Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

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1,184 comments to Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    BroKeeper:
    Thank you for your simpathy and for your poetry.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    because there is nothing of magic. It’s science, not magic. Maybe wrong science ( in this case you will not see it in the market) or right science: in this case no mumbojumbo-tango: you will just buy it and put it in operation. I do not know, now, either which will be true.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    Brick by brick, otherwise the wall crumbles down…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian Luca:
    I will give data related to it when we will have more consolidated results.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gian Luca

    Dear Andrea
    it is possible to say that this last object (M.me Curie), at the same power, the same size as the others? Could it be considered as a portable object ? With the right standardization can be transferred from one house to another?
    Thank you

  • Dan C.

    Dear Andrea,

    M.me meep
    vrumm vrumm, Me go fast, I smell rubber burning,

    There’s a lesson here. Location, Location, Location
    When installing the M.me in your Tesla, please be sure there is at least 16 inches between the M.me and your tires.

    Very warm regards,

    Dan C.

  • Italo R.

    A lot of curiosity about the new kitten. And it seems to be magic!
    What about calling it “Magi-Cat”as I have already read in the web?
    Kind Regards,
    Italo R.

  • BroKeeper

    Dr. Rossi,

    Your enthusiasm is infectious. When you get excited we all get excited with you.

    It’s been as if we were passengers on an adventurous ride fairing across the precarious ocean and winds with another Italian discoverer 525 years ago to a new world.
    Like Cristoforo Colombo with his dependable crew on the Santa Maria, Pinta and Nina you and your team have been negotiating an ocean of scientific paradigms.

    With you, as our captain of vision, we also have been tossed by the waves of uncertainty and winds of skeptical scorn and opposition sailing on three vessels to a brave new world just now peering above the horizon. No matter the final end thank you for this awesome voyage.
    BroKeeper

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    As I said in my response to Frank Acland and to yourself the characteristics and the applications of the new Hot Cat will be published after due R&D will have been done. Now it is too soon.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fyodor

    Mr. Rossi

    Is the new Hot-Cat intended to provide domestic electricity via direct electricity production?

    Thank you

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes, it is correct.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Thank you for your response and patience with my questions. If I may ask one more question on this subject.

    Is it correct to now make a distinction between the ‘traditional’ Hot Cat and the “M.me Curie”?

    The ‘traditional’ Hot Cat could be useful for industrial application, including driving steam turbines?

    The “M.me Curie”, something new, different, not industrial?

    Many thanks!

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    It is too soon to answer, let us make our R&D on it. While LT E-Cat and Hot Cat have been tested for years, the new born is just making the first steps. This time, when we will explain it, there will not pass much time before the distribution. No more mambojumbo-tango.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    I confirm: The new Hot Cat is NOT a substitute of the “Lugano” Hot Cat or of the low temperature E-Cat. It is a completely different thing. While the Hot Cat and the LT E-Cat will be destined to industrial applications, the “M.me Curie” will be destined to a completely different kind of utilization, very much popular. I will give more details, obviously, only after we will have made enough tests to see if it is reliable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    I know this is early, but is your hope that the new Hot Cat will eventually be able to:

    a) Provide electricity for domestic use
    b) Provide heat for domestic use
    c) Both

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Fyodor

    Hello Mr. Rossi

    I just wanted to follow-up to your answer to Mr. Acland. Are you saying that the new Hot-Cat is NOT suitable for generating electricity via steam turbines or that it is suitable for electricity generation via turbines?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my question.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes, among other things.
    The 1MW E-Cat are two totally different things for totally different duties.
    Besides, the 1 MW E-Cat is close to complete the R&D cycle, while the new Hot Cat is just beginning with it.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You write the new Hot Cat is “not idoneous for industrial applications or centralized heat distribution”. Does this mean it is not suitable for generating electricity via steam turbines?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frederic Maillard:
    Wrong: the low temperature E-Cats have an employment the Hot Cats cannot be applied to.
    Please read also the answer I gave several minutes ago to Frank Akland.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    Thak you from our great Team, ( F9 !!!!)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Absolutely not: the low temperature E-Cats have a totally different kind of employment that with the Hot Cat should not be possible.
    The new Hot Cat will affect the domestic and totaly different kinds of application, while they are not idoneous for industrial applications or centralized heat distribution, which is the market sector of the 1MW low temp E-Cat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Would a significant technological breakthrough with the Hot Cat, like the one you have described (F9) mean that your low temperature technology you are using with the 1 MW plant would be obsolete?

