United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

 

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32,081 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • Andrea Rossi

    Calle H:
    I too think that the Ecat SKL could corroborate what is written on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Calle H

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    May I ask if you and your team will demonstrate the SKLed in SSM operation? The reason for asking is that on Sept 18 you said that the SKLed COP is more or less 8. This is when going from electricity to light. When going in the other direction from light to electricity, the inverse of 8 is 1/8 = 12.5% which is the absolute minimum efficiency that a solar cell must achieve for SSM. Best performing solar panels do 20%+ efficiency. So, it would be encouraging to try SSM. Personally I would think SSM is the ultimate proof of your amazing technology and a very strong foundation that energy is extracted from a vacuum source.
    Kind regards,
    Calle H

  • Chuck Davis

    Jitse, Here is a 50 kW inverter for you. https://www.solaris-shop.com/solectria-pvi-50-208-50kw-inverter/

    Warm regards,
    Chuck Davis

  • Dear Andrea,
    I think I asked you before if you use Caesium in your fuel. The reason I asked was that Caesium is an easily ionized atom and could provide more electrons to your plasma for use in your system. It is used in JP7 fuel for jet aircraft which is 50% more energetic than the usual JP4. I used it in a plasma for generating infra red and obtained a remarkable increase in IR output. Please ignore this question if it is not relevant.
    Curious regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rodney Nicholson:
    Premature,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • REGARDING THE FOLLOWING POSTS:

    Dear Andrea,
    Inverters for solar panels all have a maximum of 1000 Volt DC and 25 kW as input, this applies to all 1 and 3 phase inverters with outputs from 1 to 25 kWh and AC 230 and 400 volts.
    If the ecatSKL, controlled by the AI, can be set within these limits, a connection with these converters is relatively easy. (coupled or without coupling to the energy grid).
    These inverters fully comply with all specifications of the euro countries.
    Is it possible to go into details during the presentation of 9 December?
    best regards Jitse

    2021-09-27 08:49 Andrea Rossi

    Jitse:
    I don’t think so.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    =========
    It would be helpful if you could please clarify whether your “I don’t think so” refers to:

    A) “a connection with these converters is relatively easy. (coupled or without coupling to the energy grid)”, or:

    B) “Is it possible to go into details during the presentation of 9 December?”

    Thank you.

    With kindest, clarificatory, regards,

    Rodney.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rod Walton:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rod Walton

    On Power Engineering od September 28 2021
    Nuclear SMR firmNuScale Power exploring coal to small reactor project in Poland
    Rod Walton

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    An alternative to the on-grid versus off-grid discussion is an integrated system.

    My typical average daily use of electricity varies from about 20 kW-hrs to 55 kW-hrs (lowest in winter, highest in summer).

    At my daughter’s house I have installed a transfer switch with a generator to power the essentials when grid power is absent, due to a storm, etc. On the transfer switch I power essentials like the lights, appliances, refrigerator, television(s), and the electric water heater. The transfer switch removes the possibility of generator produced electricity going back to the grid where it affects the safety of those working on the power lines. The transfer switch would be installed after the house is built.

    Similarly, a conceptual eCat unit could be installed connected through a circuit breaker from the grid power. It would feed power to a transfer switch which would power most of the relatively low power consuming items within the home. Such items would include the electric water heater, the refrigerator, the appliances, security system(s), and electric vehicle(s) charging. Items it might not include would be central air conditioning or central electric heat.

    A large percentage of power consumption in the home are long-duration loads, so a large eCat capacity is not required.

    In addition, if the eCat unit should fail or be down for maintenance, just switch the transfer switch and use grid power again. This would dramatically decrease grid power consumption without an expensive renovation to the home’s electrical distribution system.

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for the links
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gian Luca:
    I hope too
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Toussaint Francois
    I think yes
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • toussaint françois

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    One question please, with the technology of the SKL LED will it be possible in the future for products such as Automotive Headlight, powerfull torch light, street lighting as an exemple ?

