Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

.
by
Khokon Hossen
Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
E-mail: khokon.pme@gmail.com
.
Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), that were introduced by R. Santonico and R. Cardarelli in 1981, are gas ionization chambers made with resistive electrodes separated by precision spacers.
Typical gas gap range from a few hundred micrometers to several millimeters wide.
Timing Resistive Plate Chambers (tRPCs) were introduced in 2000 by P.Fonte, A.Smirnitsky and M.C.S Williams and has, since then, reached Time Resolutions better than 50 ps (σ) with efficiencies above 99% for Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP).
In this research work, we describe the main features of gas detectors and the different types of RPCs and their properties.
We describe a cheap and easy to built sealed tRPCs and we explain how we have built it.
We describe the main results we have got operating the sealed tRPCs built in the laboratory.

832 comments to Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

  • DTravchenko

    You still think to come in Russia?
    DT

  • DTravchenko

    Andrea:
    when do you think your domestic E-Cat will be sold in the market?
    Warm Regards,
    D.T.

  • JCRenoir

    Are you able with the stethoscope to hear effects from inside the reactors ?
    JCR

  • JCRenoir

    Dr Rossi:
    Can you describe your activity of today?
    Cheers,
    JCR

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea I thought again about the self sustaining mode (ssm) last evening & wondered about Parkhomov’s 8 minute experience with ssm in his ICCF-19 presentation where he lost a fuel element & temperature dropped from 1200 to 800 C in 30 seconds approximately & held this temperature for 8 minutes after the power failed then went into its normal quick temperature decay mode. Now, can you move that ssm output up & down with temporary small external power application, that is can you move that self suntanning mode to different holding temperatures? Secondly when in this mode how do you shut element off, do you apply a temporary power increase then cut power & the thermal equilibrium process self regulation with thermal heat loss breaks down due to interruption of thermal neutron generation process holding ssm. If we could only see this fast nuclear process with a neutron detector like in regular nuclear reactors we would have a much better method of controlling & protecting this process. I wonder if the LENR process is like lighting a match & one must respond rather quickly to control it. It seems now the metal & casing thermal sink is able to sometimes limit the inherent LENR onset transients without destroying the fuel element. I know you have restrictions in your answer process, but want to share my concerns & see if anyone else can help us with better process control & quicker themal measurement feedbacks such as thin high temperature wire thru center of element giving us faster resistance change measurements even with Li vapor to enhance control & protection. One could also inject sine wave frequency’s into this wire to obtain Nyquist & bode response diagrams to not only themal but also to EM presence or to introduce EM to influence the LENR process. Professor Vittorli has obtained responses for Palladium wires with & without LENR present for example looking at resistance changes – https://twitter.com/JAROVNAK/status/602089223366250496 & I mentioned his paper in one of my tweets that you might preview when you have a minute. Well thanks for sharing what you can & lets see if we can elicit responses from others. Thank you for this blog. I like MFMP videos on recent test by me356 & Denis Vasilenko – there is a lot of dynamics information there & I suspect they bump into LENR or it bumped into them. Remember you said LENR has taken a lot of your elements in the past. Well keep up your good work & process toward commercialization. Jim Thanks for you blog!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Joe Porrazzo:
    1- I cannot provide those details at this time
    2- the E-Cat is in a period of long term testing. Our Team is doing all that is possible to provide our utmost R&D. This work consumes 24 hours per day of our Team. I cannot give information of the time scheduling until the Customer of IH allows.
    3- I do not know what is in the future, I just know that now I must focus on this test and meet the requirements of the test. This is the most important thing for the future.
    4- there is appropriate and contolled testing and evaluation happening on an ongoing or as needed basis. We must also ensure we have an accurate data and all other adequate protections, like IP. These are important issues, which is why we have a great Team working on these issues. By the way, there is also a “fourth party evaluation”: the Customer !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    This is an R&D issue: I will get back to you when appropriate. We have to study and test.
    Thank you for your question.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    That’s an interesting link about Tadrian Batteries.

    Do you see batteries being potentially useful for industrial or domestic E-Cat applications, or both?

