How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

by Dott. Giuliano Bettini
Retired. Earlier: Selenia SpA, Rome and IDS SpA, Pisa
Also Adjunct Professor at the University of Pisa
Adjunct Professor at Naval Academy, Leghorn (Italian Navy)

In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper? “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.

The interest on Andrea Rossi’s Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating [1]. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski [2]. says that “this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni”. But how it works?

How it works
Following Focardi Rossi [3]. a Ni58 nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the reaction

Ni58 + p → Cu59

Copper nucleus Cu59 decays with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni59 nucleus according to

Cu59 → Ni59 + ν + e+

Then (e+) annichilates with (e-) in two gamma-rays

e- + e+ → γ + γ

Starting [3] from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62, is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62 (i.e. Cu63). Each process means some MeV.

Of course how can a proton p gets captured by the Ni58 nucleus? (and subsequent Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62). Following Stremmenos [4]. a neutron-like particle, an electron proton pair, a mini-atom, a proton masked as a neutron, gets captured by the Ni58.

If the masked proton becomes a neutron the result is Ni59.
In order to have Cu59 (increase of atomic number from 28 to 29) the electron (of the masked proton) gets ejected from the nucleus. The masked proton becomes a proton.

The same process holds for all the subsequent transformations, until Cu63.
It remains to be understood the issue of the gamma radiation in the MeV range.

I am an electronic engineer, so I need easy numbers in order to understand.
However “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. Maybe I am too simple here.
Let’s calculate.
MeV for each Ni transformation
I read that starting from Ni58 we can obtain Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, and Ni62. The chain stops at Cu63 stable.
For simplicity I assume all the Nickel in the reactor in the form Ni58.
For simplicity I suppose for each Ni58 the whole sequence of events from Ni58 to Cu63 and as a rough estimate I calculate the mass defect between (Ni58 plus 5 nucleons) and the final state Cu63.
Ni58 mass is calculated to be 57.95380± 15 amu
The actual mass of a copper-Cu63 nucleus is 62.91367 amu
Mass of Ni58 plus 5 nucleons is  57.95380+5=62.95380 amu
Mass defect is 62.95380-62.91367=0.04013 amu
1 amu = 931 MeV is used as a standard conversion
0.04013×931 MeV=37.36 MeV
So each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
Nickel consumption
According to many blogs in the Internet “One hundred grams of nickel powder can power a 10 kW unit for a minimum of six months”.
How much of Ni58 should be transformed, in six months of continuous operation, in order to generate 10 kW?
I follow a procedure outlined in [2].
10 kW is thermal or electrical (?) power. The nuclear power must be larger. Assume a nuclear power twice:
20 kW = 20,000 J/s = 1.25 x 10**17 MeV/s.
Each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
The number of Ni58 transformations should thus be equal to (1.25 x 10**17)/37.36 = 3.346 x 10**15 per second.
Multiplying by the number of seconds in six months (1.55 x 10**7) the total number of transformed Ni58 nuclei is 5.186 x 10**22.
This means 5 grams.
The order of magnitude is not exactly the same but seems to be plausible. This means also 5 grams of Nickel in Rossi’s reactor transmuted into (stable) Copper after six months of continuous operation at the rate of 10 kW.
Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions.


1,013 comments to How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lars Lindberg:
    Thank you, really. As October approaches I am more and more nervous by the day. The construction of “The Plant” goes well, but avery moment I find something not perfect. We are in schedule, but now the work is very hard, because we have to make stress tests. The reactors work very well, all of them now. To get sleep is difficult.
    Anyway, thank you, really much.
    Contact me in November for commercial issues, now I have to stay focused exclusively on “The Plant”.
    Warm Regards,

  • Lars

    Dear Mr Rossi
    I can just imagine how it feels to come up with this revolutionary idea. Try to feel the happines of the situation and don´t get burnt out. I hope you take care and get some rest and sleep a lot so you don´t make bad decision in these special situation. I am writing from Sweden and have read a lot at the site about your progress. Good luck and stay cool 🙂 My wish is to sell your product in Sweden one day

