Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

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1,184 comments to Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

  • Richard Elstrom

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I have a dream: an E-Cat that makes light and heat in every house.
    I dream this can happen before I pass on: I am 79 years old.
    If there is one man in the world able to make true this dream, that man is you.
    Godspeed,
    Rick

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea questions on when (ssm) LENR exists. My point to MFMP is that any power over input power can be considered (ssm) LENR power generation, whether or not it can continue itself without external power is another question. I think Parkhomov experienced 8 minutes on his shutdown of continued (ssm) which must have been there before his shutdown extinguished it. Surely your (ssm) exists to some extent as you move your power up/down in the Hot E-Cat

    Dialogue on MFMP site for reference:

    James Andrew Rovnak Think Freethinker should be using a current input profile similar to Logano PCE 380 to stimulate formation of (ssm) LENR in his nicely done experiments just to see if that higher freq EM is necessary for initiation, control & power profile ramping.
    James Andrew Rovnak’s photo.
    Like · Reply · Yesterday at 12:46am

    James Andrew Rovnak Current pulses on left in above picture of PCE 380 & spectrum on right during Rossi’s Lugano long term test.
    Like · Reply · Yesterday at 12:47am

    Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project The Lugano had no self sustain mode, it just had varying drive.
    Like · Yesterday at 12:16pm

    James Andrew Rovnak Anything power above input power I would consider (ssm) LENR mode, but will check this with Rossi.
    Like · 13 hrs

    Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project The pulses of power are to balance thermal convection and radiation losses that are not balanced by any potential generation of heat in the core. In any SSM there would be no need to apply power (other than for regulation of runaway somehow, or for balancing) unless the temperature dropped below a minimum operating threshold.

    Hope this is clearer?

    Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Peter Forsberg:
    anyway, an explication was past due, thank you for your question.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Peter Forsberg

    He He, I see! I like your sense of humor.

    Regards

    Peter

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    I do not understand what you say. Can you explain better?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    I am confused: what do you mean, exactly ?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Peter Forsberg:
    Thank you for your question, probably shared by many Readers: F9 is born as a joke, eventually became a shortcut that stands for ” Disclaimer: the results of the tests on course could finally be either positive or negative”.
    A Reader of us, in a comment months ago, proposed, joking, to dial “F plus a number” to get the mantra of the disclaimer, and I complied saying: ” OK, from now on instead of that phrase we will just say F9.
    Thank you for your kind wishes. We are working strongly to get the success: F9.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Peter Forsberg

    Dear Andrea,

    Can you tell me what F9 means? I have missed this finer point.

    Wishing you continued good results of your hard work.

    Peter

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    If I remember well, some time ago you stated that for safety reasons, the Ecat should not be fed with his own output energy, but fed from the electric grid.
    Once on the shelfs, one can buy an Ecat, producing heat and electricity, buy a Tesla battery, an inverter (the Tesla battery comes without it) and build his own loop.
    Why do not sell it directly?

    Regards,
    Marco.

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea would one consider any power above input power operation in (ssm) LENR mode and with that LENR power generating? I know if you back off input power & (ssm) residual remains? What would be your distinction?

    Question came up on MFMP today. Would you consider Lugano as being partially in (ssm) LENR mode during power holds?

    https://www.facebook.com/shares/view?id=1016535955043770

    Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Albert N.:
    Obviously the investments will be huge. This is why the defense of the Intellectual Property is crucial. If the Intellectual Property is conserved, the necessary investments will be made from whom it will concern.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Patrick Ellul:
    I would say all the three. F9 of course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Patrick Ellul

    Dear Andrea,

    Regarding the “something else” that you mention that E-CatX has over the other cats:

    Does it make it easier 1) to manufacture? 2) to certify? 3) to protect its IP?

    Is that why it makes you more optimistic about the timeline for it going on shelves? F9 of course.

    Warm regards,
    Patrick

  • AlbertN

    Dear Dr.Rossi,
    Assuming the results are positive you have stated that you will go into production. This will cost money … lots of money. Where will this investment come from? Any thoughts on going the route of a publicly traded company (selling shares etc.) or is getting private investment not a problem.