    Many thanks,

    Frank

  • Joe Porrazzo

    Dr Rossi Andrea:
    several questions for you, if you can answer:
    1- can you exactly explain the correspondence of sounds to events you hear by means of the stethoscope?
    2- how much will endure exactly this test, based on your experience of these months already elapsed ?
    3- what will happen after this test?
    4- how is going on the third party evaluation in this period of operation of the 1MW Ecat?
    Thank you for your time,
    Joe

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    To complete my answer: we are talking of “Tadiran Batteries”:
    http://www.tadiranbat.com
    Based on lithium thyonil chloride.
    Very interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    YOU ARE REALLY RIGHT! AND ALBERT N IS RIGHT TOO!
    I am discovering only now- and this is unexcusable- the really useful site
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    In this site all the comments posted on the JoNP are put in date order, independently from the section they are posted in, which makes much more easy for the Readers to see all the comments. It is totally true: if you go in this site, you find also the comments that you lose if you only go to see the comments placed in the section that corresponds to the last published paper.
    Thank you very much to
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    for their very useful job.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi when I went on your website, I was unable to get any posts between May 23 to May 26.

    However thanks to:
    AlbertN May 26 at 7:45PM
    I clicked on the link he listed, and was able to read all the missing posts.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes, of course!
    By the way, I found in the last issue of the magazine of NASA ( Tech Briefs) an advertising of batteries lasting up to 40 years. Very interesting, I am looking for them.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    you can build up an important analytic system associating, by empirical and statistic experimentation, a specific sound to a specific event. It is very similar to the work of a phisician.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S. The best way to handle imbeciles is ignore them

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    Thank you for your kindness.
    We have instruments which control 24/7 the presence of ionizing radiations outside the plant, and none has been found beyond the background limits.
    Yes, I am continuing to lose weight and all persons around me say I am getting thinner, but it is normal, working 16 hours per day in a situation like this. But the horse is harnessed, now must pull.
    I am tanned because in this period I swim 30 minutes every day in the pool of the motel near the plant I am sleeping in during this year of test. It’s not matter of x-rays, just ultraviolet rays.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Andrea,
    so, your control system uses also acoustic spectrumanalysis. Awsome !
    The noise of a coal stove heating up, or cooling down, telling us at what time we should close the air-inlet.

    About imbeciles: did you receive any aplogies already ? I think that would be in place.

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You report success with long periods of self-sustain-mode, which would mean higher COP, with less energy input required.

    If this is the case, it seems to me that it should be easier to provide the drive for the E-Cat with a battery or other energy storage device. This would allow for the operation of an E-Cat from solar or wind input with no grid connection needed.

    Is this something you are considering?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi:

    Perhaps photoshopping has made strange effects but you do not look just healthy. You seem tanned, having lost weight and I wonder if you were not exposed to high frequency radiation. Perhaps lower than gamma but in X-Ray zone. Please, for the sake of mankind, take care.

    Best Regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for your insight
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    Thank you, but please remember that we are climbing for the first time the Mount Everest and therefore we must wait not just to reach the top of it, but also return safe: therefore it is soon to know if we will have a positive result, also because we have not a former track to follow.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea having simulated & controlled many types of nuclear plants in my working career. I woke up last night with an epithany! Since you have very nicely told us of the self sustaining modes (ssm) of operation you have demonstrated for the customer recently, I would like to share my dream with you. I believe that the LENR process once initiated is capable of self regulation thru radiation heat transfer effects on the thermal neutron population as Edmund Storm’s postulated nuclear active environment & Larsen of Widom & Larsen has shown in his beautiful shared slide demonstration, especially of ULM neutrons, which is responsible for the isotope generation & thus clean nuclear power you have shown the world thru yours & Parkhomov’s tireless efforts. An adaptive controller is needed to nudge that process up & down it’s themral generation output power spectrum & the process should operate self regulated at most power points I beleive. Remember we control nuclear reactors by playing with delayed neutrons to either decrease total neutron population for power reduction or temporarily increase production to form an increase in power generation point of operation & we do this by controlling delayed neutron on the seconds/minutes time constants with control rods that take neutrons in or out of the neutron power generation cycle to move the power generation point up or down. Now with LENR that can be accomplished as you & Parkhomov have shown with an external addition or subtraction of heat input. Thank you very much for sharing & being so open with all. I have really enjoyed your journal for many years now & mine & my grand daughters & your favorite song “I believe in the E-Cat” https://youtu.be/mu_iwdjf1gI Thank you all so much Andrea, Robert Godes, Alex Parkhomov & others who give us “The New Fire” & to those who write about it for our grand children to understand!

