United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

 

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26,852 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • Andrea Rossi

    Roger:
    There is one more that wants not to be cited. He is a teacher of Physicsin a major university of Japan.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Isabel:
    This will be published in the paper with the description, results and observations about the experiment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Isabel

    Dr Rossi,
    Can you give all the data of the instruments you and your team used foe the experiments of last week?

  • Roger

    Dear Andrea:
    Besides Gullstrom amd Prof Vassallo did other scientists collaborate in your last experiment?
    Regards!

  • Saul

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    After the experiment made last week which are the next important steps befre the presentation scheduled for January 31st?
    All the best,
    Saul

  • Eric Ashworth

    Dear Andrea, with regards LENR theory which is an important part of your technology
    I think, for what its worth and I am guessing there has to be a minimum of four reactants. A positive and a negative that work together and another positive and a negative that work together i.e. that compliment one another such as a pos with a pos neg and a neg with a neg pos. Then these two reactants when activated by heat, each magnify their own electromagnetic field that then combine i.e. their field to produce a super neutral state (field) into which any loosely combined substance is torne apart i.e. ionized. What these four 90 degrees i.e. four potentials produce is a specific zone of conflict, the opposite of a (circle that represents a 360 degree harmony). It could be said that between two states of fusion, that contain gravity, you can find fission when the conditions are manufactured in space and time. Of course when artificially manufacturing by selection for such a process you need the right combinations/quantities with regards the substances. To make myself clear a substance is a mass of two potentials being comprised of positive and negative charges to provide a neutral neg or a neutral pos substance i.e. a substance with poles that then interact on their electromagnetic level. It’s this electromagnetic field that maintains a system of identity between atomic substances i.e. keeps them apart from flowing together (this puzzled Einstein) I believe the electromagnetic field to be a vibrating system between the magnetic lines of force because between the lines of force is a neutral zone where an attempted reconciliation takes place between the lines positive and the lines negative i.e. the inner and the outer lines that structure each field. Within the field on the material dimension is where neutrons are formed because of an interaction of density which is not applicable to LENRs. This could very well be non technical, basic information but I come to this conclusion based upon my own embodied mechanical technology. Also I would like to add that before ionization, I believe, virtual particles are momentarily formed by an inwardly drawn spin that upon eventual repulsion they disintegrate creating pressure upon the neutrino level providing nuclear heat. upon any surrounding substance. Thought I would just mention my own thoughts.
    Regards Eric Ashworth

  • Andrea Rossi

    CC:
    I think so, but now we have to think and discuss about all the collected data.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • CC

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Did you find results that encourage your intuition of the virtual particles-antiparticles annihilation after the experiments made with all the instrumentation used with Gullstrom and Vassallo?

  • Andrea Rossi

    LC:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rod Walton:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daniel De Caluwe’:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    To understand the working of the E-cat (SK) more intuitively, is it right to say that:

    i) Due to the crystal lattice structure of Ni in the fuel, the Compton scattering of the electromagnetic waves is reduced in the fuel (because the recoil energy loss is less in atoms connected in a lattice structure compared to individual atoms), so that the energy density in the fuel can be high without destroying it, passing without a lot of loss all the energy to the surface of the (inner) reactor, where it is cooled on the outside by the cooling fluid.

    ii) Or in other words: Would there not be the lattice structure of Ni, there would be more Compton scattering in the fuel itself, so that it would heat up too much, but because of the lattice structure of Ni, the Compton scattering is reduced, passing the electromagnetic energy to the surface of the reactor as if the fuel was almost transparant for it. Therefore the energy density can be higher than would be the case if there was not the crystal lattice structure.

    iii) But in opposite to the inner fuel side of the reactor, in the outer cooling side, you prefer as much as possible the Compton scattering, so that the cooling fluid takes as much as possible energy with it, thus cooling the reactor, and reducing the frequency of the electromagnetic waves.

    iv) Mössbauer effect in the inside (fuel side) of the reactor, and Compton scattering on the outside (the cooling side of the reactor).

