From the orbital capture to some types of L.E.N.R. reactions

Prof. Lino Daddi
Retired. Earlier Professor at Naval Academy. Leghorn

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In this article the process is discussed by which an orbital  electron happens to be on the nucleus and is captured by a quark up of a proton of the nucleus itself, which for what becomes a quark down.
It is assumed that the involvement of virtual particles allows the nucleus to determine whether, having enough energy available, the process, in which they are part the weak interaction and the strong interaction, can be completed.
A parallel process can be considered for certain types of observed reactions LENR, starting from the reduction of the hydrogen atom to the condition of “miniatom”.

From the orbital capture to some types of L.E.N.R. reactions

The reaction of nuclear capture of one of two K-shell electrons by the nucleus NuZ,A can be written:

NuZ,A + e- = NuZ-1,A + ν.       (1)

Denoting by MZ,A and MZ-1,A the masses of the initial and final nuclei, it will
E = [MZ,A – MZ-1,A] c^2   the available energy from the process. The energy of the emitted neutrino is:

εν = E + mec^2 – εk,    (1′)

being εk the electron energy on the K orbital (which may often be overlooked in these assessments). If the energy E is insufficient, the capture (1) does not happen, so the nucleus does not undergo the beta decay of type K capture. This, however, is not directly observable, but:

1 – measuring the recoil momentum received from the nucleus, or
2 – observing X-rays following the rearrangement of the electronic layers.

It should be noted that the K electron should not be on the nucleus because it was attracted by the Coulomb force. This force is actually the one that “keeps” the electron in the orbital K. If this were to bring the electron to the nucleus it do make a work, and the electron  would arrive with much more energy. But the energy remains that εk of the orbital K, because the electron moves to the nucleus by fluctuation of its distance from it, according to the probability admitted by quantum mechanics, according to the Uncertainty Principle (U.P.).

In ref [1] it is assumed that the probability of capture is the product of the probability f of an electron  K be in the nucleus for the probability q that an electron, having attained the nucleus, is captured by the nucleus itself. The fact that there are very strong differences in the half-lives of the various nuclei that decay by orbital capture  can be considered as an indication that q is very dependent on the nucleus structure.

Among the typical nuclei that show orbital capture we can remember  40K and  136La, which are very different examples of instability, as the 40K almost stable (half-life of billions of years) and 136La very unstable (half-life of 9.5 min). So the picture is more complex than could result from a simple positional fluctuation.

Recall that, according to U.P., two particles in contact, which by their nature should fuse but can not do so for lack of energy, may temporarily act as a virtual particle. The permanence in the life of the virtual particle is given by:

Δ t = ħ / ΔE    (2)

where ΔE is the energy deficit.
Thus, if the energy is insufficient, the system of two particles in the left hand side of (1) can be considered as the virtual nucleus Nu Z-1,A.
Table 1 shows, from first to third line, the presumed evolution of the three phases.
In the  phase 2 the (1) can be seen as a reaction

p + e-  =  n + ν    (3)

of one of the Z protons of the nucleus. Until  the mass difference is acquired between neutron and proton in the nucleus ,  the neutron can not be formed, and the system (p,e) of Fig.1 can be considered as “virtual” neutron. This can become real after the exchange of W bosons, made possible by having received the necessary energy ΔE. In the final phase of table 1 the electron is interacting with a quark up of a proton in the nucleus, converting it into a quark down. The Fig. 2 illustrates the situation at the level of quarks before the exchange of W. But now we’re talking about a different system: no more (p,e) subject to the Coulomb force, but (quark up,e) subject to the weak force.

Phases 2 and 3 of Table 1 can be viewed as one phase consisting of two processes.
In order to  the K capture occurs, it is necessary that the rearrangement of nucleons (promoted by the strong interaction) makes available the necessary energy.

