Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

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1,178 comments to Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

  • Steven N. Karels

    Hank Mills,

    A well written possible explanation of Hot eCat theory of operation. Recall the report said there was insufficient lithium to account for the total amount of thermal energy released during the test. Also the energy output did not display any signs of fuel exhaustion.

    Comments:

    1. Can you account for the total energy output given the insufficient amount of lithium to be the primary fuel?
    2. Can you address why lithium-7 was apparently consumed while lithium-6 was not?
    3. I do not recall seeing any substantial levels of potassium in the report. Are you suggesting that this catalyst was not needed for Hot eCats or that it was purposely omitted?
    4. Do you believe that lithium-6 could act as a catalyst for the nickel-hydrogen reaction so the consumption of lithium-7 leads to a primary nickel-hydrogen reaction toward the end of the test and the Hot eCat control system keeps the output the same?

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    There will certainly be lots of research, development, engineering and product evolution before the E-Cat or H-Cat are used on moving platforms (cars, airplanes or spacecraft). If it becomes possible to operate a Hot-Cat above the melting point of Nickel, is there any possibility of using such (partially) molten fuel in the weightless conditions of space?

    I think this would be very difficult, if not impossible. (Without using artificial ‘gravity’ – e.g. by spinning the device.)

    I will try to ask more down to earth questions.

    Best regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, Google:
    MILAN EXPO 2015 COOKSTOVES
    Click On:
    CLEAN COOKING SOLUTIONS FOR HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY
    2.6 BILLION people need a clean Cookstove.
    Are you working on an E-Cat Cookstove ?
    All you need is enough heat to boil water.
    Change the fuel every 6 Months !!!
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jack Witter:
    Yes, if the results will be positive we will start a strong production. We are already organizing it. Obviously we need solid and sure results from the tests on course on the 1 MW plant. I sympathize with all the people that is waiting for the E-Cat for sale and I am deeply grateful to them, but I’m sure they are smart and understand that we can put for sale this product massively at two conditions:
    1- we must be 100% sure of the success
    2- we must be able to propose the E-Cat at a price that will make reverse engineering from our competitors useless. I am not decoubertinian and I am not oriented to give graciously to my competitors our technology for free, after dedicating my life to it, without saving a drop of blood.
    When we will be ready, we will attack massively. Now we are not ready. A premature attack could be devastating for Leonardo Corporation and its Licensees in all the world and for the present and future investors, necessary to generate a real worldwide expansion. To obtain it the conservation of the Intellectual property is foundamental.The pressure we are getting to act prematurely comes mainly from our competitors, sometime disguised as “friends”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jack Witter

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    Do you think that after the end of the test on course with the 1 MW E-Cat the products of Leonardo Corp will be on the market for sale massively, if the results will be positive?
    Thank you for your enormous work,
    Jack

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Thank you for your insight.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    The following is my conjecture about how the hot cat can exceed the melting point of nickel and a few other issues. The following is only a guess or hypothesis and not fact.

    The early low temperature E-Cat reactors usually operated at lower temperatures than today’s high temperature reactors. These lower temperatures protected the fine structures (tubercules) of the nickel that were important in optimizing the anomalous heat effect. During that time period, high hydrogen pressure supplied by an external tank, temperature, and certain other catalysts (lithium and maybe potassium) came together with pulsed waveforms to produce very high amounts of excess heat. Nickel hydrogen reactions were the most important during the normal operation of the reactor. If a runaway took place and the nickel melted – destroying the tubercules – the nickel hydrogen reactions would cease and there would not be enough anomalous heat and stimulation produced to allow other reactions (p+Li) to continue.

    The high temperature E-Cat is not completely dependent on the tubercules of the fine structures of the nickel. At the lower end of the temperature range of the hot cat, the energy produced by nickel hydrogen reactions are greater than all others. Below 750, in the liquid state, the lithium behaves more as a catalyst (performing functions that are not totally understood) than a fuel. Above this temperature, lithium vapor begins to form. A combination of stimulation in the form of heat, low pressure, and an applied electric field ionizes the lithium-hydrogen gas into a plasma. Depending on the configuration of the reactor, pressures, and intensity of stimulation, the plasma may fill a significant portion of the free space in the reactor or be located only in the small gaps between lithium covered nickel particles. When eddy currents induce arcing, the lithium hydrogen gas may be ionized into a plasma.

    Once the plasma is formed, the protons are accelerated into the lithium atoms at a variety of energies. At low energies, the protons (hydrogen ions) can tunnel into the lithium and induce nuclear reactions.