    Kind Regards,
    Daniel.

  • Rod Walton

    Please go to Power Engineering November 20 2018 for this paper/video: “The latest stories on power generation, renewables and the smart grid”.
    Rod Walton

  • LC

    Dear Andrea,

    Don’t you think that your presentation could be more convincing, if a meter of the input power and a meter of the output power are connected to the ecat, and their readings can be seen at each time, during the demonstration?

    Best regards
    LC

  • Andrea Rossi

    33:
    We used in past specific neutron detectors and never found significant neutron emission. Recently a Client of us asked for a specific neutron detector, so now we added neutron detectors to the Ecats. Anyway, if you have neutron generated radiations, you surely have a significant increase of uSv/h
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daiiel De Caluwe’, Steven N. Karels:
    Yes, the whole spectrum is wider.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ruby:
    Yes, we used all of them.
    1-The frequency generator is for to detect the modification of the plasma across a wide frequency spectrum.
    2-The laser for the same reason, being a modulable laser
    3-The voltage/amperage generator is to modulate the laser
    4-The spectrometer is to have the wavelenghts of the radiation also across the variations of the field made by 1,2,3
    5-The Van Der Graaf accelerator is to make a negative field parallel to the plasma to detect its bias
    6-The thermocouples and IR thermochamber are to measure the temperatures in the low temperature areas
    7-The oscilloscope is to measure the voltage and frequency of the current that goes to the Ecat
    8- The high power ohm-meter is to measure with precision the resistance in some points
    9- The neodymium 2 T magnets are for make dipole and quadrupole magnetic fields and detect what happens in the spectrometer
    10-The T-meter is to measure the magnetic field in various positions
    11-The Newton-meter is to read the force of the magnetic field in various positions
    12-The vacuum pump is the see what happens at certain vacuum values
    13-The Wattmeter is to measure the total energy consume at the plug outlet
    14- The usual lab-stuff is to make the usual things
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ruby

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    during the theoretical experiment you made recently did you use all the instrumentation you listed last week in a comment? Can you explain the function of each of them?
    Cheers
    Ruby

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    @Steven N. Karels,

    Most of it will be electromagnetic radiation. And a peak of 473nm means blue light in the visible area. As there are lasers with that wavelength, I think I know what element corresponds with this. But, of course, the whole spectrum can be (and probably is) much wider.

    Kind Regards,
    Daniel.

  • 33

    Dr Rossi:
    Do you have also a specific neutron detector, or you make only an indirect measurement through the Sv/h counted?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1- we are not talking of measurements with open reactor, but with Ecat sealed and in operation
    2- we measure at 1 cm of distance from the external surface of the Ecat
    3- when you measure the Sievert/h you measure also if there is emission of neutrons, because neutron emissions generate ionizing radiations hitting other particles like protons
    I do not know what is the “strange radiation”, while all the ionizing radiations are measurable also in microSv/h.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “The fact that we measure the radiations at 1 cm does not imply the radiations are 1 cm.”

    What we, as readers, may understand from your postings are what you explicitly state, OR, what you otherwise state and what a reasonable man may infer from your actions or your words.

    I did not imply that the radiations are 1 cm. I am not even sure what that means — a wavelength?

    What we can properly infer from your previous statements are:
    1. The measurements at 1 cm from the open reactor are as stated.
    2. Your previous statements that, when sealed, no radiation above background were measured.
    3. That the type of radiation measured was consistent with Sv quantification — ionizing radiation.

    Given the above AR statements, gamma radiation may be eliminated – there is insufficient shielding to preclude radiation measurements outside of a sealed eCat reactor.

    So we are left with the two types of measurements that may be correctly measured by an instrument to yield an accurate measurement, alpha or beta.

    So why would you measure so close to the open reactor? The logical inference would be that the measurement could not accurately be made at a greater distance. One difference between alpha and beta radiation is the mean distances that each may travel in the air. (I assume you were not working in a vacuum). The 1 cm distance would reasonably suggest the type of radiation would be alpha particles.

