hydride-reactor-based-on-rossis-e-cat-hank-mills/

    A severe thunderstorm just hit knocking off the power to my neighborhood, and I’m writing this post in a dark room illuminated only by the glow of my cell phone screen.

    I am eager for a future when there is no electrical grid because homes are each independently powered by E-Cat generators.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    The following article has been submitted by Hideo Kozima, Professor Emeritus at Shizuoka University (Japan) to the E-Car World website.

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/04/25/the-trapped-neutron-catalyzed-fusion-model-and-e-cat-hideo-kozima/

    The Trapped Neutron Catalyzed Fusion Model and E-CAT

    By Hideo Kozima of the Cold Fusion Research Laboratory

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Thank you, very interesting both the links.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    More information on the Toshiba CO2 Turbine.

    http://www.gasturbineworld.com/gearing-up.html

    Super-critical Regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Here is an interesting link (one of several) on Supercritical CO2.

    http://nextbigfuture.com/2013/12/roadmap-to-supercritical-co2-turbines.html

    One picture has an “unintentional” (???) reference to Industrial Heat, which probably refers to heat for Industrial use. Still, you never can tell…

    Also, there is a comment on the possible cost for Electricity using SCO2 with the IMSR reactor. Nothing yet about about the LENR reactor.

    Best wishes,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Thank you for your insight.
    I cannot give further information so far.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    While studying the properties of various types of nickel and LiAlH4, I’m discovering there is a large variation in specifications between sources. For example, LiAlH4 can have various particle sizes that range broadly from supplier.

    —-

    Decomposition behavior of unmilled and ball milled lithium alanate (LiAlH4) including long-term storage and moisture effects

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838810012089

    Abstract

    A comprehensive study of the decomposition behavior of as received and mechanically (ball) milled LiAlH4has been carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and volumetric hydrogen desorption in a Sieverts-type apparatus. Alfa Aesar LiAlH4 powder investigated in this work has the average particle size of 9.9 ± 5.2 μm as compared to 50–150 μm for Sigma–Aldrich LiAlH4 investigated by Ares et al. [9]. High energy ball milling reduced the particle size of the present LiAlH4 to 2.8 ± 2.3 μm. In general, comparing the results of our microstructural studies with those reported by Ares et al. [9] it is clear that the morphology, microstructure and chemistry of LiAlH4 can be very dissimilar depending on the supplier from which LiAlH4 powder was purchased. We do not observe a partial decomposition of LiAlH4during milling up to 5 h under high energy impact mode. The observed melting of LiAlH4 in a DSC test is a very volatile event where the liquid LiAlH4 starts foaming and flowing out of the alumina crucible. After completion of solidification and desorption at temperatures above melting the powder resembles a lava rock. A thermal sectioning in DSC tests at pre-determined temperatures and subsequent XRD studies show that LiAlH4starts decomposing into Li3AlH6 immediately after melting. Li3AlH6 seems to be already solidified before it starts decomposing in the next stage. All volumetric desorption curves at the 120–300 °C range clearly exhibit a two-stage desorption process, Stage I and II. As received LiAlH4 is able, in a fully solid state, to desorb at 120 °C under pressure of 0.1 MPa H2 (atmospheric) as much as 7.1 wt.%H2 within ∼259,000 s (∼72 h), i.e. ∼93% of the purity-corrected H2 content from the reactions in Stage I (LiAlH4(s) → (1/3)Li3AlH6(s) + (2/3)Al(s) + H2) and Stage II ((1/3)Li3AlH6(s) → LiH + (1/3)Al + 0.5H2). The apparent activation energy for Stage I and II for unmilled LiAlH4 is equal to ∼111 and ∼100 kJ/mol, respectively. For the ball milled LiAlH4 the apparent activation energy for Stage I and II is slightly lower ∼92.5 and ∼92 kJ/mol, respectively. The water absorption up to 11.7% due to exposure to air for 1 h does not change in any drastic way the hydrogen desorption rate of ball milled LiAlH4 in Stage I. Flammability tests show that the ball milled LiAlH4 powder does not self-ignite on contact with air but can only be ignited by scraping the cylinder walls with a metal tool and then the powder burns with an open flame.

    —-

    Should professional scientists with experience handling these chemicals be selective in the particle size of the LiAlH4 they choose, while trying to replicate the heat effect detailed in the Cook-Rossi paper?

    If you can provide a couple sentences to specify the LiAlH4 component of the E-Cat (which has already been defined in your paper as a Ni-LiAlH4 system) it would be very much appreciated. For example, does the LiAlH4 work best when the particle size chosen is small or milled to be even smaller? Or does it not matter at all?

