Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

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by
Khokon Hossen
Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
E-mail: khokon.pme@gmail.com
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Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), that were introduced by R. Santonico and R. Cardarelli in 1981, are gas ionization chambers made with resistive electrodes separated by precision spacers.
Typical gas gap range from a few hundred micrometers to several millimeters wide.
Timing Resistive Plate Chambers (tRPCs) were introduced in 2000 by P.Fonte, A.Smirnitsky and M.C.S Williams and has, since then, reached Time Resolutions better than 50 ps (σ) with efficiencies above 99% for Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP).
In this research work, we describe the main features of gas detectors and the different types of RPCs and their properties.
We describe a cheap and easy to built sealed tRPCs and we explain how we have built it.
We describe the main results we have got operating the sealed tRPCs built in the laboratory.

832 comments to Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    “Cannot stay away” from your eCat is a sign of two possibilities:

    a. Compulsion, based on fear or anxiety or
    b. Great love for the technology

    Condition a is very damaging and unhealthy. Condition b is very healthy and wonderful. I hope it is condition b.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    eCat fuel exhaustion is an interesting topic. Do you expect to detect near fuel exhaustion by:

    1. monitoring your control levels or signals and observing a long term, significant increase in demand for the same thermal output level?
    2. The thermal output power gradually begins to decline?
    3. The thermal output power suddenly drops without the ability to recover?
    4. Rapid changes in the thermal output power?

  • jackie

    Dear Mr. Rossi, everybody that has a baby never knows if their child will “change the World”, you are sitting in your container, baby sitting with a child that you know will change the World dramatically and hopefully much for the better.
    This must make you feel very proud, like a new father who knows their child will be a genius.
    Best wishes

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Can you explain why the Lugano report has been so helpful to you, after you have done so many years of R&D of your own? I would have thought you would have made tremendous amounts of measurements of every kind in your own labs.

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gherardo:
    As a matter of fact, I am continuing to lose weight, but I made blood and urine analysis very complete, including cancer indicators and the results are totally good, so I am healthy. The Team is working with me and , honestly, they would be glad to allow me to work the regular 8 hours per day instead of the 16 I work through, but it is me that is not able to stay away from Her. Observing the E-Cat at work, combined with the data of the Lugano Report and the study of the theory of Norman Cook our technology is consolidating by the day.
    This said, I must say F9 ( F9= ” the final results can be either positive or negative “).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard Mc Ek:
    We did not see so far exhaustion signs. In this case it is not a matter of crystal ball, but of experience: it is the first time we can see a plant work 24/7 for one full year, therefore we have to learn. From theoretical ( mathematical) calculations the charge should endure at least 365 days. We’ll see.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Andrew Rovnak:
    Sorry, I have taken off from your comment a theory that is too nonsensical to be published even in a blog. It violates practically all the foundamental laws of physics. Suggestion: without strong bases, better let alone theories.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Andrew Rovnak

    Just thinking about how simple all this is Andrea – the big picture of the New Fire with only a few more engineering details to be worked out like you have done in the E-Cat series – thanks again from all of us who see the TRUTH & now for the details, No?

    Jim

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    I just read the comment you gave to Frank Acland and I wondered:
    Did you see any change in time which may be due to exhaustion or waring out of the ‘fuel’? If so, are you able to extrapolate (calculate) the expected ‘life-time’ of the fuel and it this satisfactory or is this still crystal ball science and hope?
    Thanks for your constant effort for answering all these endless questions.

  • Gherardo

    Dott. Rossi,
    from the photos I see here http://andrea-rossi.com/1mw-plant/ you are too slim for the team !!! 😀
    Don’t be possessive, let them chase the cat too and burn some fat…
    Gherardo

    PS: I’m obviously joking, I hope you and your team are in a good mood :-)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Josh K. Horn:
    I can say nothing until a detailed report is published about those experiments, with all the necessary scientific data.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    The E-Cat is much more complex.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,
    The soldering gun is a device where a high amperage 50 Hz alternating current flows in a thick copper wire. The wire becomes very hot at a portion which is strongly curved. (Google ‘soldering gun’ to see images or probably you know such device already.) Maybe this kind of heating approach might be useful in small E-cat units, because it can be made very local and losses are apparently rather small. It is a variant of resistive heating, but one which is specific to AC.
    regards, /pekka

  • Tom Conover

    James Rovnak,

    Thank you for your interest. I need to make a serious correction here. None of the information published by Wizkid was intended for this forum, it was not fueled. There was no SSM because there was no fuel present. There was no SSM.

