How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

by Dott. Giuliano Bettini
Retired. Earlier: Selenia SpA, Rome and IDS SpA, Pisa
Also Adjunct Professor at the University of Pisa
Adjunct Professor at Naval Academy, Leghorn (Italian Navy)

In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper? “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.

The interest on Andrea Rossi’s Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating [1]. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski [2]. says that “this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni”. But how it works?

How it works
Following Focardi Rossi [3]. a Ni58 nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the reaction

Ni58 + p → Cu59

Copper nucleus Cu59 decays with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni59 nucleus according to

Cu59 → Ni59 + ν + e+

Then (e+) annichilates with (e-) in two gamma-rays

e- + e+ → γ + γ

Starting [3] from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62, is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62 (i.e. Cu63). Each process means some MeV.

Of course how can a proton p gets captured by the Ni58 nucleus? (and subsequent Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62). Following Stremmenos [4]. a neutron-like particle, an electron proton pair, a mini-atom, a proton masked as a neutron, gets captured by the Ni58.

If the masked proton becomes a neutron the result is Ni59.
In order to have Cu59 (increase of atomic number from 28 to 29) the electron (of the masked proton) gets ejected from the nucleus. The masked proton becomes a proton.

The same process holds for all the subsequent transformations, until Cu63.
It remains to be understood the issue of the gamma radiation in the MeV range.

I am an electronic engineer, so I need easy numbers in order to understand.
However “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. Maybe I am too simple here.
Let’s calculate.
MeV for each Ni transformation
I read that starting from Ni58 we can obtain Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, and Ni62. The chain stops at Cu63 stable.
For simplicity I assume all the Nickel in the reactor in the form Ni58.
For simplicity I suppose for each Ni58 the whole sequence of events from Ni58 to Cu63 and as a rough estimate I calculate the mass defect between (Ni58 plus 5 nucleons) and the final state Cu63.
Ni58 mass is calculated to be 57.95380± 15 amu
The actual mass of a copper-Cu63 nucleus is 62.91367 amu
Mass of Ni58 plus 5 nucleons is  57.95380+5=62.95380 amu
Mass defect is 62.95380-62.91367=0.04013 amu
1 amu = 931 MeV is used as a standard conversion
0.04013×931 MeV=37.36 MeV
So each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
Nickel consumption
According to many blogs in the Internet “One hundred grams of nickel powder can power a 10 kW unit for a minimum of six months”.
How much of Ni58 should be transformed, in six months of continuous operation, in order to generate 10 kW?
I follow a procedure outlined in [2].
10 kW is thermal or electrical (?) power. The nuclear power must be larger. Assume a nuclear power twice:
20 kW = 20,000 J/s = 1.25 x 10**17 MeV/s.
Each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
The number of Ni58 transformations should thus be equal to (1.25 x 10**17)/37.36 = 3.346 x 10**15 per second.
Multiplying by the number of seconds in six months (1.55 x 10**7) the total number of transformed Ni58 nuclei is 5.186 x 10**22.
This means 5 grams.
The order of magnitude is not exactly the same but seems to be plausible. This means also 5 grams of Nickel in Rossi’s reactor transmuted into (stable) Copper after six months of continuous operation at the rate of 10 kW.
Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions.


940 comments to How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Scholl Christian:
    Warm Regards,

  • SCHOLL Christian

    Dear Andrea,

    1 Have you connected 30 Ecat SKLep in series to an on grid solar inverter?
    2 Did you use an ordinary solar inverter or an inverter with galvanic isolation ?
    Best regards,


  • Andrea Rossi

    Claudio R.:
    Depends on the applications.
    Warm Regards,

  • Claudio R.

    Mr. Andrea I have the doubt that I have understood that ecatsklep works only if between it and for example an appliance there are storage batteries, did I understand correctly or can it power the appliance directly?

  • Andrea Rossi

    SCHOLL Christian:
    1- yes
    2- after the distribution of the SKLep
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Andrea,

    We don’t have any news about your 20 KW Ecat SK Heat Production.
    1 Have you received the certification ?
    2 Are you planning mass production ?
    Best regards,


  • Andrea Rossi

    An approximative calculation is that you need a power of about 5.7 kW, which means 57 modules.
    You will need an engineer to calculate the differentials of the energy flows.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mats Heijkenskjold:
    If the SKLed charges a battery, the battery consumes only what is drawn from the loads.
    Warm Regards,

  • Mats Heijkenskjold

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I have not really understood the function of the SKLep. If for instance the 100 W output will go down automatically to 50 W, if the load demand is 50 %?
    Could you please explain the function with different loads.

