Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

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1,186 comments to Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

  • Peter Forsberg

    Thank you!

    The Rossi effect can surely reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, but remember that you usually remind everyone on this blog that all sources of energy will still be needed in the future regardless of ECat success. And also remember that the test result of ECat may still be negativt or positive. So time will tell if we will have to move back into the caves or not based on IPCC recommendation. :-)

    Do you know what some people wrote on blogs after the announcement that an Ebola vaccine had been developed? “Looks like the world will not be saved after all!”. The environmental movement is not healthy when it leads to a hate of mankind.

    Best Regards

    Peter Forsberg

  • Andrea Rossi

    Peter Forsberg:
    Your considerations are valid too. I think that this issue must be considered with equilibrium and good sense, without exaggerations in one sense or the other. It has been a positive step, though, to start an action to reduce, within acceptable limits, the production of inorganic carbon. I understand that there is the drama of the jobs bound to coal mining, but this too is an issue that can be resolved by technological retrofitting. When I proposed to retrofit coal fueled power plants with a system of E-Cats, I have been told that it is practically impossible due to permissions and authorizations bound issues: maybe to ease the retrofitting authorizations could be an intelligent compromise.
    Thank you for your wishes, heartly returned to you for your academic career.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian:
    First and foremost, thank you for your continue attention to our work.
    I will be able to give information related to the COP after the end of the 350 days test on course. As you know this is the policy that has been chosen and I cannot change it.
    Obviously, I sympathise with you and with everybody anxious to know the results. I am on your same page.
    One thing I can say: I am not here, inside the plant, 16 hours per day, included Saturdays and Sundays, not even thinking about holydays, to sharpen the tips of the pencils.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • gian

    La notizia è vecchia ma è sempre utile ricordare.

    http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/feb/26/biofuels-rubbish-eu-road-transport

    Affermi sempre che il risultato delle prove in corso può essere positivo o negativo.
    Vuoi almeno confermarci che l’effetto Rossi non solo esiste, ma che sicuramente fornisce un COP maggiore di 3?

    Abbi cura della tua salute. è il primo imperativo per il successo dell’ E-CAT.
    Saluti al calor bianco.

    ———————————
    Always you affirm that the results of the ongoing trials can be positive or negative.
    Will you at least confirm that the Rossi effect not only exists, but it certainly provides a COP greater than 3?

    Take care of your health. It is the first imperative for the success of the E-CAT.
    E-cat white heat greetings.

  • Peter Forsberg

    Dear Andrea,

    I do not agree that it is good to cultivate anti life sentiments among mankind. To live is to produce CO2. With every breath I exhale I produce C02. With every activity I do I produce CO2 via the fossil fuels I burn. While I write this, my computer and the internet indirectly consumes fossil fuels. If I drive to work my car produces CO2. So to live is a crime? Do we have to move back into the caves? This thinking will cause a lot of unnecessary hardship for all of us. I can recommend you to read the books Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged for a different perspective on mankind.

    Based on the evidence I have seen I think that there are other factors that drive the climate more that humanity. And there is also no such thing as a normal climate. The climate has always changed during the history of the earth. Why do you want it to be static? Do you think humanity can via some knobs keep it static? I promise you that we cannot.

    Anyways, I hope we both live long, so we can experience if AGW was a folly or if it was correct. And I also wish you the best of luck with the ongoing tests and the new Hot cat.

    Best Regards

    Peter Forsberg

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    @ Peter Forsberg,

    You wrote: What do you mean by “excess of inorganic C”? The CO2 you are referring to is what builds plant’s bio mass. How can there be an excess? How do you define the excess? Can we have too many green plants? Isn’t it better with more greenery when the worlds population is growing? There have been many times in the history of the planet where CO2 levels were higher as I am sure you know.

    My answer: See: http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_tar/?src=/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/fig3-2.htm (fig. d) and fig. e); source: IPCC scientific basis (working group I), third assessment report 2001)

    i) We have to go back 23 to 24 million years to find CO2 levels (in the atmosphere) above the level we have now (about 400 ppm), and as far as I know, this is longer than our species, the homo sapiens sapiens exist in nature. Do you want to go back to a time where only monsters were living in the seas and the oceans?

    ii) Look now at figure d): At least during the last 400.000 years (and maybe more), the level of CO2 balanced between 180 ppm (during Ice-ages) and 280 ppm (Interglacials, periods between Ice-ages, only 100 ppm more), so, during at least that period (the last 400.000 years, and maybe more), we had a predictable behaviour of the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, and the concentration remained between a very narrow band (only 100 ppm difference between Ice-ages and Interglacials), but what happened since 1750 (since the industrial revolution): As the CO2 level now is already 400 ppm, we’ve put an extra amount of 120 ppm (= already more than the difference between Ice-ages and interglacials) in the atmosphere, and if we do nothing, the concentration will rise further, above levels we only had before 23 tot 24 million years ago, longer than our species, the homo sapiens, exists.