    Kind regards,

    Toussaint François

  • Gian Luca

    Caro A.R.
    the introduction on the world market of ECAT, in addition to revolutionizing the sector closely linked to energy, will certainly make the real estate market soar, like never before. Every smallest and most remote house or building will have a value. The real estate market as we have built it up to now will be changed. A small example can be given by me who I have for several years, left by my grandparents, a building at an altitude of about 1300 m (sea level). Mountain house lost in the woods in the Alps north of Milan. Building devoid of amenities, electricity and heating. Built with local stones and chestnut wood, perhaps dating back to the year 1850 (in Italy they are called ruins). Now, thinking about the Ecat ….. I see it with different eyes. I think it can become a comfortable and welcoming refuge where you can spend long and warm winter days in total tranquility, immersed in the snow.
    ECAT will also be the revolution in the real estate sector.
    what do you think about it?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you for these links.
    They make me think to the movie “The Concert” , of Radu Mihaileanu, one of the most beautiful movies I watched in my life.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chuck Davis

    Michael, The grid-tied and off-grid configurations require very different capabilities of the Ecat. The off-grid mode would require a 44 kW Ecat to replace the grid power in a typical 200 A, 220 V residential application and since the grid is not available as a backup source it would require a second 44 kW Ecat for that purpose. Also it would require a 44 kW inverter and associated wiring and circuit breaker! In the grid-tied configuration with net-metering a 1 kW Ecat would be sufficient for most residential requirements since short term high power loads will be provided by the grid and the Ecat only has to be capable of supplying the total energy usage at turtle speed since it operates 24/7 and the grid supplies the backup in case of an Ecat failure. And it would only require a 1 kW inverter and associated wiring and circuit breaker. The grid-tied configuration, where net-metering is available, is far superior to the off-grid configuration but some countries don’t provide the net-metering option. Another option for off-grid operation is to add energy storage but with the limited power capability of currently available batteries it would require several Tesla Power Walls to supply the required current and they are quite expensive!

    Warm regards,
    Chuck Davis

  • Sam

    Hello DR Rossi

    If the SKLed is as good
    as this Violinist you have
    a winning product.

    https://youtu.be/ULrA2GzMpgQ

    Regards
    Sam

  • Andrea Rossi

    Michael:
    This is possible,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jitse:
    I don’t think so.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jitse

    Dear Andrea,
    Inverters for solar panels all have a maximum of 1000 Volt DC and 25 kW as input, this applies to all 1 and 3 phase inverters with outputs from 1 to 25 kWh and AC 230 and 400 volts.
    If the ecatSKL, controlled by the AI, can be set within these limits, a connection with these converters is relatively easy. (coupled or without coupling to the energy grid).
    These inverters fully comply with all specifications of the euro countries.
    Is it possible to go into details during the presentation of 9 December?
    best regards Jitse

  • Michael

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    what belongs to the ecatSKL:
    Yes, it is complicated to fit the SKL to the grid for electricity feed-in because of bureaucracy and it is complete unnecessary. Everyone who needs electric power could buy an ecatSKL, there is no need for a grid. And anyways, here in germany a kwh through the electrical grid (just transport!) is charged with 8 ct plus 19% tax.
    At the start it is useful to use the ecatSKL directly without household power grid, just plug in the electric consumers – incl. electric heating to save the money for oil or gas. Later, if i am sure that all works i will let install the ecatSKL (plus a powerbank) to my household power grid, seperate to the electrical grid of the electric power company.
    The big consumers like industry, trade, carmakers, railway, shipbuilding, aircraft manufacturers, public administration… will come later.
    Of course, an ecatSK (not SKL) just for decentralised heating, integrated in oil-filled radiator, electric fire and other electric heating would be very useful. Now that the ecatSKL is in the certification you could develop this heating application?
    Best regards
    Michael

  • Andrea Rossi

    Chuck Davis:
    This kind of application has to go through a complex series of authorizations and agreements.
    This will not happen in the immediate,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Svein H. Vormedal:
    We will introduce our products, also by means of Partners. The production system will be developed along the development of the demand. Presently I am not able to answer your questions, we are ready for what we expect to happen at the incipit.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    CC & Andrea Rossi,

    The application of eCat technology to an Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) is interesting because:

    1. The application does not require a FAA (or similar Government authority) approval since this is not a manned aircraft.
    2. The application would provide months of continuous operational time, where their current system is limited to about 1,000 nmi.
    3, With auto-pilot and other similar control systems, the aircraft could do complex missions over extended periods of time.
    4. As an Amphibian aircraft, long duration missions over the ocean could occur, with out the risk to a human crew.
    5. It would be very cost effective – no salary, low maintenance.
    6. Limited numbers initially – perfect for a new technology application.
    7. With the addition of cameras and satellite uplink, imaging could be accomplished – tracking icebergs, tracking polar bears, other difficult and dangerous (for humans) missions.

    Thoughts?