    Would your plans to commercialize with your low temperature E-Cats be put on hold or stopped if this Hot Cat breakthrough is confirmed?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Giannino Ferro Casagrande

    Caro Andrea , la Tua del 09/08 delle 17,45 indirizzata a Alexvs è per davvero entusiasmante . Se questa scatola di scarpe ( come diceva Focardi ) è proprio quello che traspare leggendo tra le Tue righe , sarà un miracolo epocale senza precedenti !!! Auguro a tutta la Tua squadra un immenso di felicità !!! Giannino di Udin
    Dear Andrea: if this shoes-box maintains its promises the developments will be bearers of great enthusiasm: congrats to your Team!

  • Frederic Maillard

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Thanks for your previous answer.

    You wrote : “the new Hot Cat, named “M.me Curie” (…) could be the leader for the very massive production.”

    Does-it mean your 250 KW module will not be mass produced before this new leader ?

    Best regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frederic Maillard:
    Thank you for your suggestion. Surely we are going through an intense work of tests before its presentation to the public. What I wanted to say is that, differently from what we made for the former models, we will not make any public test of it until it will not ready for the commercialization. In other words, when it will be exposed to public tests it will be already on the shelves.
    All the work of evolution, test, R&D, safety certification will be done internally. When we will disclose it, anybody will be able to buy it. No more mumbojumbo-tango ( Hey, Thomas Florek: what about writing a tango about the mumbojambo of the sceptics? That could be a jingle, when the time will come! He,he,he).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Toussaint:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian Luca:
    You are right: I think something very important is coming, but maybe I am wrong. We are working on it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dan C.:
    Thank you for your itelligent comment, but I am not able to answer so far. Long and appropriate tests have to be done and it is all but sure the effect you are talking about. My strong optimism to the new Hot Cat is not due to this perspective: please read my last alswers to Frank Acland.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    We measure permanently the radiations outside theE-Cat and no ionizing radiation above the background has ever been ever detected.
    My health, thanks to God, is perfect. The surgery I got on July 20 was only for an inguinal hernia that exited for excess of physical fatigue.
    The great scientist Dr Curie ( commonly referred to as “Madame Curie”) is dead not for muons, but because she manipulated radioactive atoms, without knowing their dangerousness ( due to the scarce if not zero knowledge of the effects on health at those times).
    We do not use or produce radioactive materials and to not emit out of the E-Cats any ionizing radiation, as it has been measured in all the tests we made in the last 6 years.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frederic Maillard

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You wrote : “the new Hot Cat, named “M.me Curie” (…) could be the leader for the very massive production. We will go directly from our tests to the market (…).”

    Don’t you think it would be more prudent to test in operational conditions this new version for say one year, as the 250 KW module is currently being tested, before going to market ?

    Best regards

  • toussaint

    Dear andrea Rossi

    Did you repair the 250 kw module?

  • Gian Luca

    Dear Readers:
    The real news for all the persons that are interested to the work related to the E-Cat is what Andrea Rossi said: “I am working with it, it is a real revolution. Is important. Works very strongly and I am very optimist” (Ecatnews).
    I am very happy to hear these words.
    From the tests of Lugano Andrea he has never exceeded in emphasis.
    Great news coming?

  • Dan C.

    Dear Andrea,

    With full awareness of the (F9)

    If direct energy production is possible,
    Would this be in addition to using the heat for a steam turbine or would this direct energy production process rob from the heat production.

    Note I’m not implying over-unity, merely an overall higher conversion efficiency to electricity from the 2 paths.
    I would imagine you would just be taking from 1 to give to the other, But I thought I would ask if you thought there may be an overall gain..

