Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

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by
Khokon Hossen
Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
E-mail: khokon.pme@gmail.com
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Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), that were introduced by R. Santonico and R. Cardarelli in 1981, are gas ionization chambers made with resistive electrodes separated by precision spacers.
Typical gas gap range from a few hundred micrometers to several millimeters wide.
Timing Resistive Plate Chambers (tRPCs) were introduced in 2000 by P.Fonte, A.Smirnitsky and M.C.S Williams and has, since then, reached Time Resolutions better than 50 ps (σ) with efficiencies above 99% for Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP).
In this research work, we describe the main features of gas detectors and the different types of RPCs and their properties.
We describe a cheap and easy to built sealed tRPCs and we explain how we have built it.
We describe the main results we have got operating the sealed tRPCs built in the laboratory.

847 comments to Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for the insight
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    My friend Stephen at MFMP is trying to follow the Lugano fuel trail you so nicely gave the World ie initial fuel to ash analysis – Thank you again.

    The following is part of our ongoing discussions for he is on the right track & will produce valuable dynamic control information as he persists of that I am sure!

    “Nuclear engineers follow this trail of ash all the time as this is a decay heat process they must contend with in the shutdown of a nuclear reactor as the fuels cycle ends. They must model isotope decay time constants & produce dynamically a set of differential equations for predictions of heat after death (HAD) Alan Goldwater is contending with right now in post GS3 test analysis. This isotope decay process is the reason for BWR accident in Japan recently because they couldn’t remove decayed heat & the “China syndrome” occurred. You are right on looking at Lugano before & after ash as one can work backward with available isotope decay data. Larsen does a beautiful job of showing how coal can be transmuted into other elements generating much greater energy release than burning with oxygen. Take a look at other Larsen graphs for great incite into these decay processes Steve – he has a whole slew of graphs in his series of tremendous incite, but he is not very versed in dynamic models to predict formation & decay transients while nuclear engineers are. This is also why Andrea so wisely hires engineers with nuclear back grounds as he revealed the other day on his Blog. I am sure he will enjoy Larsen’s contention that coal can also move along this isotopic path beginning with EM stimulation of surface plasmon electron clouds at carbons surface or Ni catalyst to force it into the isotope decay path with electron – hydrogen ion interactions to form these neutrons which wonder around producing these amazing energy releasing transformations Alan & his crew at MFMP GS3 testing are contending with. One needs ULM neutrons for they are present locally for their short life time & have a high cross section for interaction that high energy neutrons do not. Nuclear plants have to slow down fast fission neutrons to get them to interact with water moderation in PWRs etc. Cheers I think Andrea will like this colorful presentation by Lewis if he has not already seen it.

    These isotope trails are not in Palladium as you thought Steven but are for any decay chain starting with excitation by ULM neutrons as Rossi has so wonderfully done with Li vapor & Ni lattice & EM stimulation as Sanjeev has so aptly portrayed in his recent presentation of voltage drop across the active MFMP fuel element.

    Boy you have really raise a storm of thinking & speculation at MFMP as of lately which I am sure you are aware of & happy with. This could not only get you some trained employees but help speed that commercialization process we so desire.

    Incidentally I can now see the warm E-Cats presence at about 200 C during the GS3 test & Ged’s data reduction especially with the new non fueled powered run for comparison with the initial start up that still persist in causing some problems of understanding there. I have no doubts, the Lady LENR visited there. Even in the form of the home E-Cat I ordered years ago from you. I don’t think Underwiters Lab is very cooperative in certification process just like our patent office, period. Just hang in there Andrea with your much admired patience from my take. Jim

    http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-converting-oil-and-coal-into-more-energetic-green-co2free-clenr-fuels-april-8-2014

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    please go to http://www.rossilivecat.com to find comments I received today from other posts than this…and related answers.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    He,he,he…OK!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dan C.

