Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

.

by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
.
S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
.
.
Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

.

1,178 comments to Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “the consumption of current when the 1MW E-Cat is in SSM, producing 1 MWh/h is between 7 and 8 kWh/h.” Can you tell use the current consumption when not in SSM?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    Rethinking, what you ask for can be answered: the comsume of current when the 1MW E-Cat is in ssm, producing 1 MWh/h is betwen 7 and 8 kWh/h. The air conditioner is not included, because powered from a source independent from the E-Cat, as well as the light. Entertaining gadgets are Physics books, they do not consume current. The current is consumed by the control panels, triacs, transformers, safety systems.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    John:
    So far we are on schedule to finish within February 2016, but the term could be delayed: to know when we will finish the tests we return to the issue of the missed delivery of the crystal ball.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    Data related to the performance of the 1 MW E-Cat will be published after the end of the test on course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for your information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    I suppose Mr De Vries was referring to the reports published in this blog in 2012. Anyway, as I already said, in this blog, among the circa 23700 comments that have been published so far, you can find about 5,000 comments related to tests on the E-Cat, in both high T and low T versions, that combined with the links in them make up about 1,000 pages. If you want, you can go through them to find all that has been written on the matter.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Where can we find the documentation about “loss of control of Hot-Cats which results in a melted reaction chamber” as stated by Mr. De Vries? This will help us very much.

    Greetings

  • James Rovnak

    https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bz7lTfqkED9WSUM4VWI0aXBPVEE/view Look at video display on ongoing MFMP Rossi replication test.

    https://youtu.be/wfvlidn_Qv0

    Jim

    Nice view of set up video display with comments on right of screen at present.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    When the plant is stable in SSM mode giving 1 MW out, the input power should be only the necessary amount to feed the controller, air conditioning and entertaining gadgets. How much is it?

    Greetings

  • John

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    You have previously gone on record saying that the 400 day 1 MW plant test will be completed sometime between December 2015 and February 2016. However, you also stated that the current test with the new configuration of four 250 kW reactors began on Feb 20th. Does this mean that the clock is ‘reset’ from this date and we should expect the end of the test at a later time than previously communicated?

    Best Regards,

    ~John

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes, the reactor has been repaired yesterday, now the plant is stable at 1 MW of power. Right now, at 03.52 p.m. of Saturday August 1st, the plant is stable in ssm. Next week we’ll put again in operation the “Marie Curie” new version of the Hot Cat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hugh De vries:
    As a matter of fact, the Hot Cats Lugano-type are perfectly reliable and stable and their reliability and stability has been documented in the independent third party report after the Lugano test of about 1,000 hours, not to mention the tests made by us in our plant.
    Now we are working on an evolution type, named ” Marie Curie”, which should increase COP and ssm period and this new model is passing through all the troubles of an R&D, but we are working well and strong with it.
    The materials we use are confidential.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hugh DeVries

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    The history of loss of control of Hot-Cats which results in a melted reaction chamber is well documented. This is a failure mode that will not be acceptable in commercial or residential applications.
    Can the Hot-Cat reaction chamber be built of for example “tungsten carbide (2770 C)” which could contain a thermal soft-plug that melts and stops the reaction? Restarting then would be to replace the soft-plug and restart or recharge and restart.
    Best regards,
    Hugh

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Did your repair on the 250 kW reactor work? Plant okay now?

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Trebz 163:
    Dear Robert Fukiko Bryant: I agree with you, even if I sympathize with all the experimentalists that with candor are trying to replicate the effect.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for your interesting update and again a warm hello to these brave experimentalists! Please remind them to wear ALWAYS mask and gloves, to protect properly nose, mouth, eyes and hands when they manupulate the powders of the charge described in the Lugano report. Sometimes to be accustomed makes the precautions relax, and this could be dangerous.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea I liked your comment to Hank Mills & his efforts to help the engineer/physicist researchers. me 356 is running another test for Bob Greenyer & it has been going on for several days now. Great experimenter that me356 is. I think they lack one thing this time & that is a B field that oscillates bidirectionally along the axis of the fuel element like Lugano did. Currently it is unidirectional & has not stimulated much LENR as of late with operation in the 1000 C range. I think the SPPs are kept local & building with the bidirectional operation, only you would truly know. I still think there formation on the surface of the Ni & in the Li plasma are key to your successful process – is my presumption. They now measure temperature optically at both ends of element & by TC at the center & have optical track of the hot spot in the element which is probably local LENR region, just maybe! This is a great time for these experimenters as well as I. I love to see their novel ideas take shape & their determination to replicate & quickly. It warms ones heart to see the multinational effort with so much War in the world right now. Finally nations working together again for mankind’s benefit, no less. They are making some nice changes on the fly today to further investigate process. Well I’m back to the live video to see what’s happening this Saturday morning.

    https://youtu.be/4BS-oX1QRiE

    Some nice videos on BBC Atom1, Atom2 & Atom3 of general interest to all & very well done. Just do a Google search for Atom1 2 or 3!
    Cheers Jim
    Good luck with that new innovative idea Andrea!