  • Andrea Rossi

    D. Travchenko:
    We made intensive work on this issue in 2012 in Europe, for a particular Customer I cannot disclose; now we are focused on the 1 MW E-Cat and have not time for that, but eventually that could be an interesting R&D path. Is very difficult, and dangerous, but I think it could be worth to make some experiment. Maybe we can be useful for something in the field, maybe not.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Curiosone:
    Thank you for the information. Another giant enters in the R&D field of LENR. They followed for years our work and the fact that they decided to start a R&D is also indirectly a success for our work.
    I wish them good luck.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Martyn Aubrey:
    Thank you for your suggestions and support.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    Like boats.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, a curiosity:

    why the 1MW plant is “She” and not “he” or “it”?
    Best Regards,
    Italo R.

  • Martyn Aubrey

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    Firstly, I would like to say “Very Well Done!” on the progress you have made with the 1MW plant at the IH customer’s site. You have truly made great advances. As you have said many times, the best way to prove LENR to The World is to have a well tested product working and producing useful heat for a commercial customer in a real-world situation.

    I know from reading many comments here on the JoNP and on E-Cat World, that many people including myself, are waiting to reach the 400 day point in the testing and read your announcement of the results – “Positive” or “Negative” (F9!). Hopefully they will be mainly positive, and if negative only in small technicalities!

    My suggestion – which may or may not be useful:

    A Possible Method To Smooth Out Temperature Output Variations Over A Heating Cycle In The 1MW Plant

    This suggestion does not require any physical change to the plant, simply a variation in the sequence in which the control system addresses each reactor.

    I have made the following assumptions about the operation of the 1MW plant:

    1. The overall output temperature of the whole 1MW plant is the mean aggregate of the temperatures of the water/steam flowing over each individual reactor.

    2. The temperature of each reactor is raised by increasing the drive to the reactor and limited/cooled by reducing the drive so that the heat being generated in the reactor is only equal to or less than the heat being taken out of the reactor by the constant flow rate of the water/steam.

    3. In SSM, the heating is maintained over time by periodical pulses or top-ups of the heating drive, which may also be used to stabilise the reactors.

    4. In SSM, the temperature profile of the steam output from each reactor follows a waveform that is very roughly sinusoidal or triangular, and varies about a desired mean level. i.e. The heating period creates an upward slope, and the cooling results in a downward slope. These variations in temperature may range over only a few degrees, or they may be more pronounced.

    5. The control system possibly keeps the drive to all the reactors in sync, which would result in regular reinforced peaks and troughs in the aggregated plant output temperature.

    6. Another possibility is that each reactor is controlled independently, and these differing temperature maxima and minima points would be relatively unconnected between the reactors. In this case, any peaks and dips in temperature from individual reactors which coincided would be additive and cause a reinforced peak and trough in the temperature, whilst others not coincidental would possibly be subtractive and flatten the response curve. The overall result would be apparently random high and low temperature distortions in the aggregated steam output temperature.

    The Suggestion:

    To smooth out any variations in the aggregated output temperatures of these reactors, the control system could address the reactors in “pairs”. These pairs would only be logical associations and not necessarily adjacent or physically connected in any way.

    In fact different reactors could be paired up at different times, e.g. during maintenance or repair. The only requirement would be that the paired reactors produce quite similar output levels and heating response curves.

    For each pair of reactors, the control system would consider one reactor as being “in-phase” and the other reactor as being in “anti-phase” (i.e. 180 degrees out of phase).

    The regular pulses of drive would be equidistant in time, and the resulting heating and cooling would become complimentary. As one reactor in a pair heats up, the other reactor in the pair would be cooling down.

    The mean temperature of the two reactors would more closely follow the nominal chosen value and be more stable within a narrower divergence range.

    These two reactors would be operating together in a complimentary “Push-Pull” configuration to achieve a more even temperature level combined output (at the combining (summing) connection point of all the reactors).

    Furthermore, the full set of logically paired reactors in a plant could be driven in a timed sequence of evenly spaced intervals over the whole Heating/No-Heating SSM cycle.

    At any time only one reactor pair would be at its peak/anti-peak, and each pair would get its turn in the sequence before the sequence repeats, producing a more even distribution of temperature.

    The overall mean aggregated heat output of the plant would now have a much smoother and flatter profile, which should improve the consistency and stability of the heat being presented to the customer.

    You may also find that a more consistent heat output level would allow you to increase the chosen mean temperature without any individual temperature peaks straying into excessive uncontrollable levels.

    You may well be using some similar method already, but I hope this still gives you some food for thought.

