Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

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1,178 comments to Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

  • Lisa Huckerbee

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Why did you scratch your theoretical paper? I was really interested to it and I am sure I was not alone.
    Cheers,
    Lisa

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please go to
    http://www.rossilivecat
    to find comments of this blog published today in other posts than this one.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    John:
    Lithium is enormously abundant and extremely cheap, if you consider the amount we use in an E-Cat, or even in one billion E-Cats. Read the numbers in the Lugano report.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • John

    Hi Andrea,

    Lithium is quite expensive and not as abundant on earth, do you think that your Ecats will be more competitive than other energy resources – solar, wind?

    Thanks

    J

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear
    Prof. David H Bailey ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory- Ret.- and University of Davis, California)
    Prof. Jonathan M. Borwein ( University of Newcastle, Australia, Math laureate)
    Thank you for your unbiased and very intelligent article on LENR published by the Huffington Post.
    I am making my daily 16 hours inside the 1 MW plant in operation inside the factory of a Customer and your honest, unbiased and well informed article has given solace to my work, that I hope will be useful for something.
    I do not know if at the end of this year of R&D and tests on course we will have positive or negative results, but I know that if we will have positive results the merit will be also of your encouragement.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the Readers:
    The Huffington Post talks of us:

    http://m.huffpost.com/us/entry/8052326

  • Andrea Rossi

    Peter Wolstenholme:
    Please see the comment of Frank Acland today at 5.44 p.m.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you ! I am honoured of the attention that Brian Josephson, a Nobel laureate as you reminded us, is donating to our work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Here is the link to the comment by Brian Josephson ( Nobel Laureate) on Nature: http://www.nature.com/news/the-week-in-science-21-27-august-2015-1.18224 (scroll to the bottom of the page)

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  • Peter Wolstenholme

    Frank Aclkand: interesting to see that Brian Josephson wrote something on the Nature web site. I can not find it. One of their 17 blogs, perhaps? Please send us a few clues or even a link.
    Peter W.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Karine:
    Thank you very much.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea:
    Prof. Brian Josephson ( a Nobel laureate) has written on the website of Nature about your US patent.
    Regards,
    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jeff Jeffrey:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Joe Travis:
    You got it! it is exactly my interpretation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gary Hitchens:
    Today, at 09.10 a.m. of Friday Aug 28th, the 1MW E-Cat is stable, the E-Cat X is in construction. No troubles, so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    Thank you for your interpretations, mine is different, but interpretations are subjective.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Karine

    Mr Andrea Rossi:
    In the text of your US Patent is written that your apparatus has reached COP 6. Beyond any nominalism, this fact is essential to understand the substance of the patent. You have smartly made an all-substance patent, avoiding useless theoreticisms.
    As somebody has already said here, you are a master.
    Karine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Toussaint:
    Of course! As soon as we will have a product.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe Travis

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Here is my interpretation of the Magritte painting: what counts is the substance of a thing, not how it is named: your patent discloses a process and an apparatus that is what it is, independently from how you call it.
    Godspeed,
    Joe

  • Jeff Jeffrey

    Dear Dr. Andrea Rossi:
    The Nobel Prize Brian Josephson has written an article on the website of Nature about your patent.
    Congratulations!
    Jeff

  • toussaint

    Dear andrea Rossi

    Could it be possble in a near future to have a photo of your “new baby” the ECAT X?

    Kind regards.

    Toussaint françois

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Congratulations for the accepted patent. Concerning the reference to Magritte’s painting (showing a pipe, with a text “this is not a pipe” in French written below it). As you said, everyone can understand art as he wants. I understand it in the following way:

    A painting of a pipe is not itself a pipe, because is only a painting. Therefore, if a painting is very good and looks very much like a real pipe, it can meaningfully carry a subtitle “this is not a pipe”.