  • Trebz163

    Hi Andrea,

    I commend you for your remarkable patience in dealing with all the questions which attempt to
    find out how the Ecats are constructed or operated

    Basically these questions amount to asking for access to intellectual property for free.

    In a capitalist free enterprise system intellectual property is not free which is why investors pay money to support it
    and which is why this intellectual property can be developed further to provide benefit for society.

    I am sure that Bill Gates and Federico Faggin would deal with these questions in the same way as you have.
    Regards
    Robert Bryant Sydney August 1,2015

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    I sympathize with you.
    The effect has been replicated well from scientists like Parkhomov and a good work is on course in other laboratories. About the other issues you raise, I am sure that smart persons like you can understand that I cannot give away graciously our IP to allow replicators to get solace.
    I take the chance you offer me to thank all the replicators for their attention to our work and i am sure all of them understand that I cannot devastate our enterprise and severe the serious investments necessary to the worldwide develpment of our concern. Nobody serious could invest in an enterprise without a well defended IP. I always said that the e-Cat is a very complex thing.
    About to give evidence in all the world of the validity of the effect: provided the tests on course will give positive results ( which is not certain yet, therefore scepticism has full right of citizenship), such evidence will not be given from any laboratory replicator, but from the products in the market and to make our products reach massively the market we need to preserve the Intellectual Property.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    Following your technology with a curious mind is exciting but torturous at the same time. On the surface, it looks fairly simple. The few replicators that have produced significant excess heat on their first attempt also make it look easy. But then there are several others who perform tests with no success or very little. I have spent countless hours trying to figure out what is going on inside these reactors in order to determine the changes replicators should make, but I know all of my conjecture could be totally wrong. Everyday I think of several questions I want to ask you, but I refrain from posting most of them because I know you will not be allowed to answer. So I simply try to pull together bits and pieces of information
    From various sources that seem to make sense. When I come up with a thought that might be useful, I share it with the replicators I am in contact with. We have a growing group of replicators from around the world now, but I feel we are fairly directionless and without leadership. I’m not sure any of us are absolutely certain how to proceed.

    If we were given the smallest, tiniest nudge in the correct direction it would help immensely. My personal guess is that we need to try and enhance the conditions that would allow for plasma formation in the E-Cat. Of course we have no proof the lithium vapor and hydrogen gas is ever ionized. Many of us have other hunches and ideas. Because of the lack of any guidance from an authority that knows what is happening in these systems, everyone is basically going in their own direction.

    You have said over and over again that there is a huge difference between a prototype showing excess heat and an actual device ready for the marketplace. If so, I can’t help but wish Industrial Heat could provide a small amount of guidance to help the general replicating community achieve significant excess heat like Parkhomov, Songsheng, the Moscow team, and others have. For some reason, even following their suggestions, producing anomalous heat seems darn hard.

    And I can’t help but think your real competitors out there (who have the money to do hundreds of tests changing every single parameter) already have matched the results of Parkhomov and Lugano. Of course, since they are in it for financial gain, they will not be sharing any information with anyone. So both from Industrial Heat and your competitors, those honest replicators that simply want to prove to the world that the effect is real, are left in the dark without any assistance.

    I’m not upset with you. I understand your real need for secrecy. But I also can’t help but feel frustrated for all of the replicators I talk to on a regular basis (I wish you could join one of our chats for even a few minutes to say hello) who are spending their time, money, and energy mostly invain when the important variables they need to know about must be very simple.

    I apologize for my rant.

    Hank

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- yes
    4- yes
    5- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Thank you. Some typical ways that breakdowns are handled in business are as follows. Which of these would apply to your plants?

    1. Have redundancy built in (if one reactor breaks down, a spare turns on automatically while the broken one is repaired)
    2. Provide spare parts to operators, if a quick fix is possible.
    3. Provide manuals and training materials so staff can make possible repairs.
    4. Have a help desk where people can call for technical support.
    5. Have mobile teams of service personnel who can travel to sites to take care of major repairs.

