Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

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1,184 comments to Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    The term “stable” is referred also to not ssm status. Stable, in a nutshell, means without temperature and pressure relevant variations, either in ssm or in not ssm, with a constant flow of water.
    Here is the update: now, 05.00 p.m. of Saturday July 25th, we are stable in ssm. We are working on the assembly of the new Hot Cat, that, as I said, tomorrow will be sterted up. “We”, obviously, means my Team and me.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    I am just doing my best to make my duty, as well as all the components of my Team.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    That should be the srtandard by which all other R&D is judged.

    Paul

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    I’m glad to hear that you have had an idea of how to build a hot cat with a longer self sustain mode. I hope the test is a success.

    1 – Does the new design still utilize nickel powder?

    2 – Does the new design incorporate changes that could allow for a greater production of electricity directly?

    3 – Have you heard any updates from teams that are successfully replicating the classic hot cat?

    4 – How successful were the changes you made to the classic hot cat?

    5 – You have stated in the Cook paper and else where that most of the heat production of the hot cat comes from proton-lithium interactions. What percentage of heat do you guess comes from other reactions?

    6 – Have you ever tested lithium hydroxide instead of LiAlH4? If so, did it work?

    7 – Could you take a video of the new hot cat glowing in self sustain mode while maintaining the same temperature? You could cover up everything but the glowing cylinder. This would give some of us a morale boost who know the E-Cat works, but are getting bummed out by how it is challenging to replicate.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Just a quick question if you don’t mind. Sometimes you refer to the E-Cat as being ‘Stable’, sometimes you mention it is in SSM. Are these two different states of operation, or does Stable mean ‘Stable in SSM’?

    And so how is the plant at the moment: stable, ssm, both, or something else?

    Thanks very much. Glad you are healing fast!

    Kind regards,

    Frank

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    I have been under surgery on Monday 20 at 10 a.m., the operation has been terminated around 11, I woke up from total anesthesia at 11.30, at 4 p.m. I was in a bed in the computer container giving instructions to the Team about what to do ( stuffed with strong pain killers) , the new Hot Cat will be ready tomorrow morning to be started, so, in total, in a week it will have been designed, made, put in operation. It is not bad, is it?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    1- Yes, it has been inspired by the experiments and R&D that we made in the computer container on the Hot Cat that was the same type used in the Lugano test.
    2- No, the reference to M.me Curie was just referred to an absolute paradigm of excellence.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    Yes, but…at a price…Anyway, now, luckily, it is archeology.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrew,

    From the time you conceived of the new design, how long did it take for your team to build it?

    Paul

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    Was your new approach to the design of the hot-cat inspired by data you received from further ash analysis performed on hot-cat experimental residues? Does your reference to Madam Curie constitute a clue that low energy radioactive interactions can play a part in the refinement of the present device?
    Inquisitive regards.

  • KD

    Dir. Mr. Rossi.
    This is unbelievable, that your hernia is more useful than crystal ball.:)

    KD

  • Andrea Rossi

    Albert N.:
    Because I made a revolution in it. It is a completely new thing that, by my calculatons, should ( SHOULD) improve the “classic” one. It is an attempt: if it goes, the improvement, in term of ssm, will be strong. Otherwise, it is a wrong idea. The only way to know is to make an experiment. The funny part is how I got this idea: after the hernia surgery, when I woke up from the total anesthesy I got through, I had to stay some hour in a room, with pain. I am used to overcome pain relaxing and focusing strongly in something; obviously I focused on a new reactor and it came out. Now we did it, tomorrow goes in action. We’ll see if she is an abort or a baby. If she is a baby, is a M.me Curie!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • AlbertN

    Dear Dr.Rossi,

    You mention that a new version of the Hot Cat will be put in operation in a few days. You sound very excited. My question is why? You have done literally hundreds of tests on various reactors in the last few years. Why so excited about this particular one?

    Warm Regards,
    AlbertN

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Obviously, I am sure you already know that I cannot comment this insight of yours. Thank you, anyway, for your interesting lines. What is important is not if a theory is right or wrong ( sooner or later any theory turns out to be wrong), what is important is that a theory produces useful results during its lifespan. A good result can be derivated from different points of theoretical interpretations.
    About my “life in the container”: it’s now 09.20 p.m. of Friday July 25 where I am, and She is working stable.Sunday, the day after tomorrow, the new version of the Hot Cat will be put in operation too, and, honestly, I am very excited about it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    I’ve been doing extensive reading about lithium, lithium vapor, and the ionization of lithium (creation of plasma). A few interesting tidbits:

    1) In “heat pipe ovens” Lithium vapor starts to form at 750C.