    Dear Andrea,

    I do not know if I trust a Mouse alone with the cake. Perhaps, you should send a Cat along to make sure the Mouse behaves. I’m thinking November 1st would be an opportune time to send them. It is along trip and they will want to rest up before they return with the cake. Probably about the end of March I suppose.
    Depends on the weather. I Press “F9”-
    I need to point out that is could be Positive but also Negative. :-)

    Regards,
    Dan C.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    The concert model is proper: wherein many instruments can make a harmony that is not just the sum of single sounds: resonances can generate virtual entities whose energy is higher than the sum of the energy of the singles.
    The Mouse has a driving license, of course!
    Next time you bake a cake I send him to make the pick up.
    Speaking seriously: thank you for your insight.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    Thanks: nice to know also the 8 Balls play (he he he); 10 pm inside the plant, some relaxation is pure solace.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    In principle I would say yes.
    Thanks for your attention,
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Thank you for the clarification. Is the synergy system the same for low temperature E-Cats and Hot Cats?

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  • Dan C.

    Dear Andrea

    In a previous post, I said I hope they don’t send the 8-ball instead of a Crystal Ball.

    In case your not aware of it, I thought I would clarify. It is a novelty fortune telling device of childhood days. The correct name is Magic 8-Ball. It is merely a play on the Crystal Ball. Both just as reliable.
    Here is a wiki link.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_8-Ball

    This link provides the 20 answers in a standard 8-Ball. There were many variations of the 8-ball, some not suitable for children.

    Note: A pinball was much more entertaining.

    Regards,
    Dan C.

  • Dan C.

    Dear Andrea,

    With Franks question, Maybe “many reactors in concert.” in place of “clustering” works better.

    In your answer to Marco Serra: May 12th, 2015. (SSM are made longer by a synergy between the reactors for what concerns the “drive”)

    Do you think these synergies of having many reactors in concert will always apply?
    ————————————–
    Also in that post you said-I cannot reveal more particulars.

    This lead to many speculations such as the combined heat in close proximity was involved or that E-cats were in series feeding each other among others. My speculation would be the “drive” has a field of impact on other reactors in close proximity. But that’s just my speculation.

    Question: Is the Mouse still driving?
    Does this Mouse have a U.S. License?

    Regards and belated Happy Birthday
    I baked you a cake with my secret recipe, but had no forwarding address.
    It was very good. Sorry you missed it.

    Dan C.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daniel G. Zavela:
    Applying the Carnot cycle there is nothing complex. What is complex is finding an efficient system to produce electricity by means of small and cheap systems, with good efficiency, for the small units, wherein the application of a carnot Cycle system is unthinkable. We are making R&D on this issue too.
    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Although there are some very efficient steam/electric turbines available now, you stated that producing electricity with the E-Cat is a complex problem. Has your team advanced their research to the point where the problems to be solved have at least been identified? Or do you see many more years of research ahead before electric power generation might be feasible? I am currently visiting Thailand which is in an unusual heat weave where some affordable AC would be greatly appreciated.

    Wishing you continued good progress with your great work.

    Best Regards,

    Daniel Zavela

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    You got me, I was wrong, you were right: I didn’t remember to use this term for this situation. As a matter of fact, the term “cluster” is vague in this situation, and I used it wrongly. Synergy is the right term, exactly as you report in this comment of yours. It is this synergy that allows much longer ssm phases.
    Sorry, my mistake.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul Calvo:
    Thank you for this interesting information regarding graphene. We used it for some prototype and the issue is still open. Graphene is a very interesting 2-dimensions material, made by a lattice of monoatomic layer; its inventor has merited the Nobel prize.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul Calvo

    Dr Rossi

    This thin graphene coating being developed at MIT may be useful for your cats.

    http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2015/graphene-coating-more-efficient-power-plants-0529

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    On May 4th you wrote “The Hot Cat modules will too be assembled in clusters to increase the power.”

    You have said that with the 1MW plant you have found a way to use energy from one reactor to provide drive for another reactor (or maybe more than one reactor). I used the word ‘clustering’ to refer to this synergy.

    So my question is essentially this: is this synergy between more than one reactor necessary to get the high COP/ssm.

    I hope that is more clear!

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Claud:
    That could work if necessary, in remote areas, but where is a grid it does not make sense to put a genset to generate the drive energy: the efficiency of a genset is 30%. Gensets are put as a back up in case of black out.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    I never used the term “clustering” because I do not understand its meaning in this situation. Please explain your question in other words, possibly using the words I used.
    Yes, inside the shipping container there is a sauna, even if the reactors and heat exchangers are well insulated. Obviously, some energy is lost, but conservatively it is not calculated in the energy balance.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    1. You mention that the 1MW plant is able to achieve high COP because of ‘clustering’ reactors. Now it sounds like you are getting high COP with single reactors (250 kW low temperature E-Cats, and Hot Cats) without clustering. Could you reach a COP level with single reactors where clustering is unnecessary?

