Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

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by
Khokon Hossen
Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
E-mail: khokon.pme@gmail.com
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Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), that were introduced by R. Santonico and R. Cardarelli in 1981, are gas ionization chambers made with resistive electrodes separated by precision spacers.
Typical gas gap range from a few hundred micrometers to several millimeters wide.
Timing Resistive Plate Chambers (tRPCs) were introduced in 2000 by P.Fonte, A.Smirnitsky and M.C.S Williams and has, since then, reached Time Resolutions better than 50 ps (σ) with efficiencies above 99% for Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP).
In this research work, we describe the main features of gas detectors and the different types of RPCs and their properties.
We describe a cheap and easy to built sealed tRPCs and we explain how we have built it.
We describe the main results we have got operating the sealed tRPCs built in the laboratory.

832 comments to Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I understand the pressures to get a product to market quickly and the counter pressures of protecting IP and market positioning. You get one chance to do this job correctly in this world of ours. So proceed quickly but carefully. Obtain the necessary certifications and the mass production capability. Have these in hand before you release a commercial product. While people on this site honestly believe that the current prototype unit as is will be usable, you and I know that potential competitors will do whatever they can to prevent an eCat from being commercially successful. While the potential impact of lower energy will greatly affect the developing world, it would be a greater loss if eCat fails on its first release and the technology is lost. In my humble opinion.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi:

    I understand in part your response to Mr. Ferro Casagrande but at the same time I
    have the itching sensation that you are pressed by some unmerciful instances to
    attain extraordinary performances from the 103 modules warm E-Cat plant. And all
    that putting yourself in health risk. We think that the domestic unit with COP 6
    is enough and even 3 would be a success if only thermal power is required as is
    the case. And the best of all is that everything is ready for manufacturing.

    Of course, setting in service the E-Cats without proper certification is unlawful
    in US and in EU but we have estimated that more than 10% of the half a million
    preorders come from non USA, non european countries. This yields 5.000 orders,
    some of them of more than a single device. Correct me if I am wrong but
    manufacturing E-Cat for certain countries which allow its installation would be
    perfectly legal. I live in Northern Hemisphere, now summer time, but within some
    months lot of persons shall need thermal energy, an energy that most of them
    cannot pay if generated by wood, natural gas, fueloil or electricity.
    So please, for the sake of mankind (part of it), snap some time to get the
    necessary certifications. Even without further certificates, the safety
    certification (I think it is the more important) was already granted and enough
    for non US-EU countries. Then press the start button of the robotized plant and
    beginn production. Many problems will be solved and you will get in return not
    only a significant amount of money but also the gratitude of so many 3rd world
    persons.

    Yours sincerely

  • Hanna Von Goetz

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I saw another replication made by the Russian Academy of Science, that is taking seriously LENR after years of ostracism. Your merit.
    Godspeed,
    Hanna

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. Rossi: As you know there will be a huge market for your 1 MW E-Cat, how do you plan to protect your IP, will you use the same strategy you are planning for the home 10 KW E-Cat? Thanks again for this site and answering our questions, and thereby keeping LENR discussions in the news.

  • George Mc Elvenny

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    LENRleaks says that also a team of the University of Bologna has replicated the Rossi Effect with a reactor copied from the Lugano test: is that true?
    George Mc Elvenny

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea report on MFMP coming out shortly – ash analysis to follow, is my guess!
    “# Robert Greenyer — 2015-07-01 16:41
    Hi David,

    We are investigating the results of the GS3 and post analysis – I hope to publish this tomorrow, but seemingly have a never ending accounting job – including for the MFMP – to do. The analysis has implications for all replications in some way similar to the GS3.

    I am also setting up the Ash analysis.

    We are also helping others to get up to speed with their own replications.”
    I know we both await the ash analysis, although they did not run long enough for much to be there, but any would be very good news for everyone!
    My own guess is that we will see some!

    Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    For two resons:
    1- to sell an item not safety certified is unlawful
    2- we cannot sell a small unit before we are making massive manufacturing because the risk of reverse engineering is too high. Only a massive production can shield us from reverse engineering, making it not profitable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gretchen Taylor:
    Surely not before the end of the tests on course on the 1 MW E-Cat operating in the factory of the Customer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giannino Ferro Casagrande

    Ma non capisco ! Se io Ti chiedo di vendermi la tua vecchia bici ! Hai bisogno di rilasciarmi un cerrtificato di agibilità !!! Io non credo !!! Sono anni che vivi a contatto con numerosi E-CAT per 15 ore al giorno , e Sei ancora vivo e vegeto . Cosa Ti impedisce di spedire a noi i Tuoi più affezionati lettori un paio di scatolette con dentro questi minuscoli E-CAT . Io Ti leggo da anni !!! Io ,Steven , Gary , Paul , Alexvs , e molti e molti altri Tuoi affezionatissimi lettori e sostenitori .
    Non capisco !!! Giannino di Udin
    ENGLISH:
    Why you cannot sell us one of your prototypes, even if it is not safety certified?