    Patent application of LENR is not itself LENR, because is only a patent, a commercial device. Therefore, if a LENR patent is very good, maybe it mentions only chemical reactions; remembering also that one property of a good patent is that it is acceptable by the patent office.

    best regards, /pekka

  • Gary Hitchens

    De Rossi:
    Can you give an update as for today?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    Good luck !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Conover

    Thank you for the reply Andrea, I will try lithium carbonate first, and as always, insure safety instructions are followed and consult with my team as needed.
    Tom

  • Andrea Rossi

    Francis:
    Both.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    What do you think?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Michele Rupp:
    Watching a painting everybody can draw the insiration proper for his attitude.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    I am very sorry, but I cannot give answers on an issue that is object of a pending patent that I am preparing and I cannot give either positive or negative answers, for obvious reasons. You can make your tests and try. Be careful: these powders are very dangerous if improperly manipulated. Either you are an expert, or work assisted with a laboratory expert, to avoid serious consequences under the safety point of view.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mladend:
    Your insight is intelligent and is worth an analysis: I am not a cement expert too, so I have to think about that, even consulting experts of the sector.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francis

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    The 60 and more patents you are working on are continuations of the US Patent already allowed to you, or are related to new apparatuses and particulars of your technology?
    Thank you,
    Francis

  • mladend

    Dear Andrea,

    Your recent comment that e-cat could operate beyond nickel melting point made me think about one application which could have a significant impact on the world’s CO2 production. Quoting one source: “the cement production is a major source of carbon dioxide emissions: five percent (!) of the global total.” (http://www.ghgprotocol.org/feature/chinese-cement-companies-accounting-co2-emissions).

    During cement production, clinkering temperatures reach 1400-1500 °C which, I was presuming, was beyond temperatures obtainable by e-cat. Now, I am hopeful.

    Have you consider a possibility of using e-cat in cement production? For sure, even if used only for preheating, the CO2 reduction compared to the current process could be tremendous. If it is technically feasible to use e-cat in the cement production, a cement production facility which uses e-cat should be quite profitable because ~30% of cement cost is energy (http://www.lafarge.com/04022008-Activities-Details_cement_business-en.pdf).

    I must say that I am not in cement industry. I was just thinking about possible applications of clean and cheap thermal energy.

    Btw, congratulations on finally obtaining the patent!

    Best regards,

    Mladen D.

  • Tom Conover

    Hello Andrea,

    This is not a pipe dream!

    I’m back to working on a test E-Cat, based on the new information. I see you referred to powder for all three elements Li Ni and LAH, but I can’t find 100% pure Li in powder, just in metal form.

    Would this (below) be something equivalent to your comments for Li powder?

    1) Lithium Tetraborate, 99.8% FORMULA: Li2B4O7
    (Trace Metals Basis), Certified, 100g
    For Research & Development
    Not for drug, human, animal, or food use

    Certificate of Analysis:
    Appearance white granular powder
    Assay (by metals basis, dried) 99.8%
    Identity by ICP analysis Conforms
    Identity by X-Ray diffraction Conforms
    Loss on drying <0.1%
    Melting point 930 Deg C
    Total metallic impurities (ppm) (Al) <10 (Ca) 5 (Cr) 10 (Co) <30 (Cu) 10 (Fe) <30
    (Mg) 3 (Mn) <5 (Na) 20 (Ni) <10 (P) 50 (Pb) 20 (Si) 30

    CAS: 12007-60-2

    I hope so very much. Please, a simple yes or no is fine to help me. Thank you for the wonderful descriptions and drawings of the device in the patent!!!!

    Godspeed,

    Tom

  • Michele Rupp

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Fantastic your comment referring to the painting of Magritte ” This is a pipe”!
    But it is very difficult to understand, many will miss the meaning. Maybe this is what you want…
    Cheers,
    Michele

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Is this a clue? https://www.flickr.com/photos/instructo/5022481780

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please find also today on
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    comments of this blog published on other posts than this one.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you also for the update.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea congradulations again on you new patent. You truly deserve the protection & the fuel composition should make replicationist happier. Enjoyed Hank Mills comments on ECW today & offered the following comments on an idea for a driver for the heating & EM stimulation of the LENR process – only you know what works well.