    Warm Regards,
    AlbertN

  • Andrea Rossi

    Franz Von Goetz:
    If the tests on course will have positive results yes, your forecast is realistic.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Franz Von Goetz

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    I am following your work since your first steps with Prof. Sergio Focardi and it seems to me that at last you arrived to a breakthrough: can you confirm that we should have a consolidated 1 MW plant by the beginning of 2016 and a new Hot Cat X off the shelf by the end of 2016? Is this scheduling realistic?
    Cheers,
    Franz Von Goetz

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    3.
    All the other questions are premature. You are right: too meny ifs.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lars:
    I cannot give this kind of information before a reasonable period of tests and R&D.
    The Ecat-X is very promising, that’s all I can say now, but promises are not maintained, now and again.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Yes, but parity can become negative if during the inversion of the spacial coordinates the sign of the wave function changes ( he,he,he…)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    Yes!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    Are you still seeing what you saw on August 9th, 2015?
    Do you still hope to try for the certification in October of 2015?
    Can you sell the E-Cat(MC/X) within 180 days after the certification is granted in 2015?

    May your kittens purr for you!

    Tom

    (misc reference below …)
    Now it is 06.45 p.m. of Sunday August 9 2015. An important date.
    What I am seeing now is very, very, very good. It could be the leader for the very massive production. We will go directly from our tests to the market. If what I am seeing now goes on, in October will be tried the safety certification.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    With regards to “F9”,

    Negative is positive if you do not discriminate against extraneous roots:

    -1 = i^2 = SQRT(i^4) = SQRT(1) = 1

    Paul ;o)

  • lars

    Dear Andrea,
    can you tell us anything of how much watts the new e-cat x initially produces for the first tests?
    is it hundreds of watts or milli watts or even kilo watts?

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,

    Does the new Hot-Cat come from mostly:

    1. Analysis and evolution
    2. Serendipity
    3. A vision (or a nightmare)
    4. Something else

    Since you state that it will be used fore home-applications, does this also mean that in contrast with the former devices, even intentional tampering by skilled technicians will be impossible to make this new Hot-Cat dangerous without destroying it mechanically ? (Indirect control of the Rossi-Effect)

    Do you plan to work with deadlines for the commercialization ? Or are there still too many “if” ‘s ?

    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    It depends how the R&D will work out. At the moment it is impossible to know how much time will take to make a product mature.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    James Rovnak:
    Thank you for your insight, that I obviously cannot comment.
    I am glad you enjoyed “The Concert”. Thank you for the suggestion about Andrew Lloyd Webber.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pierre Carbonelle:
    We have measured by ourselves and by third certification parties since 2009 the radiations outside the E-Cat, and nothing has been detected beyond the background values.
    I am working on these experiments since more than 20 years… and I have been always not just kept close to the E-Cats, I have been kept attached to the E-Cats. The energy produced inside the E-Cats is turned into heat. My theory is that this is due to the reverse Mossbauer effect, even if this theory is still under study and calculation. Obviously, the theory can be wrong, but the measurements cannot be wrong, because made thousands of times along years and never had exceptions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard Mc Ek:
    Our Team is working on both the E-Cats. The fact that we work on them means that it is worth to do the job. The 1 MW E-Cat is an industrial plant, already in operation in the factory of a Customer and producing energy for an industrial activity, not for laboratory R&D: this, in itself, is an important achievement, because it is the first time in History that a plant with this kind of technology is put at work in a productive concern. The E-Cat X is a prototype which is going through laboratory very promising tests. In both cases the final results could be either positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    You are totally correct. By the way: in my last answer to Alexvs, I made a very misterious mistake, promptly corrected when a Reader sent to me an email underlining the error in my comment after one hour or so: I intended to write ” Madame Curie”, but I wrote “Maria Walewska”: I have no idea from where this name arrived: this name simply was not in my head! Sorry for the mistake, that has been corrected as soon as I have been informed of this weird error.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    It is common practice to have internal names for projects within a company to facilitate internal communications. I suspect this is why you named this new reactor such. I see no disrespect intended, in fact, probably out of honor for her great deeds.

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    I am just very curious about the progress of your tests. Can you tell us if you are happy or perhaps extremely- or not so happy with the 1MW plant and the E-Cat X ?
    Thank you for your continuous effort in keeping us informed and your effort for building a future for our childern and grand childern!
    Gerard.

  • Pierre Carbonnelle

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    When Roentgen discovered the X-Rays, nobody was aware of the health risks they presented. Some people may try to slow down sales of E-cat based on health concerns. As long as we don’t know how the E-cat really works, any side effects are indeed possible.

    How do you plan to address this concern ? Will you show data from test animals kept close to the 1 MW plant in operation ? Will you present a theory of its operation based on conventional physics, showing that it is harmless ?

