United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

 

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28,865 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • E. Hergen

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    here is the future of robotics.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fn3KWM1kuAw&feature=youtu.be

    One day these creatures will have an e-cat inside.

    Happy new year to you and your team.

    E. Hergen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Physicist:
    To reach this condition it is necessary that the rotating charges have the same ZBW phase and the electron distance d is an integer multiple of the Compton wavelength; see also reference 35 of the cited paper.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Physicist

    Dr Rossi,
    Referring to
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    how can you succeed to put in the same light cone the charges ?
    Physicist

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Not yet.
    Warm Regards, and
    Happy New Year to you, your family and all the Readers of E-Catworld
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ruby:
    Thank you for your attention to the paper.
    You are right: now it’s the turn of the presentation of the Ecat SKL, that we are preparing.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ruby

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Congratulations for the immense
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Your paper is raising enormous interest in the highest scientific echelons.
    Now that you have found a convincing theoretical base for your effect, we wait for the presentation of your Ecat SKL.
    I wish you a 2021 with the presentation of your “masterpiece”,
    Ruby

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Are you able yet to estimate which in which month in 2021 you will hold the presentation of the E-Cat SKL?

    Thank you and happy New Year!

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Patrick:
    1- yes
    2- the product of the SK is heat: see http://www.ecatskdemo.com
    3- it has been repeated many times, for a total of many hours
    4- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Wilfried Babelotzky:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    All these data will be given during the presentation,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I understand that you have tested 100 eCat-SKL modules controlled by a single controller. A few questions:

    1. Is this essentially correct?
    2. What was the thermal output of each module?
    3. What was the electrical output of each module?
    4. Was the combined output 100 times the individual module output?
    5. What was the geometry of the 100 modules? e.g., a 10 by 10 horizontal array? Please clarify
    6. What was the test duration?
    7. What was the nominal voltage and waveform of the module electrical output?
    8. What was the input voltage, frequency, and power?

  • Patrick

    Dear Andrea,

    Congratulations on your updated paper.

    The only part a cab try to understand using my high school thermodynamics knowledge is the calorimetric experiment that you described.

    Can I ask:

    1) Was this done using the Ecat SK?
    2) Was it just converting the SK electricity into heat using a heating element load, and a fan for circulation?
    3) How long did the experiment last?
    4) Did you consider other heat emitting apparatus in that lab, including body heat?

    Thanks in advance,

    Best regards,
    Patrick

  • Wilfried Babelotzky

    Dear Andrea,

    I think it should be easy to feed into the supply network via normal inverters from photovoltaics, because according to your statements, the E-Cat SKL can also generate direct current.

    Best regards
    Wilfried

  • Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Calle H:
    We did not yet make experiments related to feeding the grid with the Ecat. I think there will be problems to resolve. During the period between 2004 and 2009 I supplied many electric generation plants producing electricity by burning a diesel oil we obtained from vegetable wastes and we had to struggle together with our engineers to be able to feed the grid, due to the resistance opposed by the grid itself, but at the end we succeeded. I suppose with the Ecat will happen something similar, but I am not able to give an answer now to this question: we will go to the battlefield with a ready army and see what happens, which is what we usually do.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Prof

    Dr Rossi:
    I saw skyrocketing the statistics of your publications after has been published your revised paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Readings 61022 ( 56419 for the sole “Ecat SK and long range particle interactions” )
    Recommendations 3569
    Citations 22
    Total Research Interest Index 1026
    You got about 3000 readings in less than a week. Just stunning.
    Prof

  • Calle H

    Dear Andrea,

    Reading your recent paper, I try to understand if electrons are being consumed (destructed) or produced (created) in the E-Cat. The meaning of this is that in a simple conventional electric generator, having two connecting terminals, the electron flux going into one of the terminals is equal to the flux going out from the other terminal. Then there is a resistive load somewhere resulting in a closed loop circuit. The closed loop is fundamental in all electric powering applications. If “in equals out” does not apply in the E-Cat generator, will that create a problem when feeding the power to the grid?