This is the chronological succession :

I)  The K electron goes on the nucleus, but it is unknown whether the capture is energetically possible;
II) To explore the possibility of capture, the electron form a virtual neutron with a proton;
III) You may think that  the nucleus to rearrange itself by replacing the proton with the virtual neutron as if this was real. So the nucleus NuZ, A would become the nucleus NuZ-1, A and the energy E would be made available by the rearrangement;
IV) If this is sufficient, the exchange of W bosons (not yet in the case of Fig.1 and Fig.2) takes place, and a neutrino is emitted (Fig.3).
But of course the final transformation is on Stage 3 of the Tab. 1, as illustrated in Fig.2.

It seems difficult to separate the effects of the strong and weak interaction. The hypothesis of the virtual particles, as an interim step, may reduce this difficulty.

This is, of course, a process which affects not only the nucleus, but involves the whole atom. The orbital capture, however, seems more likely event than the capture of an electron met by chance. When atoms are fully ionized (as in supernovae) the capture can not occur.

In the few cases (such as, for example, 64Cu and 74As) in which a nucleus can decay in three ways:  beta minus, beta plus and orbital capture, its disintegration constant λ is unique. It is in fact equal to λ = λ1 + λ2 + λ3, λ1 being the constant of β- decay, λ2 the constant of β+ decay and λ3 that of the orbital capture.

But a temporary presence of a K electron on the nucleus is considered to be possible for the nuclei of all atoms. Ultimately all nuclei have the possibility of capture an orbital electron to convert a proton into a neutron, but only those able to obtain energy from the restructuring (as defined in the point III of the chronological order) have this type of beta decay.

Even the electron of the hydrogen atom can be found in the nucleus, that is, on the only proton. This event has a low probability of occurring but this, according to CONTE [3], could be greater than you think. However it is suitable the atom be in unbound state. The atomic state (or nascent) hydrogen is rare in nature but can be achieved under specific conditions, for example when hydrogen is absorbed by metals that favor molecular dissociation. Nickel is one of them, but so are zirconium, titanium and tungsten.
The capture of the electron could be achieved as indicated by Fig.3;  but that was designed meaning that p was one of the protons in the nucleus NuZ,A which undergoes K capture. But the presence of electron on the proton greatly reduces the atomic dimension, up to nuclear dimensions, so the atom becomes a “miniatom” (p, e). It is understood that the miniatom is still an atom, consisting of separate proton and  electron  interacting via the Coulomb force. It would be inappropriate to consider it now as virtual neutron. By itself, the miniatom has not the energy to become real neutron (the rearrangement of the three quarks is not sufficient). Since, however, the nucleus consists of a proton, the steps 1) and 2) in Table 1 coincide. It is essentially a neutral particle, able to approach a nucleus without suffering the Coulomb repulsion. If it encounters a nucleus NuZ,A may react with it, but its short life limits the likelihood of such reaction.

The nucleus NuZ,A could capture the entire miniatom in two different ways, A) and B).

A) as virtual neutron, pending  the energy made available by rearrangement of NuZ,A+1 . This would be equivalent to the capture (n, γ) of a thermic neutron with the excess energy derived from the rearrangement of the nucleus NuZ,A+1.

B) with separate proton and electron capture. The steps of this mode are presented in Table 2.
The nucleus NuZ,A could confine himself (according to line 2) to capture the proton of the miniatom (p, e); that is generally an exothermic reaction. But (line 3-a) it can absorb the electron of the miniatom. Also this process would be equivalent to the capture (n, γ) of a thermic neutron

Finally, it should also consider the possibility that NuZ+1,A+1 is beta radioactive for K capture.

With the hypothesis of miniatoms and virtual neutrons some of the reactions LENR, such as those mentioned, for example, in a review of STORMS [4] could be justified. To keep in mind an article of MILEY [5] on the possibilities offered by virtual neutrons.

The formation of a hydrogen miniatom  may also occur in other way, different from the U.P.,giving access all the same to A) and B) modes as well as to phases 2 or 3 of Tab.2. Below are a number of the proposals.
According to STREMMENOS [6] do not hydrogen atoms, but protons are spread in the defects of crystal structures, in particular Ni. Thanks to the positive charge they capture electrons to form unstable miniatoms  and would soon be absorbed by nuclei of Ni. Their size (<10^-14 m) allows a corresponding approach, to make up the predominant nuclear forces of cohesion.