    At higher temperatures of around 1200C, the fine structure of the nickel is not as important and a greater percentage of the anomalous heat is from p+Li reactions. The thermalization of the alpha particles allows for temperatures greater than the melting point of nickel. Below and above the melting point of nickel self sustain mode can occur. At lower temperatures the nickel reactions are mostly responsible. They somehow provide the stame stimulus provided by the resistor. At higher temps the alpja particles work to continulally ionize and sustain the lithium hydrogen plasma. Eventually, the stimulation by the alpha particles becomes greater than the heat loss and a runaway occurs. However, the E-Cat is safe because as soon as the reactor ruptures and air destroys the plasma all reactions cease.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lande:
    When the domestic E-Cats will be in the market, for obvious reasons: we cannot give our technology in the hands of our competitors, before we will have reached an economy scale to make pointless any reverse engineering.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    I am very sorry, but to answer to this question I’d have to give confidential information. The principle of the intrinsic safety is still valid, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lande

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    When do you think Universities may be allowed to obtain versions of your E-cat or H-Cat technology and do some basic Physics research?

    I would believe they could be food for many PhD programs…

    regards
    Lande

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You have said in the past that the E-Cat is intrinsically safe, as once the melting point of nickel is reached, the powder melts, and the reaction is no longer possible. If the melting point of nickel can now be passed, is the intrinsic safety feature no longer valid?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sreven N. Karels:
    The control system is designed to control this issue. I cannot disclose the details of it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    We can overcome that limit, for reasons I am not allowed to explain.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Patrick Ellul:
    If you go to
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    you will find easily all the comments placed in other posts than the last of this blog. Otherwise you have to tour all the posts of this blog, but it is more time consuming.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In previous posts you made reference to a new Hot eCat running 80% percent of the operating time in SSM.

    Assume a collection of Hot eCats in an electrical power generation plant or similar application. Can the SSM times be controlled in such a manner that the non-SSM times are spread out in time so that average input power (electricity or fuel based) is nearly constant?

    An envisioned large system would seem to me to require a near constant input energy supply. If not, then the impact on the design/usage of the energy input source would be detrimental. For example, a system load presented to a local electric utility that randomly switches from no load to maximum load would be difficult for the energy utility. Comments?

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr Rossi, as we know the melting temperature of the nickel is 1455 ° C.
    I wonder if this is the maximum possible temperature of reactor operation or if, under special conditions, this temperature can be overcome (still working well), without destructive hot spots.

    Kind Regards,
    Italo R.

  • Patrick Ellul

    Dear Andrea,
    Re “As I explained in another comment on this blog few hours ago”.
    That older comment cannot be found anywhere. Perhaps it wasn’t posted successfully? Perhaps other comments of yours went missing?
    Regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tim:
    Interesting, thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Let us make enough experimental work to answer to this. The work of Parkhomov is very respectable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    As I explained in another comment on this blog few hours ago, the new Hot Cat has been destroyed, but we are making another with a correction that should resolve the problem.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tim

    It is good to hear that you can run in ssm at 1380C. This will permit you to produce hydrogen directly from water using the sulfur-Iodine cycle. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur%E2%80%93iodine_cycle This could eliminate the use methane to create hydrogen. It also may make it economical to produce fossil fuel replacements from CO2 and hydrogen.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    During the run of the new hotcat, how long did each period of self sustain mode last? The longest period of self sustain reported in a replication so far is Parkhomov’s eight minutes after his resistor broke.

    Sincerely,

    Hank

  • Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,
    The news about the new hot cat is very exciting. Does the new hot cat continue to survive the testing? (I hope so)
    God bless you!
    Tom

  • Andrea Rossi

    To our Readers:
    Please go to http://www.rossilivecat to find comments published today on this blog, but in other posts than this one.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    So far, is the New Hot Cat showing longer overall SSM times than the Classic Hot Cat?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    We believe it will work, but this does not mean that it will work: likewise, a lover believes that his beloved lady will fall in love with him, but not always the story goes this way. This is a matter of fact we have to take notice of.
    Update about the new Hot Cat: is working. It is working. So far. It is now 09.20 p.m. of July 28 in the plant, the 1 MW E-Cat is stable, no major problems, and the new Hot Cat works in a very promising way. I am very satisfied of this “incipit”. Let’s see what is gonna happen next. Promising night.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD ( about your answer to Robert Curto):
    like Matisse: ” ça c’est une pipe”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • KD

    Dir. Mr. Rossi
    You wrote to Paul
    <<<<<<She is a completely new concept, I have no idea if it will last and how much will last. If it will go we will have made a gigantic step forward toward a massive application.<<<<<<

    One of my former employers, when I asked before we started a test of a new machine ” Bill, will this machine work ?”, he always used to answer: ” Casey, we have to believe it will work”. And he was right.:)
    KD

  • KD

    Robert Curto. You wrote.
    <<<<Thanks Dr Rossi, you could be correct about KD’s smiling face,<<<<
    You wrong.
    It is not KD's smiling face. It is devil's face, you see.:) (even if I don't believe such thing as devil exist).
    On my screen I have, what I typed. Just colon and double parenthesis.
    KD

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    1- not so far. We are working on it with the new Hot Cat.
    2- too soon to enter in details, but all of those issues have been revolutionized.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Just “could be”? MUST BE! ( he,he,he…)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fyodor

    Mr. Rossi

    I hope that you are well and are taking it easy after your surgery. I had two questions.

