Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

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by
Khokon Hossen
Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
E-mail: khokon.pme@gmail.com
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Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), that were introduced by R. Santonico and R. Cardarelli in 1981, are gas ionization chambers made with resistive electrodes separated by precision spacers.
Typical gas gap range from a few hundred micrometers to several millimeters wide.
Timing Resistive Plate Chambers (tRPCs) were introduced in 2000 by P.Fonte, A.Smirnitsky and M.C.S Williams and has, since then, reached Time Resolutions better than 50 ps (σ) with efficiencies above 99% for Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP).
In this research work, we describe the main features of gas detectors and the different types of RPCs and their properties.
We describe a cheap and easy to built sealed tRPCs and we explain how we have built it.
We describe the main results we have got operating the sealed tRPCs built in the laboratory.

838 comments to Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    Whatever they maybe I am bound by means of an NDA, consequently I cannot answer either in positive or in negative.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Parenthood:
    I don’t know about brothers and their dimensions, but I know that the mother of the imbeciles is always pregnant.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: It has been suggested your answers on this site are being monitored and edited by a “Big Brother” third party. Could you please dispel these rumors?

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    Thank you for your reply to my latest blog. May I ask if the complexities you referred to in your developmental program are political, national defense, or only business related?
    Curious regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    I think that this will not be a case of either/or, but rather both/and. Integration will have positive effects on all the system. Provided ( which still has to be given evidence of) the final results of the tests on course will be positive, wherein positiveness is related to technological success.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Is it possible that the current test results can be both positive AND negative?

    That is, if the results of the E-Cat testing are positive, there could be some (anticipated or unanticipated) negative economic impacts to other industries and possibly negative national/international “con”sequences, while the overall impact of these results will have mostly positive “PRO”sequences.

    Positive regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    The delivery time for a 1 MW E-Cat, after the signature of the sale contract, can be between 3 and 6 months, based on the range of the amount of orders we assume to get, if the test on course will give positive results.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    It is still very difficult to say how much will be the price after the possibility to make a mass production. Our strategy, though, is to defeat the competition making prices that make reverse engineering pointless. Also in this fields, as in all others, competition will make the Customers happy… I foresee a strong battle. Related to this question of yours: the NASA magazine “Tech Briefs”, in the issue of May 2015, has published a very interesting “round table” regarding the state of the art of 3D Printing technology. This could be the real game changer in the manufacturing system. We are studying it to invent a system of application of this tech fit for our needs. This is another filler of the long nights inside the 1 MW plant in operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    A related question to the one I just submitted: what will be the estimated cost of a 1MW plant like the one you are now operating?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    As we anticipate the time when E-Cat plants can be mass produced for your pioneers, about how long do you estimate it will take to build a 1MW plant similar to the one you are testing?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie:
    Thank you for your insight, but the reality is more complex.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    Since you have operated your device for many hours both in powered and SSM mode, the negativity you worry about must be only in compliance with practical usage. However to use the automobile as an example, when it was demonstrated as a workable device, and available as a purchasable unit, many people bought a variety of different models despite the unreliability of all of them. Tires had to be changed frequently, engines broke down, brakes and steering were questionable as to operational reliability. The important factor which lead to todays very useable devices was the acceptance of the problems and the continuous efforts to eliminate them by manufacturers. Perhaps, instead of trying to present a perfect device, you may get more benefit from the improvements which would be devised by other users and which could then be implemented into your standard model making it much more saleable to industry and public users. I would assume, at least, improvements in controls and form would be forthcoming.
    Developmental regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Karl – Henrik:
    Thank you for this useful information.
    I just sent a request of offer to Cleanergy, while the Rankyne cycle has a too low efficiency.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Karl-Henrik

    Dear Andrea,

    I am a frequent reader of your blog and we also had some email contact two
    and four years ago.
    Then you were looking for companies manufacturing stirling engines. But
    stirlings needed higher temperatures than the first E-cat could provide. Now
    with the Hot-Cat it might be a perfect match.
    The swedish company http://cleanergy.com/technology/#present now has over
    500000 engine operating hours, so the product is mature.

    There is also a company in Finland that recently has developed a combined
    woodburner with electric production trough the rankine cycle ORC. The
    electric output is 10 kW with ac COP of 13 %
    This product is more simple and probably much cheaper than the stirling. If
    the COP of the Hot-Cat is over 7,7 the combined system would be
    self-sufficient.
    The link is to the swedish reseller.
    https://translate.google.se/translate?sl=sv&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=sv&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.energiteknik.net%2Fwp%2F%3Fp%3D5849&edit-text=

    Best regards,
    Karl-Henrik, Sweden

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Of course, this is a possible application ( provided the E-Cat will give final evidence to work properly at the end of the tests on course).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Very interesting, thanks,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sterling Allan:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • LENR-to-Market Digest — May 16, 2015 – Highlights include: Domestic heater E-Cat photo, long self-sustain periods, size getting smaller; ‘in contact’ with Elon Musk; ICCF-19 reports, featuring Parkhomov replication, Tom Darden; Open Power Association collaborating with MFMP; other Start-ups: LENRIA, Clean Nuclear Power, and French Society of Nuclear Science in Condensed Matter. (”PESN”)

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi

    Here are some interesting facts about Nickel.