The miniatom of MILLS [7] is called hydrino, and is expected by the Grand Unified Theory of Quantum Mechanics (CQM) developed by the author himself, who still denies a role of hydrino in cold fusion and LENR processes. The heat produced in its reactor would be due to hydrinos  formation. The technique to produce hydrinos involves the use of a catalyst (potassium or strontium ions) and monoatomic hydrogen.

DUFOUR [8] instead has developed the hydrex, that would be formed in solids permeated of hydrogen under the effect of intense electromagnetic fields. It would be accounted by the weak nuclear force and its half-life would be a few days. A recent evolution of the virtual neutron concept was named “hypole”.

HEFFNER [9] calls “deflated state of Hydrogen” the miniatom. He proposed that there would be “briefly but frequently”. It could  promote fusion process between two hydrogen nuclei, but also processes LENR between hydrogen and nuclei belonging to the solid. In the second case the interaction is weak, and it is rather infrequent, since the nucleus is unstable and its life is too short. But the rearrangement of the nucleus could give additional time the overall process.

WIDOM and LARSEN [10] presented a LENR theory  based on the capture of an “heavy” electron  by a proton. A neutron is generated of ultra low momentum “(ULM) and a neutrino. The ULM neutron is absorbed by a nucleus, resulting in a beta emitter.

Some of the cases here reported enable a  miniatom life much longer than that assessed with U.P. Consequently, the frequency of LENR reactions may be greater and be compatible with a heat played more abundant. In particular could justify, at least in part, the exothermal reactions observed in Ni-H systems by PIANTELLI [11] and, recently, by FOCARDI and ROSSI [12] with  theirs “Energy Catalizer”.

Even with deuterium, which can undergo the reaction

d + e = n + n + ν    (4)

one may consider the formation of miniatom (d, e) and subsequent conversion into a neutron (first virtual, then real) of the proton in initial deuteron. The production of a temporary dineutron corresponds to an hypothesis formulated by RUSSELL [13] several years ago.


[1] –  L. DADDI – J.N.P. (Nuclear Experiments Blog) – March 2010
[2] –  L.DADDI – Infinite Energy 47, 22 (2003) ; Proc.Workshop TESMI (Lecce 2002) page 1
[3] – E.CONTE – Proc.Workshop TESMI (Lecce 2002) page 50
[4] –  E.STORMS – Library LEN-CANR Org (2003)
[5]  – G.H.MILEY et al. – Proc. ICCF10 (2003)
[6] –  E.STREMMENOS – J.N.P. (Nuclear Experiments Blog) – January 2011
[7] –  R. L.MILLS – Infinite Energy 17 ,21 (1998) ; Fus.Technol. 28 , 1697 (1995)
[8] –  J.DUFOUR – Fus.Technol. 24, 205 (2003) ; J.N.P. (Nuclear Experiments Blog) – April 2010
[9] –  H.HEFFNER – J.N.P. (Nuclear Experiments Blog)- March 2010
[10] – A.WIDOM and L.LARSEN – Eur.Phys.J.C.DOI 10/1140/epje/S2006-02479-8
[11] – F.PIANTELLI et al. – Nuovo Cimento  107A,163 (1994)
[12] – S.FOCARDI and  A.ROSSI – J.N.P. (Nuclear Experiments Blog) – February 2010
[13] – J.L.RUSSEL-JR – Ann.Nucl.Energy – 18 /2-75 (1991)

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131 comments to From the orbital capture to some types of L.E.N.R. reactions

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herald Patterson,
    I egree with you. When I talk of “hot air” I don’t refer to our readers, but to that kind of critics that say our technology doesn’t work without haveng any idea how it works. This is hot air. The attention of People like you is extremely important.
    Warm regards,

  • Herald Patterson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Although I understand the extreme significance of opening the one megawatt plant, I disagree with the notion that anything else is tongue displaced hot air. Discussion of the E-Cat before the opening of the plant may not it open one day sooner, but I’ve read many words of excitement, wonder, joy, and even hope. The existence of the E-Cat is more than just a news story to many people around the world. It is a dream taken form, a ethereal apparition made corporeal, and a futuristic fantasy manifested into reality.