    So, the ‘excess’ you asked for, is already 100 to 120 ppm, the same difference as between Ice-ages and Inter-glacials.

    iii) CO2 is a well known greenhouse gas, and we know that already since the research of John Tyndall (1820 – 1893), and as the oceans are forced to take up more CO2 (they are put under an atmosphere with rising CO2 levels), there’s also the problem of the dangerous acidification of the oceans, that causes a change in the kind of plankton, and the kind of fish, if any. So we’re also changing the environment of the oceans…

    iv) The amount of CO2 that we put in the atmosphere is far more than the land and the oceans can take up (in the nineteens, only half of what we discharged into the atmosphere was taken up, but as most is taken up by the oceans and the seas, and as the capacity of the oceans to take up more CO2 is reducing very quickly, we get a serious problem: the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere rises far too quickly, much more than the land and the oceans can uptake).

    Kind Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Peter Forsberg:
    Again thank you for your comments.
    In a nutshell: when you burn a hydrocarbon ( therefore oil, coal, gas) you turn the organic C of the hydrocarbon into inorganic Carbon Dioxide. This is the excess we produce.
    I agree perfectly with you on the fact that the Earth produces inorganic C and I have been in past strongly sceptic about the global warming as an effect of human activity, but the last studies and calculations have convinced me that human activity is not irrelevant. You are right saying that we have to adapt to new scenarios of surviving necessities, it is true that, independently from us, panta rei; but it is exactly for this reason that we have to invent technologies that help us to leverage our surviving chances . The integrals related to the increase of global warming in function of the increase of hydrocarbons burning are impressive. Maybe human activity is not the main cause of the global warming, but it is beyond any doubt among the causes, therefore to implant in the cultural DNA of mankind the necessity to reduce the burning of hydrocarbons is useful, even if maybe not absolutely resolutive. Obviously I can be wrong.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the Readres:
    Please find on
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    comments published today in posts of this blog different from this one.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Peter Forsberg

    Dear Andrea,

    What do you mean by “excess of inorganic C”? The CO2 you are referring to is what builds plant’s bio mass. How can there be an excess? How do you define the excess? Can we have too many green plants? Isn’t it better with more greenery when the worlds population is growing? There have been many times in the history of the planet where CO2 levels were higher as I am sure you know.

    Scientist in collaboration with polititians often make the mistake of trying to conserve the world as it is. But the world is constantly changing (panta rei). Of course human activity will change the world in many ways, but that is nothing wrong. We must adapt to changes, instead of trying to conserve the world as it is, because the latter is impossible.

    Best Regards

    Peter Forsberg

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Peter Forsberg:
    Thank you for your comment bearing your point of view. You are right when you say that C is necessary to any kind of life: no organic C, no life. What we were talking about is the excess of inorganic C in the emissions of human activity. I too until a couple of years ago used to think that there is no evidence of the fact that human activity affects the global warming, but, honestly, I am changing idea. Obviously, we know that any opinion can be wrong. For this reason all the opinions are very welcome.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Peter Forsberg

    Dear Andrea,

    I do not agree at all with the sentiment that carbon is a pollutant. Carbon is the most important building block of life. And calling it a pollutant is border line criminal behavior. The more CO2, the better. I think that the AGW hypothesis will be proven wrong eventually. The global warming agenda is anti life. I am pro life. Just because most so called scientist claim that AGW is a fact it does not make it so. Often in the history of science the majority was wrong. I hope you don’t mind, I wanted to balance the debate a bit.

    Best Regards

    Peter Forsberg

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Depending on the billing practices of the local electrical utility company, you may be able to save your customer more money by synchronizing the non-ssm periods with the less expensive off-peak periods of the day.

    Paul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Martyn Aubrey:
    1- no
    2- confidential
    3- we supply 1 MWh/h
    4- confidential
    5- yes
    6- installed originally
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S.
    The data “confidential” will be published after the end of the tests on course.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mary Johnson:
    You are right. And the E-Cats can help ( F9).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Thank you, but I also must add that our Team is a strong help.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, your response to Alexus was excellent.
    You are not working at a regular 40 hour a week job.
    If you worked 8 hours a day, 5 days a week:
    The stress and anxiety could cause great harm to your Health.
    Continue to work 16 hours a day.
    It makes you happy and content.
    Plus, with all the people praying for you, God will not let you down.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Martyn Aubrey

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    You said to Hergen ( August 2nd, 2015 at 11:30 AM ) that “The plant in operation in the factory of the Customer is made by 2 sectors: one with the small E-Cats and one with the bigger ones.”

    I have some questions, if you are able to answer.

