United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

 

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13,151 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    You can’t compare a fuel with an explosive. The energy contained in an explosive is very low, but the characteristic that makes powerful an explosive is the speed of the reaction, which means the very short time in which the energy contained in an explosive is turned into heat. It is a completely different concept.
    The calorific value of a dynamite candle is not much more than the one of a spaghetti serving: the difference is that the calorific value of a dynamite candle is exploded in microseconds, while the calorific value of a spaghetti serving is consumed in hours. Therefore to compare the energy content of an explosive with the energy content of a fuel doesn’t make any sense. But you know these things! Next time boil the milk before drinking.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Very interesting comments, thank you.
    I am very tired to hear answers like ” we do not have it” when I ask something that I need. This is why I am setting up a ” make existing what doesn’t exist” laboratory. If something does not exist in a system you have to go out of the system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    I think the scientific field is properly called High entropy alloys, not maximum entropy. Here is an example of a high entropy system using oxides.

    http://phys.org/news/2015-09-entropy-stabilized-complex-oxide-alloys.html

    I think it is just as much an art as a science.

    Best regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    The materials science research area of Maximum Entropy Alloys and Oxides etc. has apparently come up with some candidates for the new (theoretical) record highest temperature melting point. Should it be possible to fabricate these materials and to do so economically, they may have some uses in your area. More inspiration (ideas) and perspiration (effort) to you and your team.

    http://phys.org/news/2015-07-material-record-setting.html

    Record regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You requested I review the numbers: Here goes:

    1 MW thermal output * 370 days * 24 hours / day = 8,880 MWh
    8,880 MWh = 7.640535373 kilotonnes of explosive power (internet calculator)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    All right, the cow the milk you drank has been taken from was dead drunk. She had more alcohol than blood in the veins, with ripercussions on the chemical composition of the milk. Some malicious guy has put whisky instead of water in the stall.
    ( he,he,he…please review the numbers…)
    WarmEST Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A glass of milk. The posting demonstrates the sheer amount of energy (not power) that your device can release. In spite of the release of so much energy, the amount of mass consumed is much less than one gram so mass difference measurements will be difficult/non conclusive.

    The essence of the eCat technology is the slow release of energy over a long period of time — a nuclear device releases its energy over a very short period of time, both day and night.

    So we (the JONP readers) should think of thermal applications were constant output for long periods of time where eCat technology could be applied. Sample applications include electric power generation (Base Load), marine propulsion, aviation propulsion (long distance travel) residential and industrial heating.

    I trust my posting of energy in terms of kilotonnes brought a smile to you. SNK

  • Andrea Rossi

    Massimo Confalonieri:
    1- I am totally not interested to what our competitors do. I am focused exclusively on my job.
    2- As I always said: if our E-Cats will behave well in the market, my competitors will be the least of my problems and if my E-Cats will not behave well still my competitors will be the least of my problems.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    I am curious: what did you drink before writing this comment?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S.: I am laughing WITH you, not AT you!

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If your 1 MW eCat system works for 370 days, it will produce 8,880 MWh or the equivalent yield of a 7.64 kilotonne nuclear device.

  • Massimo Confalonieri

    Dear Andrea:
    Mr Widom, Mr Larsen and Mr Krivit, of Lattice LLC, are using their hatchet “men” to continue to try to assassinate your character, because they are your competitors, but in 20 years have been able to do nothing and they lost funding after your success. So they need to destroy you, and try to do it full time, not having better to do. I noticed you never defend yourself: why?
    Regards,
    Massimo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    The analisys of the charges and the search for He will be made, as I answered to Steven N. Karles today, by top level specialists.
    Thank you for the suggestion, we’ll pass it on to the experts when it will be the due time for this issue. Sometimes, the simpler the better.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion; we will make the analysis of the charges with the help of one of the best specialized laboratory of the world: I think they will crack the matter to find the proper solution.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    Thank you, the link in your comment is very interesting. Anyway it has nothing to do with LENR, since it is related to energies we do not reach by orders of magnitude.
    Very interesting, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I think that measuring helium should be possible and even easy, if there is a decent amount of it inside the reactor (which should be the case, if a majority of the energy indeed comes from proton-lithium fusion). I have no experience about such matter, but could you for example open the reactor inside a glove-box so that the exhaust gas gets captured in the closed volume. Googling, the first hit is this: http://www.oxycheq.com/oxycheq-expedition-helium-analyzer.html, “expedition helium analyzer”, price $629… Do not use these methods, because as I said I have zero experience about such matters, but if you ask an expert, he very likely can device a good way to do a helium measurement for a 250 kW reactor which has run for twelve months, and likely it also won’t cost fortunes.
    regards, pekka

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I agree helium testing is quite difficult. But the opportunity to produce so much helium, if that is the reaction that actually occurs, is extraordinary because of the level of energy produced (high output power coupled with a long time operating time) by each eCat reactor. One technique I have heard of is to enclose the eCat reactor before helium testing in a sealed glove box filled with a neutral gas, e.g., argon, and then break the weld seal. Take gas samples before and after the seal release. Minimize the opportunity for atmospheric helium to contaminate the measurement.