    2. Is it hot inside the shipping container?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Claud

    “…the battery cannot depend from the E-Cat.”

    Dear Andrea, today the price of a little gasoline generator (3/5 kva) is about 400$ or less. I see no problem providing a control circuit to recharge the backup battery of the e-cat for safety reason in case of runoff, to grant the system stop the ssm or limit the temperature rising.
    Or do I forget something in the functiomal diagram?

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for the interesting information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    He,he,he…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mark Saker:
    1- exchanging heat with a fluid
    2- not yet
    3- that decision does not depend on us, but on the Customer. Thank you for the kind words, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    No. Not yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    The core issue is the ssm; external energy sources for the drive are mandatory for safety reasons, imposed by the safety certifications; if the source is a battery or the grid doesn’t make any difference, since the battery cannot depend upon the E-Cat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    glad that the hot cat is performing very well… I am eager to see an electric generator and a tesla battery to close the loop and do a self feeding hot cat that gives heat and electricity in excess to the owner: an hot cat, a generator, a few tesla batteries, an inverter, an heat accumulator for hot water/heaters (and why not an Einsten conditioner?) and all the needs of a home are satisfied…

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Have you made a 250 KW hot cat?

    Paul

  • Mark Saker

    Dear Andrea,

    1)Is the hotcat in test at the moment exchanging heat with a fluid or just a bare core.

    2) Also, is it more than one high temp reactor, using a similar strategy to attain high SSM as you are the low temp reactors?

    3) I am still hoping you can arrange a party in America early next year for all of us long term followers for the past half a decade. Perhaps this could be the perfect opportunity to give the results of the year long test and finally a look at the hardware. It would be nice to receive a loud applause for all the hardwork of you and your team? :)

    thanks

    Mark

  • Dan C.

    Dear Andrea,

    Did you hear about the Psychic Hotline.
    They went Bankrupt…?

    Hmmm, They didn’t see that coming. :-)

    Dan C.

  • James Rovnak

    Something interesting that I am thinking about as far as EM freq content to fuel element in MFMP by power source via TRIAC as both you & Parkhomov use in successful (ssm) LENR simulation of ULM neutron generation & possible control. Lots of miss New Fires using quite VARIACs. Jim

    https://twitter.com/JAROVNAK/status/606659617024823296

    Beautiful graph by Sanjeev of MFMP test team- great engineer, very insightful, first to guess presence of LENR Lady’s in his great data reductions.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    The data related to the COP, as well as all the publishable data, will be given after the end of the test and R&D on course. I have the duty to remember that the final results could be either positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    Months ago or longer, you stated that E-Cat reactors could self sustain for a period of at least two hours with stability. If this has been improved dramatically, how long are they self sustaining for now? And how long are the periods with a drive?

    To me, this is exciting because it makes the production of electrical power much simpler. Even if the Carnot efficency is not extremely high, the COP of the plant would make up for it. The higher the COP, the less expensive and highly efficent the steam powered electric generator needs to be. If there are some losses – such as heat leaking into the environment – it is not a huge problem.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Karl Oppenheimer:
    Waiting for the crystal ball, I can talk of my past experience: I worked for 4 years on electrolysis, in all the possible versions, with all the possible alloys, and got nothing. When I obtained some appearent surplus of energy, it later turned out to be an error. This for what concerns my personal experience. Obviously this does not imply necessarily that I am not wrong.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sylvie Lacoste:
    I noticed that you underlined “I mean now” to avoid the crystal ball ( he,he,he…). Well, I mean now I think the Hot Cats have a performance decisively superior to the low temperature small E-Cats.
    Now I can see them compete, the Hot Cat inside the computer container vs the small E-Cats. We can have much longer ssm with the Hot Cats.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    1- the fact that a crystal ball is made in China is not an issue: the issue is if it works or not
    2- if the instructions are written in Chinese, probably they will be more easy to understand than the papers of most of us
    3- the case you exposed does not specify if the persons going to a psychic for help do not complain simply because they do not return to him; besides, it is not specified if there are not psychics able to report complains simply because they have been killed by the psychotics, who complained their way. Therefore your theory cannot be sustained, because lacks of complete analysis.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Karl Oppenheimer