    Another alternative would be “strange radiation”, something outside of alpha, beta or gamma, but then why would it be measured in Sv?

    The most obvious manner to resolve the inferences is for you to explicitly state what type of radiation was being measured. Comments?

  • Andrea Rossi

    KeithT:
    We are studying these issues,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    The fact that we measure the radiations at 1 cm does not imply the radiations are 1 cm long.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You reported certain levels of radiation (“operation 0.12-0.16 microSv/h at 1 cm of distance”). Since the measurement is in Sv, the radiation must be of the ionizing type (not neutrons). Given the specification of 1cm, it would appear to be alpha particles as beta and gamma radiation would be less restrictive on distance.

    Alpha particles can be a product of lithium burning (hydrogen + lithium-6).

    Is this what you believe to be occurring within the eCat reactor?

  • KeithT

    Dear Andrea,

    From 2010 to 2018 you have developed three LENR reactions, the first Ecat witnessed in 2011 was based on Ni62 and Ni64 converting into Cu63 and Cu65, then there was the sequence of Ni58 > Ni59 > Ni60 > Ni61 > Ni62 used in the Lugano Ecat of 2014, the latest as of 2018 with the highest outputs, best stability and likely the safest for emissions are the Ecat QX and SK focusing on Li7, thought to transition to Be8 then two He4. (As described on the Ecat.com website – “Rossi Effect”).

    Each of the above LENR reactions is known to start up, run stable for an extended period with a constant energy output, then can be shut down.

    In each case conditions have been created where a relatively small input of energy triggers a nuclear process with an output of energy larger than that inputted.

    The surprise is that in each case, after the initial triggering only a small part of the structured material produces a reaction, then progressing steadily second by second, minute by minute, hour by hour, day by day, with a stable level of nuclear reactions continuing to be produced on demand as they are triggered each time for month after month for anything up to a year.

    If the correct conditions were present at the start for a reaction, why did reactions not then take place immediately all at once all through the structured material?

    Thankfully LENR reactions seen so far are of a slow intrinsically progressive nature, we now have a future energy source with no possibility of a runaway nuclear event.

    The question is, how does this slow nuclear progression work? If the reaction was initiated in one location with neighbouring reaction site locations progressively triggered, expanding as a spherical shell wave front, there would be a low initial energy output with a geometric increase in the energy output through time, if the reaction sites started all over the external surface of a lattice and worked inwards in a shrinking wave front, there would be a high initial energy output that would diminish through time, or is it statistics where the probability of a reaction occurring is very low, that reactions take place randomly throughout the structured material at a constant rate over time.

    Is it possible that there is a linear mechanism, one where the initial reaction of an atom sets up the conditions for an adjacent atom to subsequently react in turn setting up conditions for the next in line? It is possible that atoms in an atomic lattice sequentially react one after another in a linear progression along a row, This linear progression would also relate to the ability to start up then shut down time after time with no change to the nuclear progression mechanism.

    There is the mechanism of how hydrogen in close confinement with the target atom in combination with forced resonance of nuclear states produces a reaction, but there may also be another mechanism whereby there is a linear progression of reactions spread out over time.

    In the Theoretical work, is there explanations for both mechanisms?

    Regards,

    Keith Thomson.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    Maybe.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    You are saying that “probably a publication will be made”. Does this mean that with the latest tests you and your team members and consultants are sure that you have found a theoretical explanation of the Rossi effect is found?
    If so, congratulations!
    Kind regards, Gerard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Adolfo:
    We are completing the series of experiments right now, having worked also Saturday and Sunday. Now we will start working on the results.
    Probably a publication will be made.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ken:
    No and now we are studying all we saw and measured. The tests have been very important and gave useful results.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ken

    During the theoretical tests made last week did you find modes in which the plasma was not straight in parallel with the Van Der Graaf accelerator?