  • Gretchen Taylor

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    When will you available for an interview on the status of the art of LENR?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    The R&D and tests that we are making not only with the 1 MW E-Cat, but also with the Hot Cat , are finalized to a massive production. Safety certification and massive production are necessary to fullfill your demand. I can assure you that we are working as much as possible on this issue.
    For what depends on us ( technology) we are very advanced. For what does not depend on us (safety certification) we will gain much time if the tests on the 1 MW plant will be completed with positive results, because the safe operation for 1 year of the 1 MW E-Cat can give a good point of reference also for the domestic applications.
    I really sympathize with you, as well as with Mr Ferro Casagrande, Steven N. Karels and all the many Readers that are sending us comments on the same subject, not to talk of the half million persons that have pre-ordered a domestic E-Cat and that are ready to confirm the order should we deliver our product.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Like Mr. Ferro Casagrande and Mr. Karels I am older than you (15 years). Since four years back we all await the advenement of our domestic E-Cats. Whithout wanting to put you in danger with the exhaustive working the 1 MW plant needs, I want to demand you, in my own name and in the name of above mentioned fellows, thorough information about what you have several times promised, i.e. a domestic E-Cat. We do not need 1 MW, just 10 KW. Even 5 KW would be wellcome by me and the group of mates who have booked for it. Not wanting to speak for the whole community we can send you a list of customers who would accept the 5 KW version. Please give us an email address where to send the list.

    We remain yours respectfully

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gary Underwood:
    Thank you for your attention. I want to underline, though, that the growth has been made together with my great Team.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    We are making the tests and R&D on course with the plant installed in the factory of the Customer of IH and on the Hot Cat to prepare a massive production (F9).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    What you write makes sense. I substantially agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    You bet!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    Interesting, thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Steven,
    Technological advances are enabling people to create larger and more complex problems.
    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Meanwhile this electric plane is already flying.
    It carries two people and has a range of 1 hour.
    And it is powered by packs of rechargeable electric batteries, total power 9 kW:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WiADDbeFanU

    Flying Regards,
    Italo R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Since I am older than you, mostly likely you will win but I will be long gone. My winning solution, experimental aircraft. Plus the battery evolution will push the technology. You do your part for LENR electricity generation and the rest of humanity will do their part – battery and aircraft powerplant development. Keep my bottle of water cold!

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    The first aviation e-cat will probably be an unmanned steam rocket with a single hot-cat reactor in a sealed water tank driven to critical failure. I believe you said that the 10 KW hot-cat that failed during the first 3rd party test reached 1MW output over a 10 second period. (We are still hoping to see the video some day.)

    Paul

  • Giannino Ferro Casagrande

    Cari Steven ed Andrea , siete molto simpatici sulla disputa di quanti anni ci vogliono ancora per realizzare propulsori LENR su strada o aerei . Io fra 20 anni sarò belle che morto . Ma io caro Andrea aspetto già da molto tempo solamente 4 minuscoli HOT-CAT per scaldare qualcosa in Azienda . Fra quanto me li spedirai ? A me non servono cartacce varie . Vedi se riesci a rispondermi un po meno evasivamente con ad esempio non ho la sfera di cristallo oppure quel continuo F9 di incertezze .
    Rammentate che Vi voglio bene per davvero se non altro perché lavorate non meno di 12 ore al giorno . Ma d’altro canto anch’io ho fatto cosi per più di 40 anni comprese le domeniche e festività . Ciao Andrea ! Forza ! Giannino di Udine !
    ENGLISH nutshell tanslation by A.R.:
    Dear Steven, Andrea:
    apart airoplanes, when will I be able to use an E-Cat to heat up my factory?
    Giannino from Udine (Italy)

  • Gary Underwood

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I read all the more than 23 000 comments and the hundreds of links to the comments in this blog and I am stunned. The amount of information is colossal and what does really stun me is the unbelievable constant upgrading under the scientific, technological point of view that you made in 4 years: it has been an exponential growth. Congratulations and thank you for this dramatic engagement of yours.
    God bless you,
    Gary