    Ongoing Supportive Regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  • Andrea Rossi

    JC Renoir:
    Thank you for the link.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Curiosone

    Dr Rossi:
    Have you been informed that also Volvo has started a R&D in the LENR, after your results?
    Godspeed,
    W.G.

  • DTravchenko

    Can your technology be used also for the treatment of nuclear wastes, to go through transmutations toward less radioactive atoms?
    Warm Regards,
    DT

  • JCRenoir

    For the Readers that want to read the article of the April 2015 issue of Science & Vie, with the article on the LENR and Hot Fusion, that is not free on the internet, but can be bought for about 3 Euro here:
    http://www.kioskquemag.com/magazine-en-ligne/science-vie
    Cheers,
    JCR

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    As you correctly write, this is the first industrial application, where the performance is not measured only by gauges, but is measured by Customer satisfaction for the respected performance limits signed in a commercial contract. This makes the situation extremely important and the fact that this is the “Number One” makes my personal and my Team’s attendance important. Obviously the next plants will not need me: Customers’ technicians will be educated and certified to overview our plants, that by the way are operated by the automatic control system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fyodor

    Mr. Rossi

    I hope that you are well.

    I had a question pertaining to the commercialization/industrialization of your products. How much skilled technical management do the E-CATs currently require? I understand that because of its importance you must be present with the 1MW plant, but do you think that the E-CATs are reaching a point where you could train a customer technician to keep them running? Or do they still require the expertise of you and other Industrial Heat personnel for now?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my question.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mauro:
    Yes, what you write is a foundamental principle of the quantum mechancs. We can exemplify this concept in a simple way: imagine to watch the flame of a candle; now imagine that you walk backward, increasing gradually your distance from the candle: obviously, the flame of the candle will appear to you dimmer as the distance from it will be increased. So the flame will appear gradually smaller in proportion to such distance.
    Imagine that you can increase your distance so long you want, through a potentially infinite space: along the Classic Physics the flame will continue to become smaller, smaller up to become infinitely smaller ( in mathematics we’d say “evanescent”) but never will arrive to a zero-flame status; on the contrary, in quantistic mechanics at a certain point the flame will suddenly be turned off: why? Because the last photon has been emitted and this photon contained the last amount of energy ( the “quantum”) that could keep the light of the flame turned on. This last photon’s loss behaves like a switch.
    Now, imagine the integral of the temperature of the flame versus time: for the Classic Physics this is a round curve, along a continuous and proportional decrease, without “leaps” during the elapsing of time; for the quantum mechanics it is not a continuous round curve, but is a ladder ( a sucession of leaps) wherein every step of the ladder corresponds to the loss of a photon, or a bundle of photons if you prefer.
    This elementary amount of energy per time is given by means of the Planck Constant = 4.135 x 10^-15 eV x s, symbolized with the letter “h” in Physics equations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Peter Forsberg:
    1- Of course I have a commission !!! ( he,he,he…)
    2- Thank you for the very smart and useful Zerfloy ! And congratulations for making it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mauro

    Ciao Andrea,non mi intendo per niente di fisica, ti evidenzio la pagina presa sotto da Wikipedia (sicuramente l’hai già scartata come possibile spiegazione dei tuoi risultati, ma io te lo mando lo stesso, come una signora che va al mercato e sceglie i pomodori, le carote… e le porta allo chef che saprà lui cosa fare)
    In bocca al lupo

    Hi, Andrea; I am not a physicist, but I read this on Wikipedia and brng it to you hoping it’s useful for your work.

    Salto quantico

    Quantum Leap

    In meccanica quantistica, un salto quantico (dall’inglese quantum leap or quantum jump) è il passaggio repentino di un sistema da uno stato quantico ad un altro. Il processo è definito “salto” in quanto discontinuo, vale a dire che il sistema non attraversa un continuo di stati intermedi. Il fenomeno non è previsto dalla teoria fisica classica, in cui si assumono grandezze continue.

    In quantum mechanics quantum leap is is the leap from an energetic status to the next without possibility of other statuses in the between. This is different from classic physics in such that in the latter is possible a continuous integral.

    Ad esempio, in fisica atomica l’espressione indica il passaggio di un elettrone in un atomo da uno stato di energia ad un altro[1]; l’elettrone salta da un livello di energia ad un altro senza assumere valori di energia intermedi. Il salto è dovuto all’assorbimento o all’emissione di radiazione elettromagnetica sotto forma di un fotone di energia pari alla differenza tra l’energia iniziale e finale dell’elettrone.La probabilità di assorbimento (o emissione) del fotone determina l’allargamento delle linee spettrali dell’atomo.