    Wizkid

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for the update of the laboratory replication trials.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    These days we are satisfied how things are going on. ( F9 ).
    As you know, the measurements and the report of the ITO after the Lugano test have allowed us a strong improvement, for reasons that we deem confidential, so far. The Lugano Report of the Independent Third Party for us is a gold mine. For this reason I am very curious to read the reports after the replication of the Effect they are trying in the Universities of Uppsala (Sweden) and Bologna (Italy).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mark Saker:
    You can find many photos on
    http://www.andrea-rossi.com
    and on
    http://www.leonardocorp1996.com
    Also in this blog, going through the 23,200 comments and counting, you will find hundreds of links inside the comments with photos.
    The Hot Cat we are testing here now externally is equal to the Hot Cat of the Lugano Test, whose photos are published on the Lugano Report made by the ITP, published here:
    http://www.elforsk.se/lenr-matrapport-publicerad
    Next photos, when possible, will be published on
    http://www.andrea-rossi.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Josh K. Horn

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    What do you tink of the replications cited in the comments of James Rovnak?
    John

  • Mark Saker

    Dear Andrea,

    As your know we all enjoy photographs :)

    I know its difficult for you to photograph the 1MW beast but I wonder if you could possibly add a small picture of the hot cat test rig. If your exchanging heat with a fluid then I imagine the reactor is difficult to see so shouldn’t give away any secrets?

    It gives us all something to talk about during this long test :)

    Or perhaps you may have some photos you can share from the earlier years of tests, near the beginning when you first started working with lenr?

    Thanks

    Mark

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You wrote:

    “The MW E-Cat is in ssm and stable.
    The Hot Cat is in ssm too, stable.”

    Is this unusual or quite normal these days?

    Kind regards,

    Frank

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea another one of my monologs of random thought for comments from you & blog members, only if you can.
    I shared this with Wizkid tonight as I thought I’d detected a little (ssm) LENR presence in his shutdown temperature graphs or else I’m just see things? You don’t have to comment on that statement, just save an old man from embarrassing himself again.
    “Just for the record Mats002 I did blow up (magnify) the unfueled test temperature profile on shutdown & the fueled run & there is a bit of (ssm) LENR present that is obvious to me at least. Now Wizkid if you normalize both decay curves to 100 %, that is the nonfueled case divided by 1200 C & the fueled trip case by about 900 C & overplot them, I think you will find that they both drop off initially very fast, but the fueled run runs into a little remnant of decayed heat at about 400 C or about 44%. This is exactly how heat after death appears in current nuclear plants. Now for a clean new Nuclear Plant reactor that is the unfueled analog here. It takes week/months for appreciable decay heat to build.Since Wizkid didn’t run very long nor stimulate enough (ssm) to occur, there will not be much (ssm) present in his decay profile.I didn’t have the data only graphs & my ability with spread sheets has become dismal since retiring 15 years ago but visually & with a few attempts at blowing up portions of both temperature curves until my eyes hurt, I could see the break point at 44% in the fueled run. Would be nice if Wizkid would try this exercise to make an old man happier or show me up for what I truly am. Many experimenters have witnessed (ssm) LENRs presence but just didn’t realize it nor even know it is there IMHO. I’ve said this before I don’t know the decayed heat build up time constants that’s what decay heat specialist are about in big nuclear plants, but I have used their numbers in nuclear plant simulations before with great accuracy in developing control & protection algorithms for a variety of nuclear plants. Hopefully that graph by Wizkid will show the Lady LENRs presence just a little & we wait with baited breath further runs & reports & eventual control & protection of the LENR Ladies process. This development would be cake for the nations National Labs but without a directive from Smart Government (?) they can’t bring their magic to bear here. Thanks to Andrea Rossi’s persistent work ethic that we are finally here today slowly gaining insight necessary for our future well being.Thank you for the great test & efforts Wizkid it is a pleasure to see you operate so professionally as well as others.”