    Kind regards,

    Dan C.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, very exciting news about “Madame Curie” !!
    But someone fears that this new Hot-Cat can generate muons, with danger to your health, as happened to Madame Curie last century …
    Kind Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Chris Beall:
    It is soon to enter in these applicative particulars, nor I can yet give description of the energy supplied, but I can anticipate that the E-Cats will be able to supply the amount of heat necessary with no redundance. The answer to your question is in itself. Provided the final results will be positive, because, at the state of the art, I must repeat that the final results of the tests on course could be negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1 yes
    2 yes
    3 yes
    4 yes
    5 yes
    F9.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Çhris Beall

    Dr. Rossi,

    I am having trouble visualizing the E-CAT technology in a domestic residential environment. I’d be interested in your thoughts on this (assuming the test results are positive).

    There are two potential residential opportunities, new construction and retrofits into existing dwellings. There is a big difference between the output temperature and startup time of an E-CAT and conventional heating systems such as oil or gas-fired burners.
    For new construction this might be handled by including a large-capacity heat store, allowing the E-CAT to ‘charge up’ the store with heat that could then be gradually removed to meet the heating requirements of a dwelling (similar to using batteries to store PV or wind-generated electricity).
    Adding such a heat-storage capability to an existing dwelling could be more problematic, unless it can be made quite compact.
    In either case, the cost of the heat storage would become an integral part of the cost of using an E-CAT for domestic heating.

    E-CAT usage to generate electricity would face the same issue, though electricity storage is by now pretty much in the mainstream for PV / wind systems (and the electricity could then be used to provide heat in many climates). But this raises the problem of excess heat. Heat-to-electricity conversion is, to my knowledge, not particularly efficient, with excess heat lost in the process. That heat has to go somewhere. We don’t need it, on average, to be added to the environment, and it wouldn’t be helpful to keep it in the dwelling in August in the southern US.

    So assuming you have a cheap, compact heat + electricity generator, how do you foresee making it useful to the average homeowner?

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    I am overjoyed to hear the tests of the M.me Curie E-cat is producing optimistic results.

    Did you change the reactant mix from the last run to optimize direct electric production?

    Paul

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Thanks for the interesting news about the new version of the Hot Cat. Can you tell us why you are so impressed with it (so far)? Compared to previous Hot Cat versions, does it have:

    1. Higher temperatures
    2. Longer periods of self-sustain
    3. Higher COP
    4. Better power density
    5. Something else

    Many thanks!

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    Now it is 06.45 p.m. of Sunday August 9 2015. An important date.
    You are not wrong, but I must repeat my mantric disclaimer: the final results could be positive, but also negative. About the direct production, I have news related to the new Hot Cat, named “M.me Curie”.
    I am working with it, it is a real revolution. Is important. Works very strongly and I am very optimist. Now we must test its duration. The performance is very interesting. I want to be clear: it is too soon to give data, it could have problems, but what I am seeing now is very, very, very good. It could be the leader for the very massive production. We will go directly from our tests to the market. If what I am seeing now goes on, in October will be tried the safety certification. I am like a coach of tennis that looks at a kid 4 years old playing and says: ” this is the future Federer”. Big , big hope. The result of an enormous R&D, working 16 hours per day.
    I have gone off the trail of your question, but I think you don’t mind.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I have the acute feeling that you are technically ready with the 1Mw plant, being your efforts dedicated to tune the direct electricity E-Cat generator. Am I wrong?

    Greetings

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Because we agreed upon the fact that one year is the minimum indispensable to be sure to collect consolidated data.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Yes, you are correct.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christopher Calder:
    No, I did not, but I assume that, being University activities, they are suspended for the Summer holidays; I expect the Professors will resume their work in September.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Have you heard any recent news about the experiments and activities of Giuseppe Levi and associates?

    Best Regards, Christopher Calder

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    So as I understand your response, the 1MW thermal plant can, if needed, provide more than 1MW of thermal power, such as in a surge requirement, but it is designed for continuous 1MW output of thermal power. Is this essentially correct?

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr Rossi: Why did you or your customer or IH decide on a year test rather than a six month test? Wouldn’t six months be adequate to answer all developmental questions?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Vivienne Chabod:
    We will start with the industrial, that already have been properly safety-certified.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Yes, we already are making another one…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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