    1. Is there any progress or news on generation of electricity from traditional mechanisms, such as steam engines?

    2. Is there anything you can tell us in general terms about what makes the new hot-cat different? Different temperature? Different control mechanism? Different reactor geometry?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions.

  • Robert Curto

    Thanks Dr Rossi, you could be correct about KD’s smiling face,
    Robert Curto

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    Thank you for your care: I got surgery exactly 7 days ago, now it’s archeology. No more pain. No more pain-killers. The only thing that makes me nervous is that I cannot swim and bike for a month, but I can sustain my work shift from 6.30 p.m. to 10.30 a.m., provided I do not lift weights higher than 1 kg ( 2-3 pounds). So said the surgeon: ipse dixit.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Symmetry is relative to specific situations and the parity it has not to violate to allow interactions can be positive or negative, depending if when the spacial coordinates are inverted the sign of the wave function changes or not: maybe the smiling face typed by KD is the one of a boxeur immediately after a hard fight, which also implies the introduction of a deformation factor.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    I understand and sympathize with your thirst of knowledge, but it is too soon to answer. We are collecting data. I cannot even confirm that we will be able to harness and make useful the electric signals we are getting from inside the reactor. She is a completely new concept, I have no idea if it will last and how much will last. If it will go we will have made a gigantic step forward toward a massive application.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I have just read that you underwent a surgical operation. As I told you before, take care. When in doubt, work out. Your health is the most valuable thing you’ll ever possess. Anyway the 400 days term has not expired.

    Greetings

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Did you monitor the electrical power output of the hot cat during start-up?

    If so, at what temperature did electrical power generation commence?

    Paul

  • Robert Curto

    KD, i did not expect the smily face to come out like this.
    If you follow the instructions, and send it in an email to yourself.
    You should get it as you typed it.
    There is a lot I don’t understand about Computers.
    I have been sending the smily face for years, it never came out like in my post ????
    Robert Curto

  • Robert Curto

    KD, I get a smile from your smily.
    The nose is above the left eye.
    It has two mouths.
    You may want to try this:
    EYES: Hold the shift key down, press the Collin key.
    NOSE: Press the dash key, next to the 0.
    MOUTH: Hold the shift key down, press 0.
    :-)
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD, Paul:
    Here is a first update.
    Here the time is now 05.00 p.m. of July 26. The 1 MW E-Cat is stable and regular. The New Hot Cat has worked out his first day of operation and so far the components have operated well. The efficiency so far is the same of the classic Hot Cat, but I am giving Her time to assess all the components. Anyway: it works. How well it works has to be seen yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • KD

    Paul
    Give a break Mr. Rossi.
    Don’t press him to go again under the total anesthesia.:))

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    In this moment here it is 01.20 a.m. of Sunday July 26.
    The new Hot Cat is just started. She is promising well, but obviously before saying anything worth to be listened is necessary a period of several days.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    What will you be able to tell us at the end of tomorrow?

    That the start up was successful? (or not)
    That a superior ssm mode was achieved? (or not)

    That you are producing more electrical power than you are consuming? (or not)

    Paul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian Luca:
    The aim of our R&D is to prepare an industrial massive production of a product that must have a very competitive price; if the new version will work ( I cannot know if it works or not before due R&D) it will have higher COP, more energy density, lower price, but, again, it has even to be started up for the first time. If it does not work, we’ll base the industral production on the Hot Cat concept we already have and that has been tested in Lugano by the Independent Third Party.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian Luca:
    The new version is smaller, I hope it will have a higher energy density.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gian Luca

    A.R.
    With this new idea what change for the people that hope and trust in the LENR, Rossi and Ecat?

  • Gian Luca

    Dea A.R.
    The new HCat will conserve the same dimentions (reactor) of old version?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    1- confidential
    2- it could, maybe
    3- no, I wait for published reports
    4- I will be able to answer when the new Hot Cat will have operated. We are assembling it, the start up will be tomorrow ( I hope)
    5- confidential
    6- confidential
    7- too soon to talk about this
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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