    Perhaps soon, newer applications may be described.

    http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-32749262

    Best regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, Please Google:
    GLOBAL ALLIANCE FOR CLEAN COOKSTOVES
    Can you make an E-Cat Cookstove that can heat a Pot ?
    Global Alliance wants to provide 100 million homes with clean cookstoves
    by 2020.
    They are using charcoal stoves.
    The smoke is killing them, millions every year.
    Charcoal is becoming more expensive every day.
    They cut down all the trees on a Mountainside to make charcoal.
    In a heavy rain the mud slides down, and buries all the people in the Village
    below.
    They do not try to dig them out, they just make it a Mass Grave.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    This is very interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland: I have calculated that 30% will buy. But still the number is huge.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Very interesting to hear about the huge portfolio of “pioneers” ready to buy. Do you consider these pioneers serious parties who have a strong intention of purchasing E-Cats, or possibly just curious parties who have put their name on a list, but may back out.

    Best wishes,

    Frank

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea,

    GE can now build mini jet engines using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D metal printing. Perhaps, using similar technology, super-critical CO2 (SCO2) turbo-machinery can be built toward the goal of generating electricity.

    http://www.kurzweilai.net/a-3d-printed-mini-jet-engine-that-performs-at-33000-rpm

    Thermodynamic regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Domenico Canino:
    Thank you for your comment.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • domenico canino

    caro Andrea,
    lei dice che non è questione di intelligenza, ma di pregiudizio che la limita. Io invece la penso come un mio e suo illustre conterraneo di 2600 anni fa:
    E’ l’intelligenza che vede
    è l’intelligenza che sente
    tutto il resto
    è sordo e cieco
    (Epicarmo di Siracusa)
    Dear Andrea,
    You say that is not matter of intelligence, but of bias that limite intelligence. I believe it is, as my and your compatriot said 2600 years ago:
    Is intelligence that sees,
    Is intelligence that ears,
    everything else is deaf and blind.
    (Epicarmo di Siracusa)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Wesley ( from Czech Republic):
    I am answering to your comment, spammed by the robot; your questions are obvious from the following answers:
    1- we are following with great curiosity all the replication on course.
    2- obviously competition will rise: what will we do? Compete!
    3- 7Be formation is barred, electron capture is impossible without strong nuclear proton excess, strong nuclear proton excess does not exist in LENR
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    The E-Cat will be sold upon contracts that will contain all the necessary guerantees. Those who will trust our capacity to fulfill the guarantees will buy the E-Cats, those who will not trust will not buy them. That’s it.
    We already have a huge portfolio of “pioneers” from all the world ready to buy the E-Cats based on our guarantees. After this first wave of “pioneers” automatically references will be around. Like always happens with new technologies. But remember: maybe nothing will happen of all this, if the final results of the tests on course will be negative, as they might be.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You say that “it will not be necessary to inspect the E-Cat of others, since anybody can buy one and use it.”

    Of course anyone thinking about buying the E-Cat would want to know about the performance, efficiency, specifications, etc. How will they be able to get verified information about your products?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    Thank you for your opinion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    As a metter of fact, we are not yet halfway.
    Yes, the situation has improved substantially since when we started, anxiety stable too.
    Thank you for your simpathy,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    Thanks,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    NCY:
    1- Yes, this is one line of our R&D
    2- The customer that has installed the 1MW E-Cat in his factory is not a R&D laboratory, is a factory that makes an industrial activity. I have no idea what they will do inside their factory after the end of the contractual test on course, but for obvious reasons I would not be surprised if the access to their factory will be limited to the persons involved in their activity. Anyway, this is an issue doesn’t depend on me.
    Let me add also that being for sale in the market the E-Cats, it will not be necessary to inspect the E-Cat of others, since anybody can buy one and use it.
    3- Troubles have always a tomorrow, and ” tomorrow never dies” ( Bond, James Bond).

  • Andrea Rossi

    Domenico Canino:
    it is not as much a matter of intelligence, I think; it is mainly a matter of biased ways of thinking, that limit the intelligence. From this reason I think it is important the phenomenological application of the “epochè” upon all what is given for sure.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • domenico canino

    Your answer to Koen Vandewalle is right. Billions of person will understand the same thing in millions of completely different ways. I think because of the difference of intelligence among the persons. We have to fight to the more intelligent people to prevail, and not the more aggressive ones. Because intelligence is the only way to save the wordl.

  • Giannino Ferro Casagrande

    Caro Andrea , per davvero bella la Tua risposta al Koen . Io la penso così già da molti anni . Complimenti Cordiali saluti da Giannino di Udine.
    I agree with what you answered to Koen.