    Jim

    And thank you again Andrea for this wonderful & insightful forum & discussions.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thanks for the update
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    talk with Wizkid
    “wizkid James Andrew Rovnak • 9 hours ago
    Hello James. Sharp temperature spikes were inserted to find LENR, but NO LENR FOUND yet . Source uses ardruino controller with custom software, optical a/c solid state switching and a full wave 10A bridge rectifier to produce DC that is used to drive the coil load.”

    Interesting set up, but I think he needs more TRIAC like freq content to stimulate Lady LENR into more dramatic presence like GS3 test, etc!

    We all wait for further testing & a final report with more details to learn more & maybe help Wizkid with ideas & comment of group think, just maybe!

    Have a nice day Andrea, just wanted to share this info from Wizkid with the Blog participants.

    Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Henry Featherweight:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rex Harris:
    In this moment it is 07.40 p.m. of Thursday, June 25.
    The MW E-Cat is in ssm and stable.
    The Hot Cat is in ssm too, stable.
    Fingers crossed. F9.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rex Harris

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Can you give another spot of update in the very moment you will be able to read this message?
    Rex

  • Henry Featherweight

    Dr Rossi Andrea,
    Do you think that the lattice theory of Prof. Norman Cook can explain the Rossi Effect?

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thanks for the update.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea, some comment over at lenrforum today on latest replication attempt whose report we await for further insight.

    True, but it was a very nice piece of work so far & should not go unnoticed. Think he may need some more high freq EM, not sure how it enters fuel element, but sure it is needed for lots of (ssm) LENR to show up!
    A moment ago
    NEW
    Tarun wrote:
    Some people are already spreading disinformation that this works and shows SSM.
    Who needs skeptics when we have such blind believers. :thumbdown:

    Good luck to the new replicator. Keep sharing your progress. :thumbup:

    Liked his power meter. Note all meters have high sample rate DACs to analyze current/voltage inputs for real & imaginary power present, even for TRIAC type noisy spectrum’s & that spectrum’s harmonics & current trace are fundamental to exciting (ssm) LENR of that I am sure tarun, & every bit of information publicly displayed should be discussed here to further our understanding & offer help & verbal support to those who undertake these arduous experiments, No? The World cries out for this New Fire & the lenrforum supports that cry with reasoned discussion by all – dissenters, critics, do-ers, interested followers, experimenters etc.

    Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    You are totally right and I will treasure your savvy suggestion. I’m sure Mr Bezos will comply!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dan C.

    Dear Andrea,

    Your crystal ball has been placed on back order, but Tom Conover received his. This smells of corporate suppression of the E-cat…

    Time to play hardball.
    Tell “Jeff Bezos” the Founder & Chairman of Amazon that your team will develop an E-cat powered Drone for his home delivery model. He is a savvy businessman & will quickly grasp the implications of this. He will personally deliver your crystal ball.

    At that point, you should up the ante. In return for developing E-cat drones, He shall provide *FREE* delivery of all future E-cat home Heater sales. This is of course dependent on (F9).

    Savvy Business Regards,
    Dan C.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for the information.
    Let’s wait for a detailed report to formulate an opinion.
    So far I can appreciate the enthusiasm.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea I think The Wizkid just did it.

    https://twitter.com/JAROVNAK/status/613858156058411012

    Have a nice evening. Nice to watch these guys replicate ingeniously, No?

    Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Albert N.:
    The fact that Airbus is making R&D in the LENR field confirms that our work has changed the game, involving the giants. This also gives evidence that it is not true that mainstream science is not interested in LENR.
    About your questions:
    1- We do not talk with our competitors
    2- Same as above
    3- I do not agree ( question: if they do not think LENR can be patented, why did a patent application, that I know very well and have studied with attention and is in good part copied from prior art?)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gianni Abbamonte:
    I do not know anything about what they are doing. I know, of course, that they are trying to replicate, in Uppsala and in Bologna, but I am not a rumorist, therefore I prefer to wait for written reports.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • AlbertN

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I was looking at the LENR patent Airbus filed a few months ago. My understanding is that the request is still ‘pending’. Airbus is an extremely large company and potentially Industrial Heat’s biggest threat/competitor. Airbus Group Innovations VP Chief Scientist Jean-François Geneste has been pushing for more research in the LENR field. Mr. Geneste is of the opinion that the LENR phenomenon cannot be patented. You can only patent the ‘control’ system.

    Jean-François Geneste has a very impressive bio:

    http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.cepadues.com/auteur/geneste-jean-francois/263.html&prev=search

    This leads me to few questions:

    1- Have you or I/H ever talked to or met Jean-François Geneste?
    2- Have you or I/H ever been in contact with Airbus or one of it’s subsidiaries?
    3- Do you agree that you cannot patent LENR itself but only patent the ‘control’ system?

    Warm Regards,
    Albert N

  • Gianni Abbamonte

    Carissimo Dott. Rossi:
    From many sources seems that the Lugano experiment has ben replicated from the professors that made it both in the Universities of Bologna and of Uppsala, where they made by themselves reactors and charges with the data they got in Lugano. Can you comment?
    Gianni Abbamonte

  • Andrea Rossi

    Herb Gillis:
    These are chemical processes that have nothing to do with the so called Rossi Effect.
    Warm regards
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    I came across a very recent communication in Nature (June-23) concerning an improved water-splitting catalyst. The catalyst is nickel-iron oxide, and the key to the improved performance was the introduction of lithium ions. The work came out of Stanford.
    Could there be more than just a coincidence here?
    Kind Regards; HRG

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    I will send strong complaints to Amazon, because they privileged you with the delivery of the crystal ball model I ordered before you: this is not a fair way to do business!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Conover

    PS: My crystal ball arrived from Amazon yesterday. Yours is on the way!

  • Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    The atmospheric engine invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine, was the first practical device to harness the power of steam to produce mechanical work.

    The E-Cat was invented in 2009, and is the first practical LENR power pack capable of generating nuclear energy power levels (heat) without environmental impact or radiation that plagued the major energy sources of that time.

    In 2016, Andrea Rossi was awarded international recognition for his contributions to stabilizing the global warming issues and virtually eliminating the environmental impact that mankind was inflicting on the tiny habitat we share, called Earth.

    Thank you, Andrea!

    Tom Conover

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Our attorney are making the appeal. We think we have solid arguments to reverse the rejection.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Can you share where you (and your team) are on the status of the US Patent Application? Last I recall, the Patent Office had rejected it.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bro Keeper:
    The answer is in your question: I have not the ctystal ball. We do not foresee, We experiment, take data, make decisions on the base of the data I collect. “We”, obviously, means my Team and me.
    Thanks for the nice link regarding this talented young man.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Litz Larkins:
    You are very kind, but remember that our tests are in the middle if the fight, and the final results could be either positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, you and your Readers may want to read this article.
    Google:
    THE COMMON GOALS OF THE POPE AND CLEAN ENERGY

    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • BroKeeper

    Dear Andrea,

    Once the cash begins to flow within another year perhaps you would consider adding to your amazing team gifted young geniuses like Taylor Wilson:
    http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jun/20/taylor-wilson-nuclear-teen-genius-science-interview.
    He reminds me of another young man of 44 years ago; however his nuclear fusion reactor was built at age 14.

    Since you insist on including the “negative” word, what top five obstacles do you foresee (without a crystal ball) would prevent a positive beta test? (I just sent a ‘Cheese Cake’ virus created by Dr. Affirmative to your baking robot to remove any form of negative results from its vocabulary).
    With much respect,
    BroKeeper

  • Litz Larkins

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    My sensation is that in the world few have understood the importance of the work you are doing: a 1 MW plant working mostly in self sustained mode is probably the most important thing made in the last hunderd years. You are spending all your life for this.
    Thank you, Dr Rossi, for what you are doing.
    Litz

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