    Dr Andrea Rossi: do you think that electrolytic LENR systems could generate in future results able to be applied in the normal market of thermal and electric energy?
    Karl

  • Sylvie Lacoste

    Andrea:
    presently ( I mean now) do you think that the small E-Cats, the ones of 10-20 kW, are competitive with the Hot Cats ?
    Thank you for your time to answer

  • KD

    Petro F.
    The prediction of Mr. Rossi from crystal ball may be not correct.
    1. The crystal ball sold on Amazon are “Made in China”.
    2. Instruction to use it, might be writhen in Chinese.
    It might be better if you go to professional, experienced local psychic.
    I read about one of them asked, if he really can help. So he said, if peoples are coming for help, pay for service and don’t complain, it mean they are satisfied.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for the insight and the update.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea my comment shared with on of the bright CS3 testing engineers Dave who soon will validate the Rossi “New Fire”

    “I think most researchers have destroyed their own fuel elements with trying to control a (ssm) LENR process as Rossi has learned losing hundreds if not thousand of his in the learning process. I am a retired nuclear engineer with experience in control, simulating, testing of BWRs, PWRs, Gas cooled reactors, starting my careen with the NERVA Nuclear Rocket program & even working with fossil & petrochemical plants & Rossi is right on thru tenacious hard work. The flux level in nuclear reactors is raised to raise power & a neutron balance in kept by control rods etc. Hopefully we can move Rossi ssm process up & down with external power pulsed inputs. Keep up the good work Dave!”

    In a BWR, in particular the formation of more steam voids self regulates power & protects also inhibiting the generation of thermal neutrons in the dense water which are necessary to release fission power from Uranium fuel. This process is directly analogous to the fourth power heat loss balance with the Ultra Low Momentum neutron population formed at the metal surface of Ni & Li by the SSP process described by Larson. Thus in the (ssm) process self regulation is obtained with a high gain natural feedback process controlling the neutron formation process with its inherent isotope formation & decay time constants. similar to large reactor control of delayed fission neutron process with neutron absorbing control rods or thermalization process with void faction interaction in a BWR!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    Interesting thesis related to electrolysis induced LENR. I read it, it appears well done. I can only say that through electrolysis I never got any result able to evolve into an industrial application, but that’s just my experience. I am working on completely different bases; I share with the author of the thesis the Cook’s nuclear models as a starting point for a theoretical reconciliation. I have been pleased to see in the references the book of Prof. Norman Cook and many other publications of him.
    This said, the fact that a student of Engineering makes a thesis on the LENR is positive in itself and shows how the paramount opinion about LENR has positively evolved. Five years ago I do not think a student could achieve a PhD in Engineering with a thesis on the LENR. Maybe we have some merit on this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,

    A few days ago I found this thesis on Peter Gluck’s EgoOut:
    http://porto.polito.it/2608164/1/TESI_VENEZIANO.pdf
    I believe you may be familiar with this due to your close working relation with Prof. Norman Cook. It may give direction in how LENR works.
    Can you give comment on this?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pietro F.:
    Amazon has not yet delivered the crystal ball I ordered several days ago.
    As soon as I receive it, you will have my answer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    After the wishes,

    I ask you a prediction: when you foresee we might have a functioning unplugged E-Cat?

    Thanks

    Peter F.

  • Pietro F.

    Intanto auguri,
    poi le chiedo una previsione: tra quanto potremmo avere un ecat funzionante e scollegato dalla rete elettrica?

    Grazie e in gamba.

    Pietro F.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for keeping us updated.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please go to
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    to find easy and fast comments published today on this blog, but in other posts.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    Standard, but the R&D we are making now on the Hot Cat installed in the computers container are going very well, with very high ssm values, so the high temperature technoogy is mature. We made enormous progress after the Lugano results, and, being the nights very long here inside the plants, the R&D is very intense.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    so the 250Kw cat is hot or standard?

    Regards,
    Marco

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