    With four reactor units, you might get lucky and have one or more units that retained the helium. But, as you know, this approach might not work (F9).

  • Silvio Caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Could your theory help to explain this two strange problems about lithium?
    http://www.media.inaf.it/2014/08/28/litio-luna-lngs/
    Regards
    Silvio

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    To detect He after opening the reactor is difficult and during the operation we cannot insert any probe ( who tried replications knows how difficult is to seal the reactor against leaks). Besides, when you get a hint of He traces, it is impossible to know if it just comes from the atmosphere.
    Anyway, we’ll see. We certainly will search for it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In your post-mission testing, do you plan on looking at Helium or do you believe it will have escaped the reactor enclosure?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    We will make the analysis of the charges also with the SIMS, obviously after the end of the tests. Before such analysis I can’t say anything.
    About the E-Cat X: we will give data after the due tests and what is interesting for us are mainly 2 things:
    1- COP
    2- Safety and absence of radiations outside the E-Cat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    Can you say if there will be Ni isotope changes to look for in the ash of the E-Cat X?

    BTW, do you have a charged particle detector connected to the E-Cat X to look for alpha particles and hence measure the reaction rate in real time? I think that would provide an awesome proof of nuclear reactions in addition to excess heat, helium production, and isotope changes.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sebastian:
    Yes, that’s mandatory! I am very, very curious to look at the Ni isotopes, while for the isotopes of Li I do not expect surprises respect the Lugano experiment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Sebastian

    Dear Andrea,

    Will you be performing isotopic analysis on the fuel at the end of the 12 month run?

    Warm Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jan Oersted:
    Now, at 08.46 a.m. of September 29 in the computer container,the 1 MW E-cat is stable. We are making the new materials necessary for the E-Cat X and I think by the end of next week we will have it again in operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jan Oersted

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Can you give an update? About the E-Cat X: any news?
    Again congratulations for your important US Patent.
    Godspeed,
    Jan

  • Andrea Rossi

    BroKeeper:
    The charge has been calculated to resist for 370 days. To see if my calculations were exact, we have to wait for the completion of the tests on course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • BroKeeper

    Dear Andrea,

    Since the 1MW plant has surpassed the old estimated fuel limit of 6 months, can you detect any fuel energy exhaustion? If so can you estimate from that decrease how much longer the fuel may last? Also, at further risk of being buzzed by the F9 button, will you then be able to extend the fuel’s life cycle proportionally by increasing its fuel size with adjustments from the resulting depletion algorithm?
    Thank you,
    BroKeeper

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    In Italian “beyond all limits” could be translated properly with “al di là di ogni aspettativa”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Conover

    @ Hank Mills,

    Perhaps if it were a spacecraft, and the plutonium lasted 100 times longer than the nickel, it might be of concern for a journey that requires extended periods of time. Never should we crawl into a box that we cannot get out of, right?

    Tom Conover

  • KD

    Sorry Mr.Rossi
    I just read this on internet. Maybe you right, it was just a typo. But I don’t know, how in Italian is “beyond all limits” so I believed it is correct.
    KD

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    I suspect the reason for which Pt and/or Pd are more convenient than Ni in some cases is different from the COP.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    KD:
    The reception of Papa Francesco in the USA has made History; about the word “stralimitata” I do not think is proper, because in Italian “stralimitata” means ” very, very limited ” and I do not think it is what the Pope meant. Probably you read a typo. Thank you for your kind words, anyway.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes, you are right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Am I correct in thinking that with the current test in progress, that the data you will count on for the official results of the test will come from the referee?

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  • KD

    Dear Mr. Rossi.
    Did you hear about the new Italian word, “Stralimitata” – beyond all limits, invented by papa Francesco, to describe the reception oh him in New York.
    I think, this new word is also expression of yours invention of New Fire.:)

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    I’ve been thinking about the use of palladium or platinum instead of nickel, and I’ve realized the performance benefit would have to be huge to justify using a fuel that is over 1000 times the cost. If the E-Cat X produced a COP of 10 with nickel and 100 with palladium, the energy savings would be minimal. For example, lets say heat costs on the market 10 dollars per megawatt hour (I know this figure is wrong). If the E-Cat X produced a COP of 10, the price would go down to one dollar. A savings of 9 dollars. If the E-Cat X had a COP of 100, the price would go down only another 90 cents.