    Hold on, this is waiting to be approved by E-Cat World.
    Still think he employs alternating currents in his heaters to start & grow local LENR sites for power generation. Those who have tried unidirectional coil heater current flow have not been very successful at replication, if at all. A simple bidirectional stepper motor circuit could apply such alternating pulses with amplitude of pulse controlling power input & pulse width control providing frequency content to stimulate the LENR process. Similar to the L289N motor driver board used by electronics hobbiest! IMHO again!
    Cheers & have a nice day – got idea for stepper motor circuit helping grandson program Arduino Bluetooth car for learning exercise. Grand kids are the greatest Andrea.

    Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Look carefully to the famous painting of Magritte: ” This is a pipe”.
    Think about that. No, think well about that: I mean it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    Fantastic images,
    Thank you very much also on behalf of our Readers for your gift.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Morrissey:
    Thank you for your kind words! Anyway, a big work remains to be done before what you wish is made ( F9).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    The many patents I am working on related to upgradings of the Rossi Effect mean an enormous work. That’s all I can say.
    The patent we got granted has been filed for in March 2012 and granted on August 2015, moreless 3 years and a half of very hard work with the Attorneys I worked with, many work hours of them and me, discussions with the Examiners ( the process has been very difficult and engaging). Three years and a half of very hard work, with enormous anxiety and hundres of meetings with the attorneys. All the ( many) objections of the examiners had to be dealt with not without precision. My team of Attorneys has made a fantastic work.
    About the celebrative issue: I don’t need a plaque: for me it is bearer of full solace to look at the ribbon of the USPTO on the cover of my patent. This view, for me, is equipollent to the view of the Monalisa of leonardo Da Vinci for a classic art amateur… It is the most important achievement of my life, because the USA have recognized my invention.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dan C.

    Dear Andrea,

    A heart felt Congratulations on your hard earned and well deserved patent. Having cut a trail, perhaps the additional patents in process will find an easier path. We can hope. Right?

    Just how hard earned was this patent?
    Having asked the question, many will think of the 3 years, 100’s and possibly 1000’s of hours, the legal battles and large sum$ of legal costs to reach this point.

    Before that came many years of 16 hour days of long hard work and dedication. But these words don’t really give due justice to all the personal & financial sacrifices involved & more. Cheap energy somehow no longer seems so cheap, but something with a very exacting cost. Perhaps some patents should come with a Gold Marathon medal and Commemorative plaque.

    OK, Maybe we delay the Commemorative plaque for now(F9), But if positive, then it should be molded in Platinum.

    Warm regards to you & your team.
    Dan C.

  • Bernie Morrissey

    Andrea Rossi,

    Congratulations to you and your team on getting your patent approved. This is well dreserved for all of your long hours and hard work. The whole world will benefit with the Ecat.

    Bernie Morrissey

  • orsobubu

    Andrea, here’s a gift to inspire you in the effort of continuously improve your creature!
    —————-
    Hubble’s view of the Twin Jet Nebula, taken in 1997, using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2:

    http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/opo9738a/

    And the same star taken yesterday, with the addition of the Imaging Spectrograph:

    http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/hubble-sees-the-wings-of-a-butterfly-the-twin-jet-nebula

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    While congratulations of obtaining a US patent for a fluid heater, I read nothing of note within the patent that mentioned a nuclear reaction. LENR was not mentioned. Only some chemical reactions. Nor did I read anything about the total thermal output level (i.e., 1MW)? Although the patent alluded to a COP of 6.

    I found interesting the comment that the nickel was more of a catalyst than a fuel component. Quite a change since four years ago. Comments?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Renato Estri:
    Thank you for your kind encouragement to our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • renatoestri

    Dear Andrea,
    heartiest congratulations for this huge success,
    after years of work, they have recognized the
    validity of your efforts.
    All will be grateful for this further milestone
    you gave to the LENR technologies progress.
    Ad Maiora !
    Renato

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daniel De Caluwé:
    Very kind, thank you from our team. That’s what an R&D is aimed to.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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