    The leap is due to the absorption or emission of a photon and the probability of such emission determines the extension of spectral lines of the atom.

    Cheers,
    Mauro

  • Andrea Rossi

    Albert N:
    Delighted to read this. If you watch it more times, you will discover genial particulars that you can’t see in the first viewing, because too emotionally involved in the story.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco Serra:
    1- The ssm is measured by proper instruments, obviously. Listening to the “voice” I can understand many things, though, but this is instinct, not technology.
    2- SSM has never been a mistery
    3- SSM is controlled and regulated
    4- Maybe I am wrong, but it seems to me that also Dr Parkhomov has got SSM cycles
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco Serra

    Dear Andrea
    while you was describing your activities inside the container you said that you can hear Her voice and that She was in SSM. Do you mean that you can determine a SSM simply by the sond She produces ?
    I think that it’s the SSM exploitation that makes the difference between your device and the Parkhomov replica. Is the SSM still a mistery ? I mean, at the state of the art, can you predict when a SSM will start or end ? Or are the microcontrollers that simply detect when the SSM starts and in some way take profit by it ?

    God bless you
    Marco Serra

  • AlbertN

    Dr Rossi:

    (No need to post this)

    Just to let you know the wife and I just watched ‘Le Concert’ (2009) with English subtitles. Absolutely adored it.

    Grazie mille, e buona fortuna with the Ecat plant.

    Warm Regards,
    AlbertN

  • Peter Forsberg

    Dear Andrea,

    Could someone on JONP provide me with a link to where I could buy a DVD version of “The Concert” that is viewable by Swedish DVD-players. I would like to see this movie which you have made such a lot of advertising for. Do you have a commission? :-)

    I don’t know if this might interest you, but my team has launched a artificial intelligence application called Zerfoly on the Google Play store. It is completely free of charge and is just for amusement purposes. Maybe you might want to use it when you sit late at night in the container. In the application you create imaginary persons and write interactive dialogues between these persons. To fully understand what I mean you must really try it, but there are many possible use cases. I use it myself as an interactive diary. My kids use it and improve their spelling, imagination and general writing skills. You could for instance create a person in Zerfoly called Focardi, and in a way bring him back to life.

    The AI in Zerfoly is very generic and of a new kind. It can learn to understand any language and a person that you create could even be bilingual; for example learn to talk in both Italian and English.

    If you are interested you can read more here: http://www.zerfoly.com

    Best Regards

    Peter Forsberg

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Interesting.
    I will help asap.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A very simple system. It features a UV Filter to neutralize pathogens (takes 8W of electrical power). Combined with a microcontroller that senses when the UV Filter lamp is on. The Microcontroller turns on or off a solenoid valve so that if the UV lamp fails, the water is immediately shut off. A water flow rate restrictor controls the time through the UV Filter. Likewise, it delay the start of the flow of water after the UV Lamp comes on so that all pathogens are neutralized within the water filter. The unit consumes about 2W when not active and about 20W when water is being processed. It can output 1/2 gallon per minute. Control is by the User depressing a pushbutton. The technology can be expanded to support a city water tank. Multiple units working in parallel to provide a scaled up version is possible. The water is required to be reasonably clear (a 5 micron sedimentation filter removes larger particles but would quickly clog with dirty water).

    A small eCat generating electrical power (say 50W electrical output) would be ideal. Solar is a possible source but Guatemala has extended clouds (2 – 3 weeks) during the raining season. Most home do not have heating (in the Mayan Indian areas) as it is usually warm or they burn firewood when needed.

    Steve

  • Andrea Rossi

    Albert N:
    The word “rumors” is used in English with the same meaning it has in Italian.
    You will say surely thanks to me for haveng convinced you to see ” Il Concerto” ( The Concert).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • AlbertN

    Dr Rossi:
    Thank you for the very quick answer. Just to clarify for our non Italian speaking readers about your use of the word ‘rumor’. This is a play on words with the Italian word ‘rumore’ which means noise/sound. Is this correct?

    P.S. You have mentioned this movie “The Concert” before. You convinced me. I’ll watch it tonight.

    Warm Regards,
    AlbertN

  • Andrea Rossi

    Albert N:
    I want to add: since She is stable, tonight inside the computers container I also will hear the rumor coming from the sound of the movie “The Concert”, that tonight I will see for the umpth time. Got the CD. If somebody has not seen this movie, he doesn’t know what he has lost.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    AlbertN:
    The sole rumor that I hear is the voice of the 1 MW E-Cat.
    The visits are strictly forbidden and such will remain until the end of the tests. The sole persons that had access here are the nuclear engineers and physicists to make their measurements. Here are precise contractual restrictions regarding this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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