    Thank you very much for your work and to all the excitement you give us.
    Calle H

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mattias Andersson
    The quaternions are a very useful tool to encode rotation in the three spatial dimensions. Spinors of the Clifford algebra are however a superior tool for the understanding of electromagnetism, because they allow the encoding of rotations in the four dimensions of Minkowski space-time (see sect 4 of E-Cat_SK and long-range particle interactions)
    An interesting paper that is in agreement with the “Extended Electrodynamics” used in section 4, has been recently published on researchgate:
    Implications of Gauge Free Extended Electrodynamics
    From the abstract:
    Preliminary experiments have validated the SLW’s no-skin-effect constraint as a potential harbinger of new technologies, a possible explanation for poorly understood laboratory and astrophysical phenomena, and a forerunner of paradigm revolutions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Plasmafan:
    1- I don’t think so
    2- I don’t think so
    3- I don’t think so
    4- I don’t think so
    5- I don’t think so
    6- I don’t think so
    7- yes
    Thank you for your insights.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Theoretically, there are not limits to the amount of SKLs we can put in an assembly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Is the final size of the plant you are building 100 SKLs, or will you be adding more?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Dear Andrea,

    I found the following article by Joachim Lambek to be very interesting (“In praise of Quaternions”):
    https://www.math.mcgill.ca/barr/lambek/pdffiles/Quater2013.pdf

    The article includes the following passage:
    “The language of quaternions had evoked strong reactions among physicists. For example, Thomson (aka Kevin), Heaviside and Minkowski were violently opposed to them, while Maxwell, Dirac and Adler were (or are) strongly in favour. Maxwell died too young to formulate his own equations in the language of quaternions. This was first done in 1912, independently by Conway and Silberstein.”

    Secion 3 addresses special relativity and Maxwell’s equations (as well as the electromagnetic four-potential).

    The author postulates the conservation of the total energy-momentum of a charged particle. However, according to his own deductions this is not so and the author attributes this to the Bohm-Aharonov effect. The author further notes that “I am tempted to conjecture that it serves to eliminate the force which a moving particle exerts on itself.”

    I find it interesting that the algebra of quaternions (or biquaternions) can be used to represent those equations that are typically formalized through the four-vectors of Minkowski.

    Kind regards,
    Mattias

  • PlasmaFan

    Dear Andrea,

    I have read the latest version of your paper and have a few questions. But first I’d like to try provide my understanding of the basic plasma configuration in the E-Cat SKL. The “space charge” referenced in your paper (according to literature going back many, many decades) can make different shapes and geometries. This is fact. The space charge that starts off attached to the surface of a cathode or anode can in some cases form structures such as a “fire rod” or a “ball of fire” that is completely detached from the electrode. These balls of fire have been proven to have an interior of positive ions and a membrane or “double layer” with electrons on one side and positive ions on the other. Since you have stated that you’re utilizing one cathode and one anode with the plasma ball in between, it can be surmised that you are operating in the “ball of fire” mode that is produced during the “negative resistance” regime.

    Now for the questions.

    1) In the section titled, “2.1 Space-charge, vacuum polarization and virtual particles” are you indicating that the formation of the space charge (in your case the ball of fire) is requiring less input energy than it should so there is energy being put into the system from another source resulting in an energy gain?

    2) In the following paper the structure of a free floating fireball is discussed, including the fact that the double layer on the surface acts as a membrane (with electrons on one side and positive ions on the other). Is this membrane the location where electrons may form Zitterbewegung phases and a BEC?

    Here is the reference from your paper. “In this case electron clusters may form Bose-Einstein condensates where electron Zitterbewegung phases are synchronized and electron distances respect equation (8)”

    Here is the paper that describes the membrane of a free floating fireball.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262142711_Surface_tension_in_plasmas_related_to_double_layer_formation

    3) You state in your paper, “In [16] it is hypothesized that a voltage pulse with a very short, critical rise time may favor the creation of coherent and dense electron clusters: The conjecture is based on the possibility that, as a consequence of Aharonov-Bohm eect, a rapid, collective and simultaneous variation of the Zitterbewegung phase catalyzes the creation of coherent systems.”

    Would it be correct to state that electrons can form dense electron clusters both during sharp voltage pulses with critical rise times AND in the membrane or innermost double layer of a free floating fireball (space charge) which is existing in a stable manner?

    For example, Kenneth Shoulders produced EVOs by rapidly pulsing the sharp tip of his cathode which would make the tip explode and project an self organizing plasma which likely had the properties you describe. However, I expect that the “kernel” or ballerina or plasma ball (whichever term is best) in the E-Cat SK which is NOT pulsed also develops such coherent systems of electrons.