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    All these breakages are making technology, because we analyse the events and study how to avoid their repetition. Obviously, now and again the plants installed in the factories of our Customers around the world will have troubles; if they are foreseable, the operators will have the necessary instructions how to repair them, also with our assistance from remote by Skype; otherwise our assistance teams will have to intervene.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    It is interesting to learn of the reactor breakdown and repair you did today. Should something like this happen in a working industrial site, how would such repairs be taken care of?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    We will give due information about the performance data after the tests on course will have been completed. So far I can only, responsibly, say that the results at the end of the tests on course could be positive, as I hope, but also could be negative. It is obvious that in this situation it would be plethoric to talk of COP.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    BroKeeper:
    We are working on it and due information will be given when it will be time. Obviously this all is contingent with the results of the test on course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    “M’illumino di mensa”
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Now at 08.30 a.m. of Thursday July 31st the 1 MW E-Cat is going stable, presently in ssm. Today at 03.12 a.m. we had a problem in one of the 4 reactors, I can’t disclose the nature of. It has been repaired in about 4 hours and at 07.12 the repaired reactor has been put again in operation. During the reparation the power of the plant has been reduced down to 750 kW,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco Serra:
    We expect longer ssm periods and, of course, a lifespan worth an industrial product. Next week we’d be able to put the 2nd M.me Curie in operation.
    God bless you too,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gherardo:
    I did not refer to a condominium, but to a centralized heat distribution, which means heat distributed in series of houses and buildings made by an industrial concern through a complex piping network. Such concerns have certified operators to menage the heat generators.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    from your previous response the 1MW low temperature could be used in condominums for heating.
    How will be the day by day management since a condominium doesn’t have a technical team?
    There will be a 3rd party or they system should be autonomous or remotely controlled?
    Thanks, Gherardo

  • Marco Serra

    Dear Andrea,
    You said that the first prototype of new HotCat (M.me Curie) lasted 10 hours, of which the SSM was 8 hours.
    Is this the magnitude of SSM improvement you are expecting ? Or was you hoping something more ?
    You also said that you are now rebuilding her with some variations. Are these variations targeted to accomplish a longer life time or also better performances ?
    When will M.me Curie 2.0 be ready to be tested ?

    God bless you

    Marco

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    How is the 1MW plant performing at the moment?

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  • KD

    Dir. Mr. Rossi.
    You got me.
    I don’t know if it can make a “risotto alla Milanese”.
    I never see or eat a “risotto alla Milanese”, But I think that “thank to you” it is possible.:)
    Tasty Regards,
    KD

  • KD

    Mr.Robert Curto.
    I too, know very little about cooking. Also a “risotto alla Milanese” Mr. Rossi is asking me about.
    I understand you want to help you friends in need.
    But I had on my mind that E-cat is not working the same way as electric or gas heater or stove, turn ON, turn OF.
    I think, about storing heat to be used when it is needed and for different purposes.
    KD

  • BroKeeper

    Dear Andre Rossi,
    Assuming a positive result followed by an imminent massive retail attack, has your staff increased significantly to handle its implied huge commercial logistics? Could you give us a feel to its growth if true? How much has R&D grown since its initial dozen? Thank you.
    With much respect,
    BroKeeper

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted about the Hot eCat being in SSM for 80% of the time over a ten hour period.

    Ignoring start-up conditions, we can bound the long-term effective COP. From previous discussions we know the COP during the non-SSM mode of operation is greater than 1.0. So the effective averaged COP must be at least 5.0 (10 hours / 2.0 hours) times a COP of 1.0 = 5.0. After start-up, the COP during the non-SSM periods is probably between 2.0 and 6.0 based on historic eCat performance reporting. If true, then the averaged effective COP will be between 10 and 30. Andrea – without discussing intellectual property issues, is this argument valid?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    The role of robots will be important. We already have all the technology.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    As you plan for widespread manufacturing of E-Cat plants, what role do you see robotics playing in that production?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul Calvo:
    Both.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Paul Calvo

    Dr Rossi 7/30

    if the results are positive will you concentrate on the leased heat
    market or _sale_ of 1 MW units?

  • Robert Curto

    KD, I know very little about cooking.
    Some of the cookstoves they use burn charcoal.
    They do not have an Oven.
    I was trying to say the E-Cat only has to have the same heat you get from
    burning charcoal.
    Please read Dr. Rossi’s response to my Post.
    I agree with him.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gherardo:
    Yes: this is a kind of industrial application.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    Can it make a “risotto alla Milanese”?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    do you think that the industrial plant could also be used as a central heating unit in a big condominium?
    Thanks, Gherardo

  • KD

    Robert Curto, you wrote

    >>>>>>Are you working on an E-Cat Cookstove ?
    All you need is enough heat to boil water.<<<<<<

    To boil water is not enough. You can not cook cakes or pizza.:)
    It need higher temperature. I see it, like the stove, used long time ago to worm up homes. Build of bricks or stone. After burning wood or coal it stay hot for many hours.
    Such furnace heated by Hot E-cat by hot air or some liquid coolant will work like storage of heat.
    Insulated outside with chamber inside. You can bake, you can put pressure cooker inside and have food ready in minute. Also, water all the time hot for coffee.
    I did not see it in crystal ball, but in the coffee sediment. It was the way used by loco gipsy witch who "gipsy-ed" me of some money when I was a kid.:)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1- yes
    2- we’ll start with industrial that already are certified
    3- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    1. When you talk about a ‘massive attack’, does this mean making E-Cats available around the world all at once?

    2. Does the ‘massive attack’ involved first Industrial E-Cats (before domestic is available), or both at once?

    3. Will the ‘massive attack’ begin soon after the current test is completed (if positive)?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    This could be surely a possible application of the E-Cat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    I have no idea about the possibility to use such fuel in space. As always, only experimentation can give an answer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>