    Mats Heijkenskjold

  • Paul

    Dr. Rossi,
    I have a house that needs 15000 kWh/year electricity and 80000 kWh/year gas for heating and i’m not an engineer.
    What kind of installation do i need to become off grid by the use of ecats Sklep?
    How many Ecats do i need?
    Kind regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Horst Lorenz Jesti-Pogatschnigg:
    I do not know that kind of installation. You could use the Ecat SKLep in assemblies enough to charge a battery that through an inverter could feed your heat pump system. To be calculated is the energy you need to charge to make your heat pump sustain the work when it is necessary.
    Warm Regards,

  • Horst Lorenz Jestl-Pogatschnigg

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    is it possible to use 26 units of Ecat SKLEP for my modulating heatpump? The Panasonic heatpump connected to 230 V works with a power differing between 0,6 and 2,5 kw – depends on higher or lower outdoor temperature. So is it necessary to have a kind of modulating inverter between heatpump and SLKEP-Units or does it work without such an extra device?
    I think generally a direct connection is better for energy consumption and it would be easier to attach.
    Thank you if you have time to answer.
    Best regards from Austria – the little country beside your home country

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ed Yu.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silent Majority Guy:
    God bless you too,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    1- I have not time to check, but your citation, if correct, was surely a typo. w kW/100 cmq is a nonsense.
    2- very difficult
    3- thank you for your opinion
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Engineer 48:
    You are right,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    The amortization is in 1 year.
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Andrea

    One million E-Cat SKLEDs preorder are needed to start production.
    I advice you to contact street lighting manufacturers.
    The E-Cat SKLEP, more intended for domestic use, can provide full ou partial electric autonomy.
    Amortization will take four years, provided the excess electricity is sold.
    Best regards,


  • Engineer48

    If it is right about the SKLep life being 100,000 hours, then everything changes.

    Sure $2,500/kW upfront (10 x 100W SKLep) is expensive but when factoring in kWhs it gets interesting.
    100,000kWhs for $2,500 is $0.025/kWh.

    Nothing on the planet can deliver 24/7 kWhs to your home, for 11 years, at 2.5 cents / kWh.

  • P

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    My reflection after the presentation is that SKLep is not something for private individuals. For example, in my case, I have a capacity of a total of 20kW for hot water, heating of my house and pools. If I were to replace this capacity right off with SKLep, the investment would be $ 49,800, which is unreasonable. If you have the opportunity to sell the surplus, the investment may be recalculated, but the initial cost is still too great for a private individual. Unfortunately, I think it will now be difficult to reach an order backlog of 1 M.
    1. Is SKLep “strangled”? Earlier (JoNP 2020-07-31 12:49) 4kW was mentioned for an ECAT of 100cm3. Is there an explanation for this?
    2. Is there a possibility that the price for SKLep will be reduced?
    3. Are there plans for a more “professional” presentation. Yesterday’s presentation may work for your fans but not to achieve a big impact.

    I hope you succeed in a quick breakthrough for the sake of the climate, but I’m worried.


  • Silent Majority Guy

    Dear Dr Rossi:
    Great presentation.
    Historical moment.
    God bless you

  • Ed Yu

    Dear Andrea, is it possible that the presentation used Ecat SKLed with a minimum-adjusted brightness?

  • Prof

    Dr Rossi:
    Here you have an index of the enormous success of your presentation: your statistics after your presentation ( visible now both on and
    e-catworld ) have have numbers even more impressive than before: see on
    Readings 79572 ( of which 73004 only for “Ecat SK and long range particle interactions )
    Reccomandations 6303
    Citations 28
    Total Research Interest index 1632
    And counting !

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christian Scholl:
    You can make all the combinations you need. Just explain your problem and we will supply without charge how to connect the Ecat SKLeps. Obviously at the delivery.
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Andréa;

    Congratulation for your great work.
    Can we connect several E-cat SKLEP 12 DC in series to get 300 V ready for a solar inverter?
    Can several E-Cat SKLEP 230 AC be connected in parallel to supply a 2000 W heating resistor?
    My best encouragement,


  • Andrea Rossi

    Please go to paragraph 1 of the paper you cited,
    Warm Regards,

  • CC

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi
    I would like to know which is the measure of the “long range” in your paper here:

  • Andrea Rossi

    You bet !
    Warm Regards,

  • Anonymous

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Do you confirm that on December 5th you will go to take the third dose of the anti-Covid vaccine ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Not yet.
    Warm Regards,


    Dear Andrea,

    I suppose your E-Cat SKL provide DC (300 V ?) ready for on grid solar inverter.
    Galvanic isolated solar grid inverters seem only compatible.
    Are you planning an E-Cat SKL (12, 24, 48 V) version ready for off grid solar inverter ?
    Best regards,


  • Andrea Rossi

    Warm Regards,

  • Roy

    Dr Rossi,
    Will Leonardo Corporation continue to be a US company and the Ecat to be made in the USA ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    The composition is the same,
    Warm Regards,

  • BN

    Hey, Andrea,
    Is the plasma from which you are trying to get directly electricity comparable to the “ballerina” we can see on
    or does it have a different composition ?
    Thanks if you can answer,

  • Andrea Rossi

    We do not sell the plants, we sell the energy they generate. Obviously the Clients will pay the energy they will receive.
    Warm Regards,

  • pluto

    not only by a customer but by all customers with Money back guranty if it does not work ! would you do it ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    This is what we are doing.
    Warm Regards,

  • pluto

    I think if this reactor really worked, he could give Guaranty and could install the reactor in the factory of a customer and that is the best advertisment and not so much expensive.

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>