    4) Do you think that the membrane of the free floating fireball may contain both macro-scale electron condensates and much smaller pico-metric aggregates? For example, in Ken Shoulders book he was able to split single EVOs into multiple smaller EVOs and recombine them. This makes me think think that the overall outer membrane of the space charge might have a large population of coherent electrons on the macro-scale but there could also be smaller pico-metric aggregates nested within it.

    5) A space charge or free floating fireball continuously exchanges electrons and ions with the environment of the reactor. Because new ions and electrons are continually absorbed and ejected (an example of this are ion acoustic waves) could a mechanism for the extraction of energy from the vacuum by a steady state ball of fire be the continual formation of electrons in coherent, BEC like states? I can imagine that there would always be a certain percentage of the coherent electron structures degrading while another percentage is recombining. The result would be a continual extraction of energy from the vacuum. Basically, there is an uptake of energy from the vacuum when BEC states are forming and a release of that energy when the BEC breaks down. I get this idea from the following statement in your paper:

    “To evaluate the power generated in a device as the E-Cat-QX, assuming that the thermal energy is generated by the electron transition from a coherent to an incoherent state and assuming an electron distance in the coherent state that is equal to the electron Compton wavelength (λe ≈ 2.43 · 10−12m), we get a power output in the order of several tens of watts:”

    6) Would you agree that the extraction of energy from the vacuum via BEC formation would be maximized when the space charge has achieved the maximum level of self organization? For example, the membrane of a very well organized “ball of fire” or plasmoid (the term used when a self organized plasma is formed via RF or microwave energy) exhibits very low or nearly zero electrical resistance. This has been tested by multiple parties. In my mind, this would be a sign that there are coherent BEC like states existing during high levels of self organization.

    7) Does the following statement in the paper indicate that the use of ordinary hydrogen rather than deuterium aids the formation of coherent states in a space charge, thus increasing the potential energy extraction from the vacuum?

    “The presence of this line in the E-Cat plasma spectrum is a possible indication of the existence of this type of pico-metric aggregate. A stronger and reliable clue in this direction comes from observing that the amplitude of this spectral line is a clear function of the hydrogen isotope present in the plasma: the line is strongly reduced when deuterium has been used in the charge instead of protium. This consideration is supported by the observation that deuteron has a much smaller magnetogyric ratio then proton (gD = 41.066 · 106 rad · s −1 · T −1 ). Consequently, considering the strong chemical similarity of deuterium and hydrogen, this large macroscopic dierence in spectral emission under the same conditions reveals its nuclear origin.”

    Thank you.

  • Physicist

    @Prof:
    the revised paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    will remain in History, because it casts the base for a new concept of the electron that unleashes the discovery of a new kind of energy so far neglected; a careful reading of this paper, although not easy, can allow an expert of the matter of reproduce the Rossi effect; I have been particularly impressed by the skill of Rossi in collecting all the papers published in the world that combined give a solid ground to the theory corroborated by his experimental sets. In particular I find very intelligent the connection to reference 3. All this will make History. Compare it to the earlier papers of Rossi, and you will get a clue of the studies this man has made during the last years, in parallel with his experiments. This man has a tremendous potential. I am curious to see what happens next.
    Physicist

  • Andrea Rossi

    Franco Pirri:
    Thank you for your attention to our work.
    They are connected in parallel to serve the same load.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Franco Pirri

    Dear Andrea,
    I was struck by your statement regarding the 100 industrial modules that worked together. This realization represents a decisive step forward for me, especially because you managed to control the 100 eCats with a single module based on artificial intelligence.
    I have followed your answers to questions from readers of the JONP and eCat World blogs and it still amazes me how the controller achieves its almost incredible result.
    The result has been defined by you as ‘almost satisfactory’.
    Before thinking about other details I should understand how the electricity supplied by the eCAT was used:
    1: Do the 100 eCat-SKL modules each have their own load or are they connected in series or parallel?