    1. Are the smaller (10kW?) E-Cats and the larger 4x250kW E-Cats all in use at the same time providing heat to the customer?

    2. Do the different sector E-Cats all contribute heat to a single combined feed to the customer equipment, or is there one feed from the small E-Cats sector and a separate feed from the larger E-Cats sector?

    3. Is the total heat output of all the E-Cats combined equal to 1MWh/hr, or is the set-up a “mix and match” configuration where there is spare capacity between the different modules?

    4. If so, how much spare capacity is available, and do some modules run at less than 100% output some of the time or are some powered down when not needed?

    5. On Andrea-Rossi.com there is a photo showing you checking one of the smaller E-Cat modules inside the container ( photo ).

    At the distant end of the container there appears to be a set of larger E-Cat modules transverse across the width of the container. Are these modules the 250kW units seen in the photo of you listening to an E-Cat with the stethoscope?

    6. Last question for today – phew!! Were these 250kW modules planned and installed during the initial installation before delivery of the container to the customer, or added later?

    Many Thanks for patiently answering all these endless questions from us, The Readers!

    Kind Regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  • Mary Johnson

    Dr Rossi:
    Thank uou for your comment on the President Obama. Now he made another historical breakthrough: for the first time carbon is considered a pollutant. This will be another important legacy of his, for the defense of the environment.
    Cheers,
    Mary

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    God can protect me if I am right. I simply cannot work less than 16 hours per day. Period.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande: sorry for the misunderstanding. That will be possible when we will have started the massive production.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jackie:
    I cannot foresee what will happen in future: panta rei ( Heraclitus).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    No, it is not possible to modify the terms of the test and still I must add that the results at the end of it can be either positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, I think that now it would be possible interrupt the test period of the plant. You have already collected a lot of data and already proved beyond any reasonable doubt that the Rossi effect is real. That is because the world needs you now.

    I believe that President Obama knows your technology, and that his intervention on the environment has been made taking into account that it is already ready to operate on the market, starting to change our world.

    Kind Regards and God bless you
    Italo R.

  • jackie

    Dear Mr. Rossi, thank you for your answer, can you say are you still experimenting with different fuel mixtures?
    Are there many different combinations that will give Cold Fusion or is there just one that you have found is the best?
    Could there be an as yet undiscovered combination that could give far more energy than those you have so far discovered?
    Best wishes

  • Giannino Ferro Casagrande

    Ma Andrea ?!? Roberto intendeva dire camion/containers con dentro alloggiati numerosi HOT-CAT che piazzati nelle periferie delle città distribuiscono energia per i vari servizi . Non camion che vengono alimentati a LENR ! CIAO ANDREA Giannino di Udin .
    Roberto meant E-Cats transported by trucks, not fueling trucks.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Being Chief scientist of IH and CEO of Leonardo Corporation seems too much even for you. Working 16 hours/day would break the strongest and healthiest man. At risk of being boring I repeat, take care of yourself and delegate some functions in your team. No Obamacare will protect you if you fall ill.

    Greetings

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    The enormous importance of the work of the President Obama is too momentous to be understood fully by all the people immediately: when he will be no more President his legacy will make History. Also Abraham Lincoln has been underevaluated by his contemporary counterparts: only after he died his gigantic figure has been fully understood and shared by almost all the people.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Andy Capp:
    1- Leonardo Corporation
    2- The Board of Directors of Leonardo Corporation will define the general strategy, to be assessed with the different Licensees in harmony with them depending on the specific characteristics of their Territories and on the specific allowances of their licences.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Roberto M.:
    As I said already, the application of the E-Cats to trucks will need twenty years of tests to get the necessary cerifications. I foresee applications in the fields of heating and electric power production in the next 5 years.
    Thank you for your kind words,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Because the COP ( if any) will be communicated after the end of the tests on course, as I said many times.
    Warm Regards,
    A.T.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Italo R,

    While your math is correct for an effective COP of 125 to 142 while in the SSM mode, the overall mode is affected by two additional factors:

    a. The amount of power consumed by the reactors in the non-SSM mode of operation and the percent of time spent in SSM and non-SSM modes.
    b. Other power consumption independent of the reactors consuming power (e.g., the control system, pumps, required cooling, etc.).

    This is not to take away the brilliance of the eCat technology. As previously posted, we could easily estimate an effective COP of 6 or greater. If this is demonstrated, it would be a significant achievement.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I did re-read your comments. You told us:

    a. The amount of power consumed in SSM.
    b. The percentage of time spend in SSM and non-SSM modes of operations

    What you did not tell us is the power consumed by the reactors when they are not in the SSM mode of operation. Can you provide that data?

  • Roberto M.