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Cesare Piccolo:
    As I said repeatedly, the sole real test is the operation of our plants in the factories of our Customers. Of course we also will make R&D with the University of Bologna, as I already said. If somebody will not be convinced, this will be his problem, not ours.
    Warm Regards,

  • Cesare Piccolo

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    we are obviously waiting for the mass production of your e-cat, but we still don’t have the definitive proof, out of any reasonable doubt, that it works as you claim.
    Unless your primary objective is to keep a low profile until final disclosure (that would be understandable of course), the best thing to do to dissipate any doubt (and still keeping the industrial secret safe) would be to let the University of Bologna to test the unit in their labs, with the equipments they like, under your supervision, without opening it: you give them an e-cat as a not accessible black box, that needs a simple 220v power plug, a water inlet tube of a certain dimension with a water flux of 500cc/sec at 20°C and a outlet tube with a certain dimension for the steam generated.
    They take all the measurements they like, you don’t have to worry about any leak of information, and we give the world the final proof that this really works, then let the revolution begin!

    Best wishes
    Cesare Piccolo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Robert: I do not give information regarding the reactor operation.
    Warm Regards,

  • Mr. Rossi,

    To follow my recent post, here are more predictions from the nucleon cluster model I study that are open to you (or others) to experimentally falsify:

    1. The peaks you find in your “ash” at mass 65 derive from matter + antimatter fermion nuclear reactions (two modes) from fusion of 1-H-1 with 28 Ni 64. The outcome of this fusion reaction is 29 Cu 65. Easy to falsify this prediction. Conduct an experiment using E-Cat device where the only nickle isotope placed into the copper tube is pure 28 Ni 64 powder. The only copper isotope predicted to be present within the “ash” from this experiment is 29 Cu 65.

    2. The peaks you find in your “ash” at mass 64 derive from a matter + antimatter fermion fusion mode reaction between 1-H-1 and 28 Ni 62. As previously mentioned, this reaction will also produce within the “ash” stable 29 Cu 63 isotope via a matter + antimatter boson reaction. Again, easy to falsify. Conduct the experiment using E-Cat where pure 28 Ni 62 isotope is placed into the copper tube. Within the “ash” is predicted to be: (1) 29 Cu 63 (2) 28 Ni 64 (3) 30 Zn 64, all stable isotopes. The last two come from a beta-plus decay of 29 Cu 64 produced initially during the fusion reaction involving two fermion nucleon clusters.

    3. Place pure 28 Ni 61 into the E-Cat copper tube. Within the “ash” will be 29 Cu 63 via matter + antimatter fermion fusion reactions, two modes. Of interest is that one fusion mode is via beta-plus decay of the short lived radioactive isotope 29 Cu 62 (9.673 m half-life). Thus, if you look quick enough, you will measure this short lived 29 Cu 62 isotope. Find it hard to believe ? OK, conduct the experiment, then report what you find.

    4. Place pure 28 Ni 60 into the E-Cat copper tube. Within the ash will be 29 Cu 63 coming from ultimate beta-plus decay of 29 Cu 61 via 28 Ni 61. Also, the model I study predicts a quantum possibility for some stable 30 Zn 67 to be present in the ash, but only if this fusion mode is possible based on cluster configuration.

    5. The reason your E-Cat device only depletes about 30% of the nickle powder placed into the copper tube is because the most common isotope of nickle, 28 Ni 58, at ~ 68% of known isotopic composition in nature, does not undergo any fusion reactions with 1-H-1. There is a quantum possibility for such a fusion, however it would require that you find high levels of either 28 Ni 59 or 28 Ni 60 in your “ash”. Thus, since you find neither, this quantum possibility does not occur due to the nature of the nucleon cluster configuration within stable 28 Ni 58.