  • Svein H. Vormedal

    Dear Andrea
    There are many suggestions for detailed uses for Ecat SKL.
    There will probably be a thousand more as time goes on.
    There are some key issues that will be crucial.
    Any Ecat must be produced. Have you and your team considered how long it can take to produce enough units to cover:
    1. 50% of the world’s electricity consumption?
    2. 50% of energy for land and sea transport?
    These are main areas that will have a global impact in connection with the announced climate crisis.
    Thousands of other small and large applications are interesting but not as significant as these main areas.
    It is possible that many nations will concentrate the use of available devices on these most crucial areas.
    Sincerely, Svein H. Vormedal

  • Chuck Davis

    Dear Andrea, The residential grid tied application is probably the most important use to your readers so I am curious to know if you have made a test of that configuration and how it performs.

    Warm regards,
    Chuck Davis

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gunther:
    I think we could say so,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gunther

    Dr Rossi,
    Studying your paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    I understood that the energy generated by the Ecat is basically due to the very low entropy charge aggregates that originate the point zero energy.
    Do you agree ?
    Gunther

  • Andrea Rossi

    CC:
    It is not that I want not the Ecat to fly, it is that this possibility is very, very premature, albeit the suggestion of the attorney Steven N. Karels,Esq., is intelligent,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • CC

    Steven N. Karels:
    Your proposal is very interesting, but it seems Andrea wants not the Rcat to fly,
    Cheers
    CC

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I believe this might be another application for your 20 kW output electrical unit.

    Consider an Amphibian UAV built by Aero-Marine – a British firm. They have two such UAVs.

    GULL 44, Wing Span of 5 meters, requires a 19 SHP motor, payload of 34 kg, max speed of 92 knots – would require one 20kW motor (= 27-28 SHP), one motor controller, and one 20 kW eCat unit.

    GULL 68, Wing Span of 7.6 meters, requires a 45 SHP motor, payload of 94 kg, max speed of 100 knots – would require two 20kW motors, 2 controllers and 2 20 kW eCat units.

    Suggested motor and Controller by epropelled.com: motor AMC 1200 (20 kW); controller PM1200L.

    The idea would this would be a utility transport from Europe to remote islands for valuable cargo, not readily served by large commercial airliners. Or, other applications.

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    KeithT:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • KeithT

    Dear Andrea,

    Within your ResearchGate paper;

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions

    Within section 1; Charge clusters and the Casimir force, you state; “According to another Zitterbewegung electron model [9, 16], the electron can be modelled by a current loop, with radius re, generated by a charge distribution that rotates at the speed of light.” References 9 & 16 being the electron model of F. Celani, A. O. Di Tommaso and G. Vassallo.

    Each electron with its orbiting charge plane is treated as a circular “plate”. For a sufficiently high density of low entropy electrons, where two electrons both with the same spin direction, with plates parallel to each other, position on the same axis, if the electrons then approach to close proximity, vacuum energy forces are excluded from between electron plates, the Casimir force pushes electron plates together against electron Coulomb forces repelling apart, the electrons position at a point of balance separation distance.

    Based on the non-point like Zitterbewegung electron model, for the case where two electrons are on the same axis and positioned as two parallel plates, you obtain a separation distance between two electron plates by balancing the Coulomb repulsion force Fe(d) between the two electrons; equation (5), with a Casimir force Fc(d) applied external to the two electron plates pushing them together; equation (4) multiplied by four for the larger plate area of a Zitterbewegung electron model, the resulting point of balance between opposing Coulomb versus Casimir forces for two electrons is at a separation distance db approximately equal to four reduced Compton wavelengths, i.e. db ≈ 1.54 x 10^-12m.

    Based on the model you have outlined, if the Coulomb force is halved, i.e. equation (5) was divided by two, the resulting point of balance between the now smaller opposing Coulomb versus Casimir forces is at an increased separation distance of db ≈ 2.3 x 10^-12m, i.e. 2.3 picometres. This figure of 2.3pm separation distance can be found in reference 16 of your paper; A. O. Di Tommaso and G. Vassallo – Electron Structure, Ultra-Dense Hydrogen and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, section 6; Hypotheses on the Structure of Ultra-Dense Hydrogen, di ≈ 2.3 x 10^-12m, this being the theoretical distance between two ultra-dense hydrogen atoms where the electron charge orbits are parallel to each other and Pi radians out of phase to each other. As also mentioned in reference 16 of your paper, this 2.3pm distance has been computed by Leif Holmlid for a particular form of ultra-dense deuterium.

    As to what leads to the Coulomb force being halved, I can only speculate. Coulombs law deals with two charges repelling each other, what if there was three electrons in a chain, how would this affect the outcome. It may be that the electron charge energy associated with the Coulomb force is divided between the two sides of an electron “plate” with the force on each side halved. Another consideration from the Zitterbewegung electron model is that half the electron energy is in the orbiting electron charge and half in the magnetic flux, does this affect the outcome. Alternatively 2.3pm is also possible if the Casimir force is doubled, whole h-bar instead of h-bar/2? Whatever the scenario, maybe it is possible to have electrons with 2.3pm separation. A low entropy environment > allowing electron interaction via local forces > leading to aggregate synthesis > energy release.