    What naysaying skeptics said was impossible, has been made absolute fact by your technology. For years, many had clung onto the idea a truly unlimited source of clean, abundant, and cheap energy could be obtained. Your technology provides such a wondrous potential! It has the ability to be utilized by mankind as a tool to change our world for the better. To be blunt, there is no aspect of modern civilization that will remain untouched by your technology.

    I firmly believe human beings could have cooperated long ago to make a world in which hunger, disease, poverty, and war were obsolete. However, we have used the technological advancements of the last century to find new ways to kill each other. I think your technology will make the world realize there is now NO EXCUSE, but to take advantage of the E-CAT to address these issues that plague humanity.

    Although hot air may be coming out of our mouths, the heat was produced by a warm and rapidly beating heart eager to see a future world utilizing your technology. We may be frustrating sometimes, and we may ask questions you cannot answer. But with a few exceptions, we talk, chat, and ponder your technology with the best of intentions.

    Please forgive us when we get too excited, and need to learn patience.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Wladimir Guglinsky:
    I think you got the core. What counts is to make working plants. All the rest id tongue-displaced-air.
    Warm regards,

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Owen Abrey wrote:

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Please put me on your email list. I would like to be kept up to date if possible!

    Dear Owen,
    soon you will be uptaded by the own media, because when the first 1MW plant start working in Greece, the media cannot keep hiding the fact from the people.

  • Stefano P.

    @Enrico Billi
    Italian wikipedia is under censorship about new scientific theories.
    See Jaques Benveniste or Kervran Effect (LENR) and note the difference with english version.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Enrico Billi:
    The Italian Wikipedia missed the core of the problem: we are not making theories and competing with chatters, we have based our patent and our reports exclusively upon working plants. Nobody else did this before, nobody else is doing this now.
    In October we will install in Greece our first 1 MW plant. This is what counts for me, all the rest is just plain chattering and everybody is free to write what he wants.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Wladimir Guglinski,
    I thank you for your appreciation, but “professor” has a precise meaning I do not merit: to be a professor you have to be a teacher in a University, which I never have been.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Owen Abrey,
    Just contact me in November.
    Warm regards,

  • Owen Abrey

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Please put me on your email list. I would like to be kept up to date if possible!

    Thank you,

    Owen Abrey

  • Enrico Billi

    Today 15 May 2011 i checked wikipedia. In the italian version of wikipedia, the e-CAT page (Catalizzatore di energia di Rossi e Focardi) have been deleted, but some informations have been moved to the “Fusione Nucleare Fredda” page. Instead, in the english version of w’pedia the page “Energy Catalyzer” is still there. If the informations are not valid for wikipedia, why move part in the “Fusione Nucleare Fredda” page and why don’t leave the page with that infos? Why english and italian wikipedia should have different content? Can we define this a censorship from italian w’pedia?
    I don’t expect a reply, but this seems a censorship from italian wikipedia, this makes the famous Jesus’s sentence true one more time : “Nemo propheta in patria”

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    A physicist told me that the title of Professor is the maximum title for a scientist.

    The academies give the titles Prof. and Dr. to many people, but the work of most of these people makes no contribution to the advancement of science.

    Your work will give an invaluable contribution to the advancement of science.
    The academies do not confer to you the title of Professor because they do not recognize your work.
    But the academies do not recognize even the own cold fusion …

    Certainly the title of Professor will be conferred to you by the Humanity.