    2) The lithium vapor can be ionized and turned into a plasma via several methods: lasers, solenoid induction coils, microwaves, or even ultra hot tungsten rods.

    3) The plasma is easier to ignite at low pressures of 1 bar or less all the way down to almost a vacuum.

    4) Ionized gases have different colors. Lithium plasma is reddish.

    From the Lugano test and the successful replications that have been made so far, I could see how maybe the lithium is transformed into a plasma via low pressures, high temperatures, field ionization by the square waves with lots of harmonics (which allow for a strong electric field), and the nickel tubercules that may allow for arcing between their tips where very high voltages may accumulate.

    Of course all of those conjecture could be pure bunk! I’ve learned that I’m often flat out wrong in my theorizing. However, after discussing a failed replication attempt that took place last night with someone who prepared for months (writing software, building a reactor core, setting up a power supply, etc), I’m very eager to figure out a general direction to follow that might lead to successful replications.

    My guess is that igniting a plasma in the high temp E-Cat is important. Most likely, you can’t say anything at all. But if you could just answer yes or no (if producing a plasma is needed in a high temp E-Cat) it would give replicators a small, tiny push in the right direction.

    And if I’m wrong in my speculation, it would prevent me from accidentally misleading people.

    Thank you for your time. And I hope you are able to get a small break from living in the container. You are more dedicated than Edison.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bob:
    1- 1 hour circa
    2- this parameter is totally irrelevant, since the E-Cat has to work 24 hours per day. For this reason we do not care about it so far. Maybe for some kind of utilization a shorter time will be necessary, at that point we’ll take this issue in serious consideration.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    I have two questions about the time it takes to start the hot cat:

    1. How much time does it now take from start of the hot cat until it achieves COP >1?

    2. Is the amount of starting time staying the same, increasing or decreasing as you develop and improve the hot cat?

    Thanks

    Bob

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    The hotter, the better. So far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Is there an optimal reactor temperature for the production of electricity, or is it the hotter the reactor the more electric power generated?

    Paul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hugh De Vries:
    A complete electrical failure is impossible because we always have a back up for all the necessary items.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hugh DeVries

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    When the E-Cat is operating at rated output and experiences a complete electrical input failure, does the E-Cat experience an orderly shutdown.

    Best regards
    Hugh

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mark Saker:
    1- some hint of direct electricity production has been measured
    2- too soon to know
    3- Direct production, I can’t comment further. It could not work, as well as it could. This is just one of the many targets we have in program with the R&D upon this new concept of Hot Cat; the main target remains an ssm as long as possible, to raise the COP as high as possible. Production of electricity can anyway and without any doubt made by means of well known cycles, mainly the Carnot cycle. Direct production remains intriguing, though, and we have measured direct current exiting from the Hot Cat in some amount, so that we want to know better the issue. So far it is not technology, it is just a pursue of knowledge: ” Fatti non foste a viver come bruti…”
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    We are trying to obtain a direct production of electric power. Just R&D so far, but we are getting something. I cannot comment further.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    I cannot comment on this, NDA pending ( he,he,he..)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark Saker

    Dear Andrea,

    Please give at least a tiny bit more information after such an exciting message.

    1. Have you performed any successful proof of concepts for the electricity generation?

    2. Is the aim for a single hotcat to provide enough energy to run a house both thermally and electrically or would more than one reactor be required?

    3. Can you give any indication as to the technology used for the electricity generation. Is it via an established conversion method such as a stirling engine or an exotic technology?

    Many Thanks and good luck with the new hot cat design.

    Mark Saker

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr Rossi, you have written that generating electricity is a target of the new Hot-Cat.

    I wonder (but probably you cannot enter in details) if that electricity could be generated by:

    1 – A pulsing magnetic field generated by Hot-Cat, or
    2 – Two electrodes inserted in some way inside the reactor, or
    3 – Using steam generated by the Hot-Cat ant a turbine, or
    4 – ??

    Kind Regards,
    Italo R.

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, if you or your readers would like to cook Risotto alla Milanese,
    Google: MENU FOR RISOTTO ALLA MILANESE
    Scroll down to the 5th Link:
    Risotto alla Milanese Recipe
    Enjoy !
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Yes, it is one of its targets.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Can the new hot cat design being tested directly generate electricity?