  • Alessandro Coppi

    Hi Andrea,
    the image of you while are listening the reactor interior, has the same historical value of this one:
    http://thestoryoflight.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/image09.jpg

    This is another historical listening:
    http://www.guglielmomarconi.it/files/Guglielmo-Marconi-12-dicembre-1901-ore-1230-trasmissione-oltre-l-atlantico.wav

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Many well distincted sounds, each of them being important to us. I cannot disclose further. Like a physician with the human body, multiple information is given by a stethoscope, not just one.
    Depending on the position I put the stethoscope, I can compose a spectrum of information that T probes, P probes, Flowmeters cannot give. I learnt this about 10 years ago, when I was working in the oil refinery of ENI of Sannazzaro Dei Burgundi ( Italy) on a Diesel generator (GENSET). Their chief mechanic, a very experienced one, teached to me to use the stethoscope to listen all the internal sounds of the engine, associating a specific information to any sound. I discovered this way problems otherwise hidden; so I am doing now with Her.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Thanks for sharing the picture of the doctor with his patient. Is it possible to share a sample of what you are hearing through your stethoscope?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Steven N. Karels

    James Rovnak,

    I enjoyed reading your analysis and thoughts. Is you primary assumption that temperature is the controlling factor? And that in a self-sustaining mode (SSM), there is no control? I would suggest that there may be one or more additional control parameters.

    In the past, Andrea Rossi has mentioned vibrations. Perhaps some form of vibrations is used as an additional control? So once the reactor gets to the operating temperature region, this “vibrations” control is used to keep the eCat reactor in the desired SSM state for long periods of time? I am confident that Andrea Rossi will neither confirm nor deny this approach. And there may be other independent control parameters that we (outside of AR’s inner circle) have not become aware of.

    I cannot see a commercial LENR system running without control, on the verge of going out of control. So there must be other controls besides heating the eCat reactor.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for your insight.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    I understand. Thanks
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Albert N.:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • AlbertN

    Dr. Rossi,
    I think I know why some readers are not seeing some of the comments/answers. For some reason the posts between May 23 and May 26 were under the old ‘To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology’ section rather than here.

    I always double check on : http://rossilivecat.com/

    Warm Regards,
    AlbertN

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea and others,

    I think the reason for ‘missing’ posts is not that they are missing, but they are being made on a previous thread. People have been asking questions on this one, and the JONP article before this one, and Andrea has been responding in both places. If you look at both threads, all the questions and answers are there.

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  • James Rovnak

    Andre just some things that have been keeping me awake at night for your information.
    Denis I still think you have a control/process problem in a high non-linearity area. When you bump into LENR its like lighting a match. The decay times in these isotopes delivering energy are on the order of seconds. Look Rossi is able to run in the self sustaining mode now for long periods of time. This means the controller has no effect on his process at that point & probably before. This is a very sudden high gain area you are entering. You couldn’t reach 1200 set point because LENR was active below it. So you slowly come up to the ignition temperature of LENR & when you try & go above it the match goes off so to say. Temperature is thrown above set-point & controller attempts to shutdown; if ignition point is below set point say 950 C so you probably won’t go much lower if any. That’s why I think controller was acting as it did; what are your thoughts? The ignition point is probably self regulating with a very tight large gain ie you can shut power off without affecting temperature much around say 950 C but when controller is full out put you could more than double fuel element temperature & I don’t think that would have much effect on self regulating LENR Fire? Could you send me you email address I’d like to try these ideas with you, Sergie & me356 as I admire your efforts & wish I were young again. I ounce worked on the Nuclear Rocket which would have put us on Elon Musk’s Mars but the Vietnam War intervened & what a tragedy that was? The thermal time constants of the system radiation heat transfer, vaporization & condensation of hydride, & controller tuning are working in the minutes area to filter things. The 15 second pulsating light oscillation at night during & at the end of Denis Vasilenko’s run the other day was beautiful to behold, was it not?