  • Charles Jensen

    Mr. Wladimir Guglinski, thank you for that great information. That makes a lot of sense because there must be some combination of forces to prevent the atom from collapsing. I wish I was more knowledgeable about math and science to understand your work on this fully. There is something I want to make known though.. to you and anyone else capable of working on this science. This will sound crazy.. but I am aware of some inside information that makes me certain that the US government has had some form of gravity control technology since the end of WWII and from my research, and evidence that is coming to light more and more every day, I am completely convinced this technology originated from Viktor Schauberger and his Repulsine. I am also convinced Thomas Townsend Brown’s work reiterates and confirms at least some aspects of Schauberger’s work. The best books for learning more about this are The Hunt for Zero Point by Nick Cook, Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion by Paul LaViolette and books by Callum Coats on Schauberger’s science. Please be aware that Schauberger was a self taught scientist and had his own language of science. You have to convert his thoughts into concepts we are more familiar with. I would have never taken him seriously without having some clue that his work was legitimate. Now I see him as some kind of prophet. Please be aware though that there is a lot of information put out into the public that is intentionally spread to confuse and suppress this technology. Please research someone called Bob lazar. He was a scientist who came into the public spotlight later in the same year that Pons and Fleischmann discovered cold fusion. Bob Lazar’s close friend was a person named John Lear.. whose father founded Lear Jet and was promoting antigravity research heavily in the 50s. To me it seems very obvious why the US government has not publicly pursued cold fusion research to a higher degree – they have been aware of it for a long long time.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Carl Stephen High:
    I can assure you that we are working together for the development of this technology also with traditional energy suppliers. I am sure that we will work together, very peacefully and ready to fight if necessary.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Wladimir Guglinski:
    Both articles will be published together.
    Warm regards,
    p.s. Please, as I said, I am not professor.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Wladimir Guglinski:
    Warm regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Mr. Charles Jensen asked to Prof. Andrea Rossi:

    “My questions: have you considered that this nuclear reaction could be induced by an undetectable form of gravity control in you system? “

    Dear Charles,
    there is in general a belief that gravity cannot contribute for cold fusion occurrence, because gravity is 10^40 times weaker than electromagnetism.

    However, in my paper submitted to the Journal of Nuclear Physics it’s shown that gravity actually has the SAME MAGNITUDE of the electromagnetism.
    And I show in my paper some evidences which reinforce such hypothesis.

    The physicists did not discover that gravity has the same magnitude of the electromagnetism because they did not consider the repulsive gravity in the current theories.

    Therefore gravity is able to help the cold fusion occurrence.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Prof. Andrea Rossi wrote:
    p.s. We receoived a good paper from Wladimir Guglinski which has been approved after the peer reviewing. It will be published in June on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics.

    Dear Prof Rossi,
    I have submitted two papers:

    1- How repulsive gravity contributes for
    cold fusion occurrence in Rossi-Focardi experiment

    2- Anomalous mass of the neutron

    Which one do you want to publish in June?

    The paper on the anomalous mass of the neutron was already published in my book Quantum Ring Theory.

    So I think the most interesting would be to publish the paper How repulsive gravity contributes for
    cold fusion occurrence in Rossi-Focardi experiment

    What do you think?

  • Carl Stephen High

    Dear Ing. Rossi:

    I think I might be your biggest proponent from the beautiful state of West Virginia USA. I woke up this morning in a cold sweat with the folowing scenario. In the near future a critical point will arrive when the big energy companies realize that your invention is about to have a catastrophic effect on their business.Who would ever wish to buy coal again? Eliminating you would make you a martyr and set in motion your backup plan and very likely an enormous interest from the world media. It would be easier for them to offer you and your colleagues several billions to take your invention where our beleaguered planet would never see it again.Given the power of money to get its way this is the most likely scenario. You could choose to vanish in a haze of unimaginable wealth and our endangered human race would be without the gift of your marvelous technology. Or you could stay the course (probably earn your billions anyway and God bless you for that) and your name would take its place in the pantheon of human giants. From what I have seen of your character my gut tells me you will do the latter. You could literally save the lives of billions of human beings, and I think Peace on Earth would be within our grasp. Are you able to allay my fears and tell me I am right?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Charles Jensen:
    I am not familiar with possible interactions between this process and gravity, although I do not think there can be connections. But I am always curious and never biased, so I want to take a look to the Authors you mentioned.
    Warm regards,

  • Charles Jensen

    I also wanted to add that the invention Schauberger made that I feel was close to your work was called the Repulsine. It was made with various types of metal – Steel, copper and silver, water and possibly a catalyst. These machines were also electrostatic generators. But he had a difficult time reproducing his results. This may have been due to different materials used without him being aware of it.