    The 90 cent additional savings would not warrant the use of a fuel that costs 1000 times as much.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please go to
    http://rossilivecat.com/all.html
    to find the comments published today in the other posts of this blog.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    Thank you for your insight; as a matter of fact in the paper Cook-Rossi the issue has been treated, but we do not think we reached a conclusive work, more things remain to explain. In your insight you did not take reverse- Mossbauer, even if i must confess that the mathematical problems we are in front of are not easy. We are working on this, though.
    Warm Regards,
    AQ.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,
    It is a somewhat attractive thought that the energy could come from traditional binary hot fusion between proton and Li7 which produces two alphas, either directly or via a short-lived intermediate Be8 nucleus. However, I think that such explanation cannot be correct, for the following reason. The resulting 7.5 MeV alpha particles would undergo with about 6e-6 probability (six per million) an endothermic neutron-stripping side reaction with Li7: He4 + Li7 –> B10 + n – 2.79 MeV. In a three kilowatt reactor, 15 million neutrons per second would be produced by this side reaction, many of which would have about 4.3 MeV energy. Such high energy neutrons have, I think, a longer mean free path in matter than the thickness of the reactor wall, hence they should have been detected. Therefore it looks hard to reconcile the binary fusion ansatz with the experimental fact that no neutrons are seen. Maybe the net reaction is indeed p+Li7->2He4, but microscopically, more particles should be involved than just the two alphas among which the released 17 MeV energy can be distributed.

    As is well known, many have tried and failed to explain LENR theoretically, and I am no wiser than them. I can only say in general terms that there is no guarantee that a tractable explanation exists. Finding an explanation might happen tomorrow (which is why it makes sense to try), but it could also take 1000 years (which shouldn’t deter one from trying).
    regards, pekka

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    a- the dimensions and power of modules can be modified
    b- We will give operational data only after the end of the R&D on course
    c- There are many techniques to reach this goal, as the experts of the art know. We have a patent application on course about this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Barty:
    I prefer to base theories on solid experiments. This is why I am very shy to propose a theory and continue to work and study on it with Prof. Norman Cook: I do respect the Standard Model and I cannot accept absurdities that have no mathematical bases. I’d suggest to some theorists to take advice of the average halflives of e.p. and make some math about it. Without a rigorous mathematical process and without experimental confirmations you can say anything you want and sell it for good to an audience that has not the bases to understand what you are saying.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    what do you think of the muon catalyzed fusion theories, recently proposed by some people active in the LENR community?

    Do you think it’s possible that your device is exploiting a yet unknown way to cheaply form/catalyze Muons without the need of more energy than released later by the induced fusion process?
    Maybe it’s actually (cold) fusion, but the key you got is to make excess energy with it?

    The muon catalyzed fusion process is well accepted, but it’s also known to have a COP < 1 because the muon creation is expensive (needs more energy than produced later).

    Thanks for your reply

    barty
    (Admin at LENR Forum)

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Your patent talks about a multilayer fuel wafer for generating heat. The dimensions stated are 1/3 of an inch in thickness, 12 inches in width and an unspecified width. Looking at the drawings in the patent it would appear the length is between 1 and 2 meters. The patent also says the thermal output is 6 kW for each multilayer fuel wafer.

    But you have also stated that the 1 MW thermal output system has four 250 kW reactors.

    Questions:
    a. Does this mean that each 250 kW reactor consists of about 40 six kW multilayer fuel wafers?
    b. A thermal analysis of the 6 kW multilayer wafer with an assumed length of 2 meters operating in water as the heated fluid indicates a wafer temperature of 680C. Is this what you are experiencing?
    c. The patent speaks of the sides of the multilayer fuel wafer being welded shut. Are special welding techniques used to keep the temperature of the multilayer fuel wafer low enough so as to not affect the chemicals?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    We are preparing a complex manufacturing system that is based on manufacturing sites owned by Leonardo Corporation in the territories not covered by the Licensees that can manufacture on their Territories and on outsourcing manufacturing sites. The system will be such that any manufacturing site will be able to fight together with the others, but, if necessary, able to fight by himself. Obviously the manufacturing and the distribution will depend on the results of the R&D and tests on course. Should the tests have a negative output ( and this is NOT impossible, so far) the planning board will have to be delayed, but not cancelled, as long as I’m alive.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Are you planning on building these robotic lines on Leonardo’s own premises, in the factories of your manufacturing licensees, or in the factories of companies to whom you will outsource production?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please go to
    http://rossilivecat.com/all.html
    to find the comments published today on other posts of this blog.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gunnar Lindberg:
    Yes, we are studying their small “Collaborative Robots” and I think that they will be integrated in our production systems. Congrats: you understand quickly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gunnar Lindberg

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    May I ask if you are collaborating with Asea Brown Boveri using their robots? They have capacity to build a robotic factory within months.
    Best regards¨
    Gunnar Lindberg

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    a- yes
    b- this issue is the subject of a patent we are preparing
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    It is a work based on the necessary collaboration between robot specialists and manufacturers and I want, obviously, be part of it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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