  • Curiosone

    Prof. Khokon Hossen:
    I read your very interesting paper published this week on the Journal of Nuclear Physics.
    I have a question for you: do you think that the “sealed timing resistive plate chambers” can play a role in the LENR?
    Cheers,
    W.G.

  • NCY

    I have several questions for Mr. Rossi:

    1. Have you considered the application of stirling engines for smaller, domestic (in the 1 kw range), Micro CHP (combined heat and power) applications? Several stirling engine Micro CHP devices exist on the market already usually with nat. gas boilers.
    such as this one: http://tinyurl.com/pavwjl4
    or this one: http://tinyurl.com/qeg4eme

    2. Has the customer of the industrial plant that is currently undergoing testing agreed to inspections by outside sources (news representatives, scientists etc.) once the test is completed?

    3. With current progress on the plant seemingly going well, how does this make you feel?

    thanks, NCY

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    By my calculations, you must be around the half-way point in your E-Cat plant test. Is the E-Cat more tame than she was near the beginning? Is your anxiety decreasing at all after all this time?

    Best wishes for the rest of the test.

    Frank Acland

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Andrea, your answer is inviting me to think further.

    The people are only carriers of the mind, but the people themselves, as temporary physical being, are of little interest.

    Collective prevalent thoughts determine whether there will be progress or decline. False collective thoughts and lies are the biggest threat. They feign a local visible progress in the short term but in the long term they cause an overall decline or even collapse.
    In general deterioration of the collective mind, mankind has no reason to exist anymore.

    We live in dangerous times, the lies can quickly infect the minds of many people through technology. Technology also allows for better feedback, allowing the lies to refine or enhance themselves, faster than the collective wisdom can overtake them.

    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    Because if you explain the same thing in the same way to billions of persons, they will understand the same things in millions of completely different ways, then will try pacifically to prevail upon the other interpretations, then, when any diplomatic way will have failed, they will make series of wars to make their way of understanding prevail. At the end, will not prevail who will have understood better, but who will kill more enemies. The latter is also the one who will write the History.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Since we’re waiting for something that can be positive or negative between december and february.

    One day, God visited the Earth. He arrived in kindergarten, introduced himself and explained everything about the universe. How the atomic nuclei are made, how gravity works, how we are connected to each other, why life is made finite, and how people should organize their economy and their society in order to live happily in harmony with nature and the earth. All attendees must record everything he had said. Years later he discovered that the people, despite his personal explanation, had learned little.

    I wrote “kindergarten”, but we can write whatever we want, the outcome will be the same. Why is that ?

    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alessandro Coppi

    Hi Andrea,
    with regard to the Stirling engines ready to the market, now that high temperature has been achieved, you should ask to Baxi,(google Baxi cogeneration ) it seems that they have in their range of products, a boiler gas powered that integrates a stirling generator “Stirling technology, that generates 1 kW of electrical power, 24 kW of output and efficiency up to 92%, (my note, probably refers to the global thermal efficiency) is already present in the U.K.” The main trouble of a such generator is the cycle of the burner that alternates few minutes of work and minutes of pause, in this way the stirling generator cannot establish a good working point.

    Best regards Alessandro Coppy

  • Andrea Rossi

    Andrea Calaon:
    Thank you for your interesting insight. As a matter of fact, we still have to receive a real commercial offer, economically sustainable, for Sterling engines or supercritical CO2 plants to be coupled with the E-Cats, either domestic or industrial. There are interesting conceptual prototypes, but nothing we can buy and put at work with a sustainable pay-back time. Information about the evolution is interesting, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Calaon

    Dear Andrea,
    if the suggested Stirling engine of Ripasso (Ahlstrom Capital, Saab Kockums):
    – has really an efficiency above 40% (http://www.ripassoenergy.com/our-technology/ ),
    – can run for years without problems,
    – is not too big, and
    – works with 1,200 [C] walls (720 [C] is the rated max heater temp.),
    it should be an interesting possibility for producing combined heat and electric power with your Hot Cat.
    I guess you are now mastering Hot Cat electric-thermal COP of 14 (without “synergy”).
    40% – 100%/14 = 33%.
    So the system could already self sustain electrically (apart from start-up) and give out 1/3rd of the thermal energy it generates as net electric power..
    Probably the services for the sterling will consume a bit, but even an electric output of 22-25% of the thermal energy would not be too bad.
    The sterling of Ripasso is 30kWe, so you would need rods for about 100KW th. 10 rods?

    In my mind for a 60% efficiency supercritical CO2 will still be the only option. I have the feeling the supercritical CO2 plants, in may be 7-10 years, will be miniaturized for a few MW powers and be put on ships, locomotives and then may be planes as well.

    The big players chasing you will soon appear!

    Good luck Andrea!

    Andrea

  • Andrea Rossi

    Akum:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    A. Bhatt:
    Thank you for the very interesting link.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • A. Bhatt

    Hi Andrea,

    Here is an interesting article about a new state of matter discovered! Should open up some new doors.

    http://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-have-discovered-a-new-state-of-matter-the-jahn-teller-effect

    A. Bhatt

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