    Thanks for what you can answer.
    Warm regards,
    Franco Pirri

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:

    1.2. The ratio charge/mass of these structure is the same as that of electrons and consequetly they are attracted by the anode. In presence of hydrogen however they may form neutral pico-metric aggregates.
    3.No, they are influenced by magnetic field. Their behavior should be somewhat similar to the electrons in superconductors.
    4.abc The dynamic of the interaction with the positive ions is not fully understood. The system is constantly driven away from the equilibrium, and therefore the huge mass/inertia difference between electrons and ions play an important role in the dynamic of the plasma. As written in the last version of the paper a polarization of the active Vacuum may be the key to understand the physics of the E-Cat SKL. This imply a complete new paradigm that however requires only the acceptance of the possibility that in specific environments the Lorenz gauge cannot be applied. The non ubiquitous applicability of the Lorenz gauge does not violate any fundamental physical law.

    I take advantage of your comment, to direct you and all our Readers to use the links hereunder when they want to read the revised texts of my paper without waiting the couple of days that are necessary to the cash of the system to cancel the previous text and publish the revised text. I say this because some Reader has not been able yesterday to get the revised text immediately after I published it. In general, consider that between our revisions and the publication of the revised text from external links it takes a couple of days, unless you do enter directly in Researchgate, without using external links. If you want to read the revised text immediately as I put it on Researchgate, you can also use the links hereunder:

    E-Cat-SK and long range particle interactions

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Andrea_Rossi63/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long-range_particle_interactions/links/5fe7806b92851c13fec439e9/E-Cat-SK-and-long-range-particle-interactions.pdf

    Anyway, the easy way is just wait a couple of days. I have seen that most of our Readers have read the revised version, just dialing, as always,
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    I can only thank all these Readers for the attention by which they honoured the publication,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    Here are the new stats of your publications on Researchgate I found today on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Readings: 60653
    Recommendations: 3566
    Citations: 22
    Total Research Interest Index: 1023
    The sole paper “Ecat SK and long range particle interactions” has totalized 56053 readings ( and counting )
    These numbers are by orders of magnitude higher than any other publication of Physics.
    Prof

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    I am quite intrigued by these pico electron clusters and I’m sure you have studied them thoroughly. I hope you will allow me to explain some properties of them:
    I would assume that they have a strong negative load therefore these questions:
    1. Are they strongly attracted to the positive electrode?
    2. If not, what would be the reason?
    3. They should not be greatly influenced by magnetic fields, because the magnetic field lines are internally closed. Is that right?
    4a. Are positive (ionized) atoms attracted to them?
    If so, what happens to these atoms:
    4b Are they joined with the core of the of the pico cluster?
    4c Are they building a layer around the pico cluster?
    Thank you if you can answer.
    Great success, kind regards, Gerard

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    @A. Goumy,

    Thank you very much for your advice, that I maybe will try later. But at the moment, my linux system has other problems too, that I will solve in due time. Meanwhile, I wish you, Dr. Rossi and his team and all readers a Merry Christmas and a happy New Year.

  • Christopher Calder,
    1×10^40
    Correction regards.

  • Christopher Calder,
    You may be interested in two statistics about our universe. First, there are 1×10^23 planets in our universe. Second, starting from the basic amino acid components in our DNA, the probability that anywhere in the universe starting from these components, the probability that they could duplicate the capability of the human brain is 1x^40 chances. No doubt that there is some form of life in the universe but not to our level of intelligence. Conclusion, we are alone in this capability. This argument can be found on the internet.
    Statistical regards.

  • Anonymous

    Ivan Samec:
    Sorry, I had to spam your comment because this blog does never accept discussions about political contrasts: this is not the right place to do it.
    We will continue to host your comments so long they will be related to the issues we discuss here. Thank you for your attention.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gregory Daigle:
    Thank you for your suggestion, but, so far, I prefer to remain on the ground.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I know of your hesitancy to promote the E-Cat SKL as a power source for electric aircraft and aviation this early in your product’s development. I quite understand the risks and potential liabilities. However, should you change your mind at some point in development I know of an individual associated with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) research center (located in Daytona Beach, FL) and another Florida-based firm engaged in electric powertrain architecture for flight who would look forward to ERAU bench testing your device when you deem the timing to be right.