    Therefore, the 30% of nickle used in the E-Cat is because only the four rare stable isotopes that add to ~30% of available Ni mass (Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64) are involved in any type of nuclear fusion reaction within the E-Cat device. As you know, there are multiple fusion reactions that occur within the E-Cat device that involve all four of these rare stable isotopes, however, the most energy is predicted to derive from the fusion of 1-H-1 with the 28-Ni-62 isotope. This isotope is the key for the E-Cat device because, as any physicist knows, this isotope has the highest binding energy per nucleon of any isotope for any element in the universe…more potential energy can be released from 28-Ni-62 isotope than any other, and your E-Cat device makes use of this fact.



  • Mr. Rossi,

    Have you made an experimental attempt to place only pure 28-Ni-58 stable isotope powder into your E-Cat reactor tube, with no other Ni isotopes present in the powder ? You have previously reported that you have not attempted to separate Ni isotopes in the powder you use.

    The reason I ask is because a cluster model of the atomic nucleus I study predicts that you will measure no excess energy production from use of pure 28-Ni-58 isotope powder within the copper tube of your E-Cat device. Instead, the model predicts that ~70% of the excess energy you measure in your E-Cat comes from a fusion reaction of 1-H-1 with the relatively rare 28-Ni-62 isotope (~3% of known stable Ni on earth) that is present in the nickle powder you add to your E-Cat device. The product of this fusion reaction is 29-Cu-63, the most common isotope you have reported in the “ash” produced during E-Cat reactions.

    Perhaps you do not agree with the above claim, but it is the way of science to falsify claims. Thus I cordially request that you conduct the simple science experiments to falsify the claims I have made above.

    First, place only pure 28-Ni-58 isotope powder within the copper tube of the E-Cat device. The model I study makes the prediction that no excess energy will be observed. Easy for you to falsify this claim.

    Next, repeat the experiment using pure 28-Ni-62 isotope powder in your E-Cat. The model prediction is a very large amount of excess energy will be produced, perhaps at dangerous laboratory levels, given the numerous lattice sites that will be available for 1-H-1 to fuse with pure 28-Ni-62 isotope powder. What you will find in the “ash” from this fusion reaction of 1-H-1 with 28-Ni-62 is the stable 29-Cu-63 isotope. In fact, this is exactly what you now report, that your E-Cat produces large ratio of 29-Cu-63 isotope. My claim is that the fusion reaction has nothing to do with the common 28-Ni-58 stable isotope present in the powder you use. This claim is easy to falsify. As I mentioned above, my prediction is that pure 28-Ni-58 isotope placed into your E-Cat device will not produce excess heat, neither will it produce an “ash” containing 29-Cu-63. If you think I am incorrect, all I ask is that you (or anyone else reading this) conduct the proper scientific experiment to falsify my claims. Then publish the results of the experiment in a peer reviewed journal.

    The model I study predicts that the reaction that occurs within your E-Cat device is a fusion reaction of matter + antimatter bosons. It also predicts that the reaction is possible in theory because there is no Coulomb barrier for positive charged independent protons [P+] to overcome. This statement will make no physical sense unless you adopt an open mind to consider the theoretical quantum possibility that the atomic nucleus is composed of nucleon clusters, and not independent protons [P] and neutrons [N] moving within nuclear energy shells.

    After you conduct the two experiments above and confirm that what I claim is factually correct, please contact me and I will explain in detail how the cluster model of the atomic nucleus I study made these revolutionary predictions. It is my claim that your revolutionary E-Cat experimental results of excess energy from low energy input require a revolutionary model of the atomic nucleus to explain them…I study such a model.



  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    As Arthur C. Clarke said: “When a distinguished scientist* states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong.” (* Or engineer.)

    When we go out for a walk, we may be standing on just such a natural reactor – Planet Earth. ( Maybe not 500 feet down, but 500 miles down below our feet, maybe at much higher pressures or temperatures, possibly based on Nickel and using the same or different catalysts, there is a non-fission reactor running for the past several billion years, maintaining the earth’s magnetic field, shielding the Earth from the Solar Storms and UV radiation. Unfortunately, this reactor may be the energy source of earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis.