    Hi Andrea,
    I work for a HVAC (Heating, Venting, AC) company. We have been following your progress with our fingers crossed. You have been doing better than Moore’s Law for electronics chips. I am sure that you have heard of Moore’s Law that chip density doubles every two years. You have taken ecat from 5 kW to 250 kW in 5 years. Where do you see ecat to be in another five years. If you continue at the same rate, you will be at 50 times 250 kW. That is over 10 MW. If you mount ten of 10 MW ecats on a truck, you will have a mobile power plant for every small city. That would be interesting. You see any obstacles on the way for the next five years?
    To Moore, Infinity and Beyond,
    Roberto M.

  • Andy Capp

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    1- Who is that owns the Intellectual Property of the E-Cats and of the Rossi Effect?
    2- Where is the mastermind that defines the strategy for the development of the E-Cats in the world?
    Thank you if you can answer,
    Cheers
    Andy

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, an excellent Post to Ian Walker.
    Fox News and others has brain washed many Americans to believe he is not a good President.
    Your 16 hour days are not only going to benefit America, but the entire human race.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ian Walker:
    Thank you, thank you for your important comment, which gives me the chance to write what I think of the President Obama: he is one of the most important Presidents of all the History of the USA.
    His legacy will be considered of the same level of the one of the President Abraham Lincoln. His Healthcare Revolution will have on the evolution of the American Society the momentous impact of a game changer, giving the right to health to the poorest sectors of the population. He has inherited , when he became President, a disastrous situation under economic, military profile and he has been able to lead this Country again toward a strong recovery. Lincoln has put the bases to give freedom to the Afro- Americans, Obama has put the bases to give to 50 millions of non wealthy Americans the right to have a sustainable healthcare. History will tell us all about the importance of this giant, while now his dimension is dwarfed respect the reality by political opportunism.
    What can I do to help him? Work at the best of our possibilities to create jobs and technology at the service also of the environment, which is the issue the link you report is centered upon.
    I am working 16 hours per day for this, and I am defending the Intellectual Property ferociously for this reason.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi, CEO of Leonardo Corporation

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jackie:
    What I can say is that the price of the charge is irrelevant, due to the tiny amount of it respect the energy produced.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • jackie

    Dear Mr. Rossi, if you are allowed to answer, could you say, allowing for your fuel mixture to be very complicated, how much will cost the fuel respect plain nickel ?
    Best Wishes

  • Ian Walker

    Hi Mr Rossi

    As a citizen of the USA your President sent you a memo on a subject I know is close to your heart:
    https://www.facebook.com/WhiteHouse/videos/10153662873839238/?fref=nf

    Will you be answering your nations call?

    Kind Regards Ian Walker

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hergen:
    The plant in operation in the factory of the Customer is made by 2 sectors: one with the small E-Cats and one with the bigger ones.
    I will give more info after the end of the test on course.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Thank you, good suggestion.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Hergen

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I have several questions.
    For the 400 days test in the factory of your customer did you replace the reactor of 110 small modules with a reactor consisting of 4 x 250 kW modules? If yes, what was the reason?

    You told us the reactor with the 110 small modules would reach a very high COP, because the modules would work in a synergistic way. Do the 250 kW modules of the other reactor work also in a synergistic way?
    Is the COP of the reactor with the 4 x 250 kW modules as high as the COP of reactor with the small modules?

    Thank you.

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, you and your Readers may want to read the Biography of
    Marie Curie.
    Google: MARIE CURIE
    Click on: Marie Curie-Physucist-Biography,com
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the Readers:
    I have been asked from several Readers why when I indicate an hour time on the comment appears a time one hour before: it’s because the system of this blog does not consider the Summer time.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    You must make a distinction between the ssm and the non ssm cycles. We will give the data related to the performance of the 1 MW E-Cat after the end of the tests on course.
    For example now, at 7.54 a.m. of Sunday August 2, She is not in ssm; all stable, all good, no problems by now, and the control system has put Her in not ssm mode.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, you have written:
    “…the consume of current when the 1MW E-Cat is in ssm, producing 1 MWh/h is between 7 and 8 kWh/h…”

    This would mean a COP between 125 and 142.
    Could it be roughly correct?
    That would be immensely great!

    Great Regards
    Italo R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dave K.:
    Thank you for this very interesting historical anecdote.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Please read well my comment: I told it already.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dave K

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I was happy to see you have named your reactor after Marie Curie. As it happens, I personally knew a man that helped supply Madame Curie with radioactive materials. His name was Howard Balsley of Moab, Utah. The story of his Yellow Circle Mine is one of legend, and I have seen with my own eyes the yellow circle of Carnotite ore first conceived of in miner’s dream. Mr. Balsley subsequently grub staked the prospector to go out and search for that yellow circle of uranium. That rock with the yellow circle was in Mr. Balsley’s back yard the last I knew.

    Mr. Balsley was in every way a kind and gentle man, and he endured my youthful curiosity with great patience.

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