  • Adolfo

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Are you continuing the theoretical series of tests?
    Adolfo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Chuck Davis:
    As a matter of fact after 2 thousand years nobody found the Holy Grail.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chuck Davis

    The Magnix 250 electric aircragt engine in the following link driven by an Ecat powered alternator could be the aeronautical Holy Grail:
    https://www.magnix.aero/products/

  • Andrea Rossi

    KeithT:
    Thank you for your insight and suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • KeithT

    Dear Andrea,

    Regarding future use of the Ecat SK, it may be prudent to place a quantity of the early production line Ecat SK modules into long term storage for future performance testing.

    It may be found that over time; atoms migrate to lower stress configurations, crystals may grow, cracks may develop, components may fuse together, sealing integrity broken.

    You may find that someone like NASA or other government body will ask in future if you have any data / documentation to verify the ability to switch on an Ecat after an extended rest period, for say a multiyear space mission where Ecat’s would be sequentially switched on and used over a period or for a satellite or remote location application.

    You may have to qualify / quantify long term performance for a periodic use safety critical application.

    It would also be good to have some set aside, as these Ecat SK modules from the first production line are of immense historic importance, just about every science museum in the world will eventually want one, (along with any preserved early Ecat prototypes that they can get their hands on).

    You could also try restart some of your oldest prototypes, revisiting the Ni to Cu reaction, as time has now elapsed, do they still give the same performance as before. Examining them with the improved instrumentation that you will now have access to, with your current knowledge, could you theoretically reconcile all the emissions and reaction products?

    Regards,

    Keith Thomson.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Angelo V.:
    1- We changed strategy for the time being, and we decided that initially we will sell only the heat to our Customers, holding the property of the plants and controlling from remote their operation. For reasons related to safety certifications we can install our plants and sell the heat they generate only to industries. This is what we will do for the time being, open to further developments.
    2- in the year 2019
    3- I do not know, but this is not an issue for us, so far our Clients get what they want.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,
    More then three years ago, in an interview to the huffingtonpost
    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-h-bailey/interview-with-andrea-ros_b_8248624.html
    you said:
    “My own view is that the only way, in the end, to convince people that my technology really works is to produce products that can be bought off the shelf”
    My questions:
    1) Can you actualize your answer after the born of the E-Cat SK?
    2) When do you plan to start the first commercial plant for heat production?
    3) How many GWh of energy produced wil be enough to change the opinion of mainstream science about LENR?

    Thanks

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jules Wright:
    Tomorrow ( Monday ) we will finish the measurements. After that, we will have to work with calculations, discussion etc. It is likely we will make a publication.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert:
    We have a peak at 473 nm
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Robert

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Did you find in the spectrometry a peak at 473.2 nm ?
    Thanks if you can answer,
    Robert

  • Jules Wright

    When will you have the results of the theoretical experiment on course?
    Cheers,
    Jules

  • Andrea Rossi

    JPR:
    Yes, I forgot to cite also it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • JPR

    Dear Andrea:
    You listed the instrumentation you are using for the experiments on course: are you still using also the Van Der Graaf electrons accelerator to check the polarity of the plasma?
    JPR

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marcus Haber:
    Very interesting. Thank you for the communication.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marcus Haber

    Dr Rossi:
    What do you think about this recently published paper about symmetry by Prof Krzysztof Meissner of the Institute of Theoretical Physics, Fac. of Physics of the University of Warsaw and Prof Hermann Nicolai of the Max Planck Institute:
    https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-11/fopu-iso111518.php

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jack Luang:
    He is right here with me in my laboratory, we are making an excellent work.
    He says that he should obtain his PhD in Physics at the University of Uppsala (Sweden) in February 2019.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    John, Andrea Rossi,

    Here is an excellent link describing spectrometer resolution.

    Maybe it will be helpful.

    ” For instance, if a spectrometer with a wavelength range of 200 nm possessed a spectral resolution of 1 nm, the system would be able to resolve a maximum of 200 individual wavelengths (peaks) across a spectrum. ”

    https://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=13369

    Joseph Fine

  • Jack Luang

    Dear Dr Rossi:
    You are working in your lab of Miami with Carl Oscar Gullstrom:is he a PhD in Physics?
    Jack

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