    It’s difficult to prove that something is impossible.


    Joseph Fine

  • Malcolm Lear

    Thank you Andrea for your reply. You seem to have discovered a rare combination elements, pressure and temperature.
    All the best for your future and carry on the good work.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Malcom Lear:
    No, this reaction cannot happen in Nature, where are no catalyzers, right P & T etc.
    Warm Regards,

  • Malcolm Lear

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I’m not sure if this has been asked before, but do you think it’s just possible that this reaction has or is working in nature?

    I hope I’m asking too much this time 🙂

    Kind Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H-G Branzell:
    Theories are named so because they are not rules. Theories are dynamic entities, whose integrals change through the time. I started with the supposition of a theory, but I said from the beginning that I was not convinced of the theory: evidence of this is in the phylogenesis of this very blog. The theoretical system at the base of my process is different from it was two years ago. When you work 16 hours per day on your reactors, two years are an eternity which unavoidably contains evolution. And I am working on my reactors very hard every day.
    Warm regards,

  • H-G Branzell

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    According to your working hypothesis as we understand it, nickel is transformed into copper.

    In the March 22 report it is stated that the ratio Cu63/Cu65 in the resulting copper is 1,6.

    Do you consider this statement to be consistent with the theory that you will reveal in November?

    Best regards, H-G Branzell

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H-G Branzell:
    Please be patient, I will explain my theory in November.
    Warm regards,

  • H-G Branzell

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    From your report “A new energy source from nuclear fusion” March 22, 2010 I quote the following:

    “These allowed us the determination of the ratio Cu63/Cu65 = 1,6 different from the value (2,24) relative to the copper isotopic natural composition.

    More details on this analysis will be given in a successive paper[8].

    [8] A. Carnera, S. Focardi, A. Rossi, to be published on Arxiv.”

    According to my understanding the report was never published by Arxiv. Still, it would be very interesting to take part of it so perhaps you could consider to publish it on your blog?

    Many thanks, H-G Branzell

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jim Henson:
    No, it cannot happen.
    Warm regards,

  • Could cold fusion have been accomplished by different methods then the e-cat in the past,but the inventors were persuaded by governments and rich powerful companies to not pursue it themselves? Is there even the slightest possibility that this might happen again with the e-cat? surely oil and energy companies will lose future revenue when the e-cat becomes commonplace in homes. Could they make up some big lie next year, as an excuse to not build more plants?
    thank you

  • fabiosanzani

    Caro Ing.Rossi
    noto che molti frequentatori del suo sito continuano a perseverare nell’idea di utilizzare la sua invenzione nella produzione di energia elettrica o nella sua applicazione per la produzione di energia necessaria alla locomozione di veicoli. Non potendo rispondere direttamente agli intervenuti in inglese credo a mio modestissimo parere che l’attuale e primaria applicazione è sicuramente nella produzione di calore. Le applicazioni di cui sopra, ovviamente tecnicamente possibili, presumo che siano in parte premature (anche se non di molto in termini temporali). Inoltre perché sprecare l’efficienza in una conversione in energia elettrica quando il suo dispositivo può produrre energia termica con un COP elevatissimo. E’ chiaro che il suo dispositivo potrà giungere una volta maturo nella produzione di energia anche come trigeneratore (riscaldamento, raffrescamento e produzione di energia elettrica).

  • franco mazzucchi

    Dr Mr Rossi, I’m following you for a few months and I really hope everything I read is true. I have a shop in the center of Venice(Italy, the real one)and I’m ready to convert it in a point of sale of the generator. BEST WISHES.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gediminas:
    1- Greece has never been sinking. There are Countries in the so called industrialized world that are in the same situation, in the context of a global crisis. Greece is a great Nation, the People of Greece has the most important cultural heritage of the history of Mankind. Remember this. And be sure that we, in Greece, will have again a solid economical base. From my side, of course, I will fight for this too. But they do not need me. It is me who need them.
    2- Catalyzer acts as a reaction accelerator
    Warm Regards,

  • Gediminas

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If clever people do not understand Your ecat work principle. Can I explain it in this way ?
    For me it looks like solid fuel for rockets 🙂 but cataliser in Ecat do not work as reaction accelerator, but as reaction inhibitor ?