    Looking at the history of the Casimir force per unit area equation, it was a mathematical solution for a larger scale, maybe it can be regarded as an approximation when relating its use to the scale of electron properties and dimensions. If the Casimir force per unit area equation is divided by the sum of Pi^3/240 then multiplied by the sum of 2*α*(Pi^2-1), α = the fine structure constant, both sums dimensionless, the result is different by less than 0.2%, this modified equation when used with half the Coulomb force, then gives an approximate electron separation of 2.3pm, and a diagonal distance between electron charges that are Pi radians out of phase of exactly one electron Compton wavelength.

    Maybe I see things in the numbers that are not there, maybe it is just numerology, but interesting anyway.

    Regards,

    Keith Thomson.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jaroslaw Bem:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1. no
    2. no limitation within reasonable limits
    3. same as in 2
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    On the eCat prototypes that you have recently produced:

    1. Are they sensitive in terms of mounting orientation relative to vertical in their operation or output?
    2. Have you conducted environmental testing (temperature, relative humidity, altitude? If so, any unusual limitations?
    3. Have you tested for vibration/shock effects? If so, any unusual limitations?

  • Jaroslaw Bem

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    It would be nice to see on the presentation in December 2021 your proposition how easy adopt ECAT SKLed to assembling on street pole, to lighting the street.

    Best regards,
    Jaroslaw Bem

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    1. yes
    2. too complex to answer
    3. a couple of years
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    It is interesting to read that you produced hundreds of prototypes of the Ecat SKL until now.
    I hope you can answer a few additional questions abut that:
    1, I would guess you have a (semi-) automatic facility at hand to produce Ecat SKL’s relatively quickly and effortless, is that right?
    2. What is the percentage of those hundreds of SKL’s that work(ed) to your satisfaction?
    3. Over roughly what period did you produce these prototypes?
    Thank you if you can answer!
    Kind regards, Gerard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Hundreds,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jean Pierre:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jean Pierre

    Hi, Andrea. I have solved in great detail, and cheaply, the problem of how to pack all the necessary hardware into a SpaceX Starship on the launch pad and assemble it without humans, completely robotically in orbit. Then how to allow up to 200 people a journey to and from the Moon or Mars enjoying zero g conditions. In addition, the method allows for those on Mars to re-acquaint their bodies with 1g on occasion. This will really help to eliminate the current medical problems. Without this, returning passengers may suffer badly on Earth reentry. A detailed report has been sent to Elon Musk. However, I am not knowledgeable in the field of radiation; so please do not chastise me for the idea that I am about to put to you.

    Any method that can reduce passenger exposure to radiation during a long trip in space should be considered. If it can be determined that the SKL is impervious to outside radiation, and can function reliably for a period of 5 years with any necessary re-charging with fuel catalyst in this outside radiation environment, and the SKL can take the shape of a cube, then perhaps the inner walls of the Starship could be lined with these ’tiles’, either in a single layer or even a double layer.

    If they can be interlinked in this mode with provision for securing along the walls, then this system could be used for not only powering all the relevant ship devices but also ,when on Mars, act as a radiation- reduced habitat for the workers. Moreover,a power cable from the SKL output system could already be sited down the outside of the ship and the ship function as a power station for all the very early constructions and battery charging for the roving transport and diggers, etc. No nuclear generators would be required. No hazards to passengers/workers from such devices.

    These tiles would act to reduce the incoming radiation, though I am aware that secondary radiation can be produced from the primary. Naturally, all these SKL modules could,alternatively, be assembled in a block somewhere; but at least the wall- covering method should provide some extra protection. Of course, the habitat volume would be reduced; but for early trips only about 20 people would be needed instead of the SpaceX plan of 100.

    If this idea has merit may I suggest that you approach SpaceX after the December presentation. Their designers would need time to check that the SKL was radiation tolerant,determine how much radiation could be reduced by this method, and also whether or not it could withstand up to about 5g accelerations for short periods and also vibrations. In addition, how reliable it is. It should be possible for failed modules in flight to be easily removed internally and spares ready for their replacement.

    Thank you in advance for not ridiculing me for my offering.

    As always, good luck for the future. Jean Pierre

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    So far how many separate prototypes of E-Cat SKL have you built?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Chuck Davis:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chuck Davis

    Dear Andrea, Here is some help for you: https://news.yahoo.com/exclusive-white-house-supports-plan-134809670.html

    Warm regards,
    Chuck Davis

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