    Thanks in advance for your reply.
    PC

  • James Rovnak

    Andrea there is a lot of speculation over at Frank’s E-Cat World so I thought I would add a few wild seat of the pants guesses – probably all wet but here they are & only you would really know what is happening now!

    Hold on, my guess is waiting to be approved by E-Cat World.

    “I think just maybe the Ni isotope formation energy release is driving some hydrogen ions back into the electron stream (SPP) around the Ni surface hot spots & as an alternating EM field is necessary to get into the (ssm) LENR generation mode my wild guess is around 30 hz so it will work in the other direction to force H ions to generate electrical conduction energy. So Rossi collects this in his external circuit & conditions it for electrical power generation. Must still be generating some thermal energy is my guess for radiant power also. Note a high concentration of hydrogen ions in the Ni lattice is necessary to support the Ni nuclear isotope generation process with subsequent release of thermal energy. The Li 7 neutron also supplies its lighter bound nuclear neutron to the process as it becomes Li 6.”

    Well, have a nice evening & enjoy “The Concert” one great movie. I also like “Andrew Lloyd Webber – The Royal Albert Hall Celebration” DVD 2001 no less!

    Jim

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    At one point you said you would have a 1 year test of a Hot Cat in your container. Now E-Cat X has been developed, will you be testing it for a full year?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    We are working to make possible to put the E-Cats on the shelves.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    As I said, we did not have intention to give any name to it but “E-Cat”. We all know perfectly the immense importance of Madame Curie and we gave to this initial program her name for commemoration, not for disrespect. This said, from now on, let’s call our new prototype ” E-Cat x”, where X will be substituted by a number when and if it will go in commerce.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dyson:
    But this decrease of mass cannot come from single runaway quarks: in the case you propose the systems are restituting the mass lent to them sometime before for some reason. Quarks remain confined by their colors.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Regarding the name of the new reactor I insist: You are not holding the due respect to Mme. Curie (nee Maria Sklodowska).

    Sorry if I hurt your sentiments.

    Greetings

  • For systems with high binding energies, however, the missing mass may be an easily measurable fraction. Once the system cools to normal temperatures and returns to ground states in terms of energy levels, there is less mass remaining in the system than there was when it first combined and was at high energy.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steve Kirkland:
    He,he…no, the name will be just E-Cat, followed by a number, hoping it will not be limited in the counting like the Capeti of Sartre.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bud Carpenter:
    No, it is not possible: the attraction between two quarks becomes stronger the more they are pulled apart. You can visualize this effect if you think to a spring: the more you pull its ends away from one another, the more they are pulled to return in the initial position from the spring: consider the ends to be the quarks and the spring to be the force of the gluons that keep the quarks close. Theoretically, if you arrive to break this spring, you get two new ends, which means two new couples of quarks, but you will never be able to separate a single quark.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    You are such a teaser. If the kitty just plugs in and creates 300 watts per hour and feeds back into the grid I would have an electric bill of about zero dollars per month. Certainly if I plugged in two of them! Don’t tease us to tears, give us a clue, kind sir! All this teasing is giving me a mumbojumbo brain freeze.

    BTW, I am getting repeated results (runaways!) using LAH+Ni @ 850c-950c. Trying to tame my kitties, but they are frisky.

    Warm regards,

    Tom

  • Steve Kirkland

    Perhaps a “naming rights” game is in order! I hereby submit: The House-Cat!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexvs:
    For now ‘Madame Curie’ is just a provisional nickname.
    The commercial name will be E-Cat followed by a number.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    What is the meaning, if any, of the name “M.me Curie” (sic) you have given to the new reactor? I feel uncomfortable with these name games.

    Once the new reactor be released I suggest “Lise Meitner”, “Lise” or “Meitner”. I think she has not been fairly honoured apart from the transuranic Meitnerium.

    Greetings

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuseppe:
    I hope so.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giuseppe

    Dear Andrea,
    In the past you often talked about the Tesla Dream.
    With the new “M.me Curie” are you getting closer to this Dream?
    Giuseppe

  • Bud Carpenter

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Is it theoretically possible separate quarks from each other inside a proton or a neutron, using a super-powerful LHC ?
    Thanks,
    Bud

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Update at 10 50 a.m. of August 11: the 1 MW E-Cat is stable. So far…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    How is the 1MW plant performing after the most recent repair?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

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