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    What a stupid man I am!
    I made a statement related to what will happen in future about LENR and Avionics while I didn’t yet receive the crystal ball from Amazon!
    I settle for the water bottle bet, though..but now we have another F9 case: in 2025 Andrea Rossi could be still alive, but also dead…ok, here is the solution: I will put a water bottle in an escrow and you will be entitled to get it, should you win the bet ( you will lose, you will lose…have you the slightest idea of the timespan necessary to get the certifications – I mean safety certifications- for a thing like this in avionics ??? It is taking more than 4 years to make domestic boilres !!!).
    I said 20 years because I am an optimist guy. I cannot forget that the CEO of Volvo, several years ago, told me that to apply LENR to trucks could take about 20 years; can you imagine how much time will be necessary for an aeroplane?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Sorry, but I must strongly disagree with you. I would foresee that LENR will be used for aircraft propulsion within 10 years. The current flight of the Solar Impulse 2 demonstrates that low powered aircraft can be made. Consider using LENR with its long-term fuel and high energy to mass ratio. While I agree that fighter jets that require rapid change in energy output will be the last to see LENR, I would think that slow transport aircraft could meet an economic need as fossil fuels become less available and more restricted. So if there are no LENR powered commercial aircraft in Dec 2025, I will gladly by you a bottle of water.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    I think that the day of aeronautical applications of LENR is not close.
    I think it will take not less than 20 years to see something operating in that field.
    Not less, probably more.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,

    Are you confident that major manufacturers of jets will put their wizards to work on LENR ? (So it seems…)

    Kind regards,

    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini:
    I can say nothing.
    Due information about the performance of the plant will be given after the end of the Tests and R&D on course. The results could be positive or negative, independently from anything anybody could say now.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    The measurements of the efficiency of the 1 MW E-Cat installed in the factory of the Customer of Industrial Heat, obviously, is made with calorimetry, because the plant has to produce steam necessary to the manufacturing process of the Customer. Therefore both the third party that has to certify the performance and the Customer that is using the E-Cat are just measuring the amount of the thermal energy actually delivered from the plant, not the pure heat radiated from the reactors. The measurement of the pure heat radiated from the reactor makes sense in laboratory tests, because, being a direct measurement, not mediated by a heat exchanger, gives more rigorous results.
    For what concerns the Hot Cat we are making tests with inside the computers container, we are making both calorimetric and IR measurements, obtaining similar results, even if calorimetric measurements are lower due to the fact that the heat exchanger makes a loss of energy depending on its efficiency factor.
    I cannot add other information regarding this issue, because all the publishable data will be published when the tests on course will have been completed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Andrea,
    in the last days Aftenposten in Norway wrote:

    “…a source with heavy scientific background in relevant subjects has even been present and able to inspect the container. The reason that he does not want to be named, is that it is considered very dangerous for his career to embrace the highly controversial phenomenon of cold fusion…”
    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/06/21/norways-aftenposten-newspaper-independent-source-confirms-rossis-1mw-plant-working/
    Without entering in details, IP protection, F9, bla bla etc. may you say:
    who was this guy?
    you were there?
    and whatever you can say (nothing I presume).
    Kind regards
    Giuliano Bettini.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Do you routinely use emissivity (epsilon) measurements in your testing and R&D work?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    He,he,he…delicious!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Boris:
    Thank you for your insight. I totally agree with you. The concept of epsilon is not easy to undertand for non experts and we have non experts of the field that criticize the measurements of Professors that teach in the universities that specific matter. just like cts that want to teach to miew to cats. About cats: I invite to look the delicious link sent us from our Reader KD two hours ago!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Boris

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    I have read a “Comment” to the Lugano Report ( LR ) that is falsely dressed as a “Article”.
    I will not provide here any reference about the author or the title because I don’t want to give to this kind of criminal any kind of publicity. I call him a criminal because he does a real crime creating false information.
    Just some points:
    All the writing appears to be done by copying and pasting old false argumentation against the LR, the calculation of emissivity is completely wrong, and shows a complete ignorance of the topic by the author.
    The author has not even read carefully the report in which is explained how the ridges emissivity is handled, using only the bare cylinder surface for IR emission measurement.
    The calculation of the power by the author is also completely wrong and purposely misleading not taking in account the power emitted by the alumina pipes ( where the emissivity was measured ! ) and wires.
    The author does not take in account any fact that has been noticed during this almost one year long period after the LR has been published .
    For example that the wires are of a special type of Kantall and most important the replications by four independent groups: two Russian laboratories, one Chinese and one American.
    I stop here for the moment, because I’m to disgusted by this kind of criminals.
    But if necessary I can give more details. But I think that for real scientist this is not necessary.