    Jim

    PS I’ve thought a little more about thermal system steady state temperature versus power current from controller. As you rise in power temperature follows until you get to LENR ignition point them it jumps up quite a bit on the way back down power can go to zero ( Rossi ssm) and you will still be at ignition temp which could be below set point, This is a sharp process S shaped curve of very high gain that controller can’t handle stabilily very well if at all! Just think about it for a while & get back to me when you have a minute.
    I’ll try & copy this to Sergei & me 356.

    Sent a copy of this to Parkhomov & thought about one to Ross whom we all admire I’m sure?

    Best Regards Andrea Keep to the progress, the world needs your product!

  • Andrea Rossi

    The photo has been published on http://www.andrea-rossi.com

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    I am very surprised and also worried about what you and Giannino wrote: no other Reader signaled to me the same experience, yet. All I can say is that many comments have been published between May 23rd and 26th. I do not know what to say. Maybe the usual imbecile is trying to hack on us…we will check.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    All I can say is that we are producing 1 MWh/h of thermal energy. The plant is redundant.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    No! It is not a “botton”, it is the sensor of the stethoscope that I use to hear well the sounds coming from inside: every sound for me is an information. The stethoscope is precious.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    I am not allowed to answer to this question.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Rampant Lyon on Red color.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Shouldn’t we be calling the shipping container a 2 MW plant, or are you not using all the e-cat modules shown? (56 ~20 KW modules vs 4 250 KW modules)

    Better is the bane of good-enough, but good-enough is a time dependent condition.

    Paul

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    What Giannino is asking is the same thing that I have experienced. All the blogs after may 23rd at 4:08 do not appear on my site until the blog at may 26th at 9:09. I am now receiving all the subsequent blogs. Is there a reason and have any other readers asked about this?
    Regards.

  • Fyodor

    “To the curious Readers:
    Between today and tomorow will be published a photo made yesterday in the 1 MW plant in operation.
    The photo will be published on http://www.andrea-rossi.com
    Hope will be interesting. Obviously the photo has been processed to dissolve if enlarged and confidential particulars have been obscured.
    Warm Regards,”

    Is that the “on” button for the plant that you are pressing in the picture?

  • Fyodor

    “To the curious Readers:
    Between today and tomorow will be published a photo made yesterday in the 1 MW plant in operation.
    The photo will be published on http://www.andrea-rossi.com
    Hope will be interesting. Obviously the photo has been processed to dissolve if enlarged and confidential particulars have been obscured.
    Warm Regards,”

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    The e-cat module you are listening too in the recently published picture; is that a 250 KW module?

    staying stoked,

    Paul

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Does your family associate itself with a specific “Rossi” coat of arms?

    There are many Rossi coat of arms images on google, most of them with a rampant lion (symbolizing undying courage) and the color red (symbolizing eagerness to serve, warrior & martyr).

    Paul

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the curious Readers:
    Between today and tomorow will be published a photo made yesterday in the 1 MW plant in operation.
    The photo will be published on http://www.andrea-rossi.com
    Hope it will be interesting. Obviously the photo has been processed to dissolve if enlarged and confidential particulars have been obscured.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1- yes we have
    2- COP increases with T
    3- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    What do you mean 3 days of nothing ? During these three days we worked like slaves! Besides, this blog published many comments. Probably you were disconnected.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giannino Ferro Casagrande

    Tre giorni nulla . Cos’è successo ?
    Giannino da Udine !
    Three days of nothing: what happened?

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    We know that you have a low temperature eCat (thermal output temperature around 120C) and a Hot eCat (thermal temperature around 1200C).

    1. Have you investigated or developed a mid-range eCat unit, say 300 – 400C?
    2. Should you either have done so or project forward what it would be like, are there advantages of a mid-range eCat or using a Hot eCat with an appropriate heat exchanger to output at the mid-range temperatures, such as improved effective COP?
    3. Would or does the mid-range eCat off other advantages compared to a Hot eCat implementation?

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    Right!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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