    Warm regards,
    Greg Daigle

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christopher Calder:
    Thank you for the links,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    LilyLover:
    Thank you and Merry Christmas holidays to you too,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lorenzo:
    Yes, that reference gave us a strong sustain, also due to the importance of the source. Congratulations to you for getting this fact.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lorenzo

    Dr Rossi:
    Reading the revised version of
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    I noticed that Lockeed Martin, in reference 3, gives a strong sustain to your concept of coherent matterwave beams and therefore to your concept of primary energy source. Kudos for discovering this precious reference !
    Lorenzo

  • LilyLover

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    May this Merry Christmas make you, your family, your team, your friends and all the E-Catters very merry!!!

    May this be the holiday that allows you some rest after the recent, magnificent achievement.

    Thank you. & Take care.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    May I suggest to celebrate New Years that you and your wife watch the movie, “The 11th Green”, written and directed by Christopher Münch. The movie description is here: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt10151656/

    You can stream it to your home from Amazon.com at
    https://www.amazon.com/11th-Green-Campbell-Scott/dp/B08JTWSNM3/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=the+11th+green&qid=1608925213&sr=8-1

    There is a scene in this move portraying former President Barack Obama being shown an E-Cat SKL (without the name) at a secret military instillation. You may find it entertaining. Some of the film is fantasy and some is reality. The reality is backed up by very credible testimony from the late Captain Bill Uhouse, which can be seen on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxA-Y4enohQ

    As you may have heard, the former head of the Israeli space program, General Haim Eshed, recently spilled the biggest military secret in human history, that the USA has had relations with extraterrestrials for decades. See the story at https://www.nbcnews.com/news/weird-news/former-israeli-space-security-chief-says-extraterrestrials-exist-trump-knows-n1250333

    Christopher Calder

  • Andrea Rossi

    A.Goumy:
    Thank you for your suggestion, but now I am receiving confirmation from all the continents that downloading from Researchgate the revised version arrives.
    just click here:
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Franco Pirri:
    1- no
    2- no
    3- yes
    4- no (= it is measured)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    1- yes
    2- that is the hupothesis made in paragraph 1
    3- I suppose not necessarily
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    I have just read your paper and I probably will do that a few times more, but thank you for this very interesting extension. A question about the Zitterbewegung ( ZBW ):
    1. Do you believe that around an atom electrons have also a ZBW under normal (not clustered) circumstances?
    2. I understand that when electrons are clustered, the magnetic force of all electrons around a positive core generated by their space charge in ZBW are aligned and maybe synchronized and thus the magnetic force exceeds the coulomb force and keeps the cluster together. Is that understanding right?
    3. Do larger clusters need more (positive) atoms to keep them stable?
    More questions will follow.
    Kind regards, Gerard

  • Franco Pirri

    Dear Andrea,
    On a car the gas pedal increases or decreases the power delivered by the engine. The speed of the vehicle is not exactly determined by the pedal position alone, it also depends on other external conditions, such as the slope of the road.
    In cases like this the control is said to work ‘in open loop’.
    It is possible to insert the so-called ‘cruise control’ which measures the speed of the vehicle and automatically maneuvers the gas pedal in order to keep the speed constant. A control of this type is called a ‘closed loop control’.
    There are several posts on the eCat World blog about how the power output control of an eCat SKL works.
    I think that the eCat control must work in a closed loop to obtain the necessary stability.
    -1: is it true?
    My guess is that you could close the loop simply by measuring the current and voltage delivered (on average?) by the eCat. Am I close to the operation of your controller?
    -2: the output measurement is almost all you need;
    -3: several other parameters are also needed;
    -4: The output power is not measured.
    Thanks for what you can answer.

    Warm regards,
    Franco Pirri

  • A. Goumy

    Daniel De Caluwé and other Readers,

    In many countries, downloading the updated version from researchgate.net does not work, while it does if your IP is located in the United States.

    So, if you have trouble, you could use a VPN to change your local IP to a US one.

    Merry Christmas.

    A. Goumy

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    I think now the revised paper is universally reachable, just using the usual link:
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Probably the cachet of the pre-existing text has been updated in any Adobe reader system.
    I will be delighted to answer to questions, observations, corrections and suggestions related to this revised text that I consider introcuctory to the presentation of the Ecat SKL.
    Again thanks to Axil Axil and E-Catworld for the help they supplied.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Heinz Sause:
    Thank you for your idea.
    We are delighted to wish you as well Merry Christmas and good luck for the New Year.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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