  • KD

    Dir Mr.Rossi

    She, The Cat, saved small “Wakayama Electric Railway” and helped in bringing $8.9 millions to local economy.

    Cat stationmaster Tama mourned in Japan and elevated as goddess
    The calico cat was appointed stationmaster at the Kishi station in western Japan in 2007 and died early last week. Now she has been mourned by company officials

    http://www.google.com/url?url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/11704428/Cat-stationmaster-Tama-mourned-in-Japan-and-elevated-as-goddess.html&rct=j&frm=1&q=&esrc=s&sa=U&ei=MlKQVYWQGIKQ-QGg2YWYBg&ved=0CBkQqQIwAQ&usg=AFQjCNGJmThSG_tsRs-EkZap58BvlwpndA

  • Andrea Rossi

    Weleda Sutherland:
    I agree with you.
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Andrew Rovnak:
    You are continuing ( also today June 28) to send theories and I am continuing to spam them. Guess why.
    I appreciate your enthusiasm and your kindness, but I cannot give room to theoretical nonsenses, nor I have time to object to them.
    About the replications you are giving us the updates of: to have a precise opinion, it is necessary to receive scientific and detailed reports, with all the data concerning the description of the measurement instruments, a detailed lay out of the measuring system, the graphs of the data.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    The R&D on the E-Cat is a neverending process, and this principle is valid for all the parts of our reactors.
    This said, I cannot enter in particulars, because we have to defend out intellectual property. Innovation without IP does not produce global richness.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Is the fuel mixture you are currently using substantially different or improved since the testing you conducted prior to the Lugano test report?

  • Weleda Sutherland

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Thank you for what you said about ” they who have not solid bases better let alone theories”.
    While your titanic work if giving credibility to LENR, the publication of a stream of theories that violate the basic laws of physics gives fuel to LENR opposition.
    Thank you for what you are doing, Andrea.
    Thank you for your exhausting and stressing work.
    Cheers,
    Weleda

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    It is in preparation, but it is immature: too immature to know if it will be published.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    I was under the assumption that you mentioned a more refined paper containing a more detailed body of theory was being prepared for publication to be submitted to another main line publication and is under review by your personal physics experts. It was to be submitted when the rough spots are removed.
    Hopeful regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    The Cook Rossi paper has already been published.
    About future papers, I’d need the mostly cited crystal ball.
    Engineering of advanced applications of the so called Rossi Effect will rise from an Intellectual Property about which we’ll maintain the confidentiality, until a massive production will have been put on the market.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    It seems to me that you and your co-author of the pre- print of your paper on the theory of the E-cat, are cooking up a theory for the manufacturing of 4He. The alpha particles at the temperature you run your device would easily find the necessary electrons to form the He. Have you measured the amount of He being produced and if so does it correspond to the theoretical amount required? It also seems to me a way to falsify or confirm your theory. The pre-print, IMHO is more of a dissertation on Cook’s lattice theory than on the theory of the E-cat mechanism and then presenting a side issue dealing with its application to your device. The production of two alpha particles by proton capture had been proposed previously in a number of blogs without a firm mechanism to explain it.
    I think that because of the multiple possibilities involved with the nuclear process in your device that only extensive ash analysis including gas measurements can really solve the problem. You must have performed many assays since you have much fuel residue produced by long time operation of both hot and cool devices and the cost of doing the analysis is trivial compared to the engineering costs you are spending on the ongoing tests. I understand the necessity for your not revealing any of the results of the assays, but because of this knowledge and the cooperation with Cook on the paper, I must conclude that the production process indicated must be well indicated.
    Any information you can reveal will be eagerly awaited since it can lead to new scientific knowledge usable to form more advanced engineering devices for mankind.
    Anxious regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gherardo:
    Thank you for your care.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    I’m happy to know that you are checking your health and that is all OK. Personally I donate blood regularly.
    Sometimes chasing a dream that is becoming real makes us forget all needs till is too late.
    Be dedicated but stay balanced to run the long march to victory. It’s not a sprint.
    I find myself speaking like an old man. Forgive me…
    All the best, Gherardo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Good question, impossible answer: to explain what has been the source of important factors emerged from the Lugano Report I should have to disclose confidential particulars. The huge work we made in our lab before the Lugano Report is the base that allowed us to see in the Report what can be observed only if you have “eyes” for it, trained by the huge background I mentioned.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jackie:
    He,he,he…F9, though!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Fuel exhaustion topic:
    All those scenarios have to be experienced yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    I too hope it is condition “b”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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