    We pray for your success, and I think You success will stop Greece sinking.


  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    We, your fans, we are very excited.
    Professor Loris Ferrari in Social News says:

    “A group of researchers from the Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Ennio Bonetti, Enrico Campari, Giuseppe Levi, Mauro Villa and I), as well as Sergio Focardi (retired as Professor Emeritus) can now study the Rossi equipment in a continued and deepened way”.

    This means that the University of Bologna has a Ecat available? and starting from when?
    Thanks, best regards
    Giuliano Bettini

  • Malcolm

    Referring back to the steam car. A modern steam engine already exists that is in production and designed for many uses including cars and trucks. The Cyclone engine should not require many changes to be coupled to the e-Cat. The required water temperature is around 650C (1200F) which I believe is around the upper operating temperature of the e-Cat. Details can be found at:
    This could also be used to manufacture small e-Cat based gensets.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear David Thompson:
    No, it is not possible.
    Warm Regards,


    Dr. Rossi

    I am not a scientist, just a concerned citizen of the planet, I am sincerely interested in any technology that can advance the evolution of mankind. Certainly your device has that potential. I live in Florida, close to Miami. Would it be possible to visit the E-Cat factory there?
    Thank You

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear C. Hercus:
    No, it is not possible.
    Warm regards,

  • C Hercus


    Your E-Cat is a very exciting technology and I’ve been reading everything I can about it since January.

    One thing I noted in your patent was use or Boron & Lead to absorb gamma rays and produce heat. What I’ve wondered is what % of heat generated is from the absorption of gamma rays?
    I was also thinking that due to use of only 1cm of lead that the gamma rays would have to be low energy and absorption by photoelectric effect. If this is case could the gamma rays be used with a photoelectric device to directly generate electricity?

    Keep up the great work,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Nichols:
    It is possible to make a new Stanley steam powered car, but I , sincerely, doubt that it will be competitive, in terms of speed, acceleration, etc with gas powered cars. So far.
    It will take huge R&D to achieve this competitivity, while in the heat production we are already extremely competitive.
    I appreciated your attention.
    Warm regards,

  • Bill Nichols

    Why couldn’t an E-Cat be used to power a steam vehicle? Like a modern version of a Stanley Steamer? As an Atmospheric Scientist, thermodynamically (i.e. Latent heat of fusion and evaporation, etc) if the numbers you quote for the E-Cat are correct; shouldn’t this be doable (Rankine cycle)?

    FWIW. As an Air Force Officer doing research in the early 1990’s…observed data showing this phenomena was real. Reproducability…beside dogma…was the main problem.


    Best Regards,

    Bill Nichols

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steve C.:
    Please contact us in November for commercial issues.
    Warm Regards,

  • Steve C

    How can I buy a small unit for immediate use on my boat? I’d like to be an early adopter and I am prepared and able to provide useful feedback and possible technical help. This looks to be a sensible and useable technology.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Visscher:
    We will license.
    Warm regards,

  • H. Visscher

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    With the introduction of your product in October it will also be the start of a new era in energy production. Eventually the E-Cat will be used for many applications ranging from desalination of seawater to propulsion of various vehicles. My question is will you be licensing the technology to third parties for further development into various applications or will you be doing that all by yourself with the help of your companies in Greece and the US? If so, will the developments by third parties start right this year or will you start the licensing part later (the coming years)?