    Paul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jackie:
    I already go to Mac Donald’s, that wouldn’t be a celebration ( you, malicious …) What I’d settle for is a good “Risotto alla Milanese”: that’s what I really miss here.
    Risotto alla Milanese and a cup of Barolo: that would be a deal.
    With that in mind, let me go now to listen Her voice with the stethoscope.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • jackie

    Dear Mr Rossi, if your one year test turns out to be positive instead of negative do you and your team have any special celebration planned, maybe an all expenses paid trip to McDonald’s for a slap up meal. He He.
    Best wishes

  • Andrea Rossi

    Judy Mc Cain:
    Of course you are!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Judy Mc Cain

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I think you are the first case in the world of a guy that, operated by inguinal hernia, returns to work the next day and after 3 days has no more need of pain killers. I suspect that the secret element that makes your E-Cats work for months, or years, without breaking after several days as happened to the scientists that have replicated your effect is your blood: am I right?
    Cheers,
    Judy

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the Readers:
    Please find on http://www.rossilivecat.com comments published on this blog today in posts different from this one.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian Luca:
    He,he,he… By the way, it’s 8 a.m. here, I am inside the plant and well; no more necessity of painkillers, I can work as always without any pain. Hernia is over, work is as usual.
    We are working on the new version of the Hot cat, from which I have great expectations, while the 1 MW E-Cat is stable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gian Luca

    A.R…..said: “it has been fun ( he, he, he…)
    Frank Akland……said: “You have had a fun time with the surgery?”

    Ergo (therefore):
    Dr. Rossi have inhaled perossido di azoto for your hernia surgery and pain?

    Have a good day and job

  • Andrea Rossi

    Larry:
    Sure, we have a back up. I have to add, though, that the plant is installed in an important industrial area, therefore the power provider is very well structured, with a network of power distribution well differentiated, to by-pass the supply if a line goes in black out. As a matter of fact, no black outs happened since when we are working here.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Thank you for the suggestion. Interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Larry

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    Can you say anything about how you would handle a power outage on the grid. Since you say power is required for safety I assume you must have some sort of backup to provide power so that you can make an orderly shutdown of the reactor in the event of a power grid failure. If you do have some sort of backup power would you use it to keep the reactor running/hot for a few hours in case the grid failure is relatively brief. I assume a power outage would immediately stop the customer’s production line.

    Exciting times.

    Thanks
    Larry

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    If you have the time sometime, could you read this post and provide a response to the ideas presented. I think you will find it interesting.

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/07/20/plan-to-sell-e-cat-heat-follows-pattern-for-new-technology-adoption-albert-d-kallal/

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    I have chesen the container of the computers with escapes to the container of the reactors (stable): have I to assume the mental health is critical?
    By the way: today I am very well and to be well in abnormal situation could imply abnormal symmetry!
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You have had a fun time with the surgery? It does make me wonder (haha) Maybe the change of location helped. Perhaps a trip to the dentist would also be fun — anywhere but inside a shipping container!

    Glad you are feeling better!

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Yes, is possible, but it is not worth.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian Luca:
    I have been operated last Monday, today is the third day an I am much better: it happened to me also 1982 years ago, it has been fun ( he, he, he…). Frank Acland: do you think my mental health is in jeopardy too?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “100% ssm is impossible for safety reasons.” While this is absolutely true, do you agree that with some sort of energy storage, e.g., a battery, the overall system could theoretically become self sustaining, i.e., require no external power other than startup? Or are there other reasons against it?

  • Gian Luca

    Dear Andrea
    but…the bed in the container is double (matrimoniale)?
    Jokes apart.
    you have already been working very hard and do not have to prove anything to anyone, and then we must remember that health comes before everything else.
    Hernia is an ugly beast. I say this from experience.
    When you wear frack and papillon you have to be straight and fit ….

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Thank you for the interesting link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Rice University scientists have been doing research on Boron Nitride structures to control heat flow in advanced electronics. Perhaps, this material technology may also prevent hot spots in heat sources of various kinds. :)

    Even though I have only commented on Carbon structures in the past, perhaps Boron Nitride materials should also be given some attention.

    http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-07/ru-gs071515.php

    Feel better!

    Best regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Physican:
    Thanks for the suggestions, anyway today I feel much better and, fortunately, She is not generating troubles: She’s so goooood!
    Besides, my Team is giving the best of itself.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    Now we have to work, work, work very, very hard. If the results will be positive at the end of the tests on course, we’ll talk about celebrations. Now it is too soon.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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