    H. Visscher

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giuseppe,
    Thank to you for your enthusiasm. I will try to merit it.
    Warm regards,


    Grazie di esistere

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr David Robertson:
    Every module has its specific control.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Doug Hulstedt:
    How would you organize concretely this. I am a very practical man.
    Warm Regards,

  • Doug Hulstedt md

    The vast majority of autistic kids have been environmentally assaulted by environmental toxins so as can be appreciated every organ system can be involved.these include the immune system digestion brain inflammationmitichondrialdysfunction metabolic dysfunction allergies to foods. There are treatments which have been shown to work per parental questioNaires. These include Ivig hyperbaric oxygen iv chelation nutritional supplements music therapy hippatherapy aba therapy. Almost none of these therapies are covered by insurances. I have 5 kids who have slipped off the spectrum out of the thirty I follow.empiriCally I have seen success. But there is so much more that can be done but money is a restricting item. Just testing alone may be upwards of 2000$ for these kids. That doesn’t include treatments

  • David Roberson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I am looking forward to the completion of your commercial product with excitement. We need more dedicated people such as yourself to champion new ideas. Keep up the hard work as many of us are rooting for you. Happy birthday plus one.

    Upon consideration of the task before you I suspect that a large part of the job involves the system components such as the controllers and plumbing valves, etc. One question comes to my mind at the moment which I hope you can shed light upon.

    Are you required to calibrate each E-CAT separately and thus control each one independantly within the system or are they enough alike in performance to allow fewer controlers? I can see a large simplification in the overall design if fewer control devices function.

    Thanks and regards,


  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Vladimiro Chiarucci:
    Grazie infinite,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Simon:
    Thank you and warm Regards,

  • Simon

    Kia ora Dr Rossi

    I’ve been following for a while now and some of the science is lost on me, but as an Architect, I do understand form.

    David G made the excellent comment of standardizing the E-Cat for ease of global transportation. However I’m hoping the invention that revolutionises humanities energy needs can photograph better than an old shipping container.

    You may have this all resolved but if not and just thinking conceptually here, with the worlds media looking in……….And a few minutes to consider the packaging, let along the actual product.

    Obviously the recycling element is a must.

    I guess many reading this might think it’s trivial in light of what you are actually offering, but for much of current society it’s one of their key drivers, i-pad, I-phone, i-diot.

    Just wanting you to shine in November, for all our sakes.

    Regards Simon

    p.s. Happy to help with the form, but not much use with the science.

  • Auguri Ingegnere,lei ci rende orgogliosi di essere italiani!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Doug Hulstedt, MD:
    1- Thank you!
    2- You are right. By the way, tell me more about the children you are working for: maybe I can help.
    3- We are manufacturing the 1 MW plant, it will go in operation in Greece in October.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claud:
    Thank you again,
    Warm regards,

  • Claud

    Caro Ing. Rossi, non sono depositario – come Lei puo’ giustamente temere – di particolari dati sul Suo conto e, tanto meno (purtroppo) della Sua “direct line”: rispetto rigidamente la privacy di tutti. Il fatto e’ che la seguo da molto tempo con speranza e simpatia e, in uno dei documenti pubblicati su questo sito, ho trovato la Sua data di nascita (tra l’altro molto simile alla mia). Tutto qui. Di nuovo auguri per il Suo progetto e per il Suo compleanno.
    Con stima e simpatia.
    Claudio ROSSI

  • Doug Hulstedt MD

    Happy Birthday

  • Doug Hulstedt MD

    Hi Dr Rossi,
    A couple of comments and 3 Questions. You will be planning on integrating the E-cat into existing structures and technology. Thus you will not initially be reinventing the wheel.Regarding my special interest of autism in children there are already existing structures ie organizations in place to give scholarships to children and families already in the systems? Why not use existing structures?
    Also regarding the 1 megawatt generating station, how many minutes will it take to get it up to speed and down again and won’t the E-cats be in parallel? Do you have a working 1mw station and how many E-cats are now in existence?
    Thanks and Blessings
    Doug Hulstedt MD
    Thanks and Blessings
    Doug Hulstedt MD

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine,
    I am sorry to be late, next year I won’t!
    Late Happy Birthday to you.

  • Joseph Fine


    Happy Birthday. Your info was on one of the Wikipedia sites. My birthday was May 29th.

    Best wishes and best regards,


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