  • Charles Jensen

    Mr. Rossi

    Congratulations and thank you for the work you are doing and your courage. I have a question but I am a layman so my apologies if I am completely wrong in my thinking here. My questions: have you considered that this nuclear reaction could be induced by an undetectable form of gravity control in you system? Are you familiar with a scientist Viktor Schauberger or to a lesser extent Thomas Townsend Brown? In studying Viktor Schauberger’s work I feel I see a connection between both of your processes. Please see books by Callum Coats on Schauberger’s work for more information.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Gilbert Schmidt:
    1- yes
    2- confidential
    3- yes
    Warm regards,

  • Gilbert Schmidt

    Starting last week, I have finally finished reading through the thousands of comments.
    I am surprised that no one asked about what appeared to me, to obviously be a safety valve, on some of the reactors, to reduce the hydrogen pressure fast, to stop a run away reation.

    Since no one has asked about this, and so as not to give ideas to people who want to build one themselves,
    If you think it is better to not post this question, then please do no post this.

    1 Is it a safety valve ?
    2 If so, what pressure is it set at ?
    3 do you have a safety valve on the smallest reactors you are now using ?

    Gilbert Schmidt .

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Fabian Schifter:
    You can write to this blog, I read it more times a day.
    Warm regards,

  • Fabian Schifter

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Thank you for your quick reply.
    Could you send me your e-mail address so I contact you in November?

    Sincerely, Fabian Schifter

  • Enrico Billi

    Using supercomputer lattice simulations and a theoretical framework known as effective field theory, the Hoyle state postulated in 1954 to explain the abundances of C12 have been found. This bound state allow the fusion of three helium nuclei in one C12 nucleus.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Fabian Schifter:
    For commercial issues, please contact us in November, after the start up of our first 1 MW plant in Greece.
    Warm regards,

  • Fabian Schifter

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    When do they expect the first acquirable E-Cat’s, and in what price category will integrate it in?
    I have great interest in the acquisition of such equipment.

    Sincerely, Fabian Schifter

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Enrico Billi:
    I am really sorry for this: I love Wikipedia, and I use it as a very precious tool for my job.
    Warm regards,

  • Jeff Sutton

    Re Lino Daddi – “The catalysts are used by designers, in my opinion, to facilitate the dissociation of molecular H2”

    Any thoughts regarding using Ni-doped Mg surfaces as per

  • Enrico Billi

    If i can say a personal thought,… i know new ideas and new inventions usually are not accepted very easily… but when i saw that the page about the e-CAT on wikipedia could be deleted by a specific request i was a little bit shocked:

  • Lino Daddi

    Appendix : NUCLEAR AND THERMAL EFFECTS IN REACTOR Ni-H (of Focardi and Rossi)
         The stable isotopes of Ni are 58 (for 67.8%) and 60 (for 26.7%). Much less abundant the 61, 62 and 64.    So when a nucleus of Ni captures the entire miniatom of hydrogen, being this event equivalent to the capture (n, γ) of a thermic neutron, very often a stable nucleus of Ni is produced. Apart from the 59Ni which, having half-life of almost 105 years, can be considered stable (and anyway is radioactive by K capture).
    When nuclei of Ni absorb only the proton of miniatom, without capturing electrons from their shells K, one has, as a result, isotopes of copper. Of these 63Cu and 65Cu are stable.
       In order to release the thermal energy, the most significant event could be the electron capture (from the K orbital) by copper nuclei excited after the absorption of a single proton of miniatom. This is not a beta radioactivity, but follows immediately the reaction of absorption of the proton.The electron capture leaves a gap in the K shell, by which a subsequent cascade of atomic electrons is produced from outer shells to fill it with emission of not too energetic photons. It can also occur expulsion of one of the outermost electrons (Auger effect).  
    On the whole the reactor FR emits little gamma radiation and practically don’t produces radioactive waste.
       The catalysts are used by designers, in my opinion, to facilitate the dissociation of molecular H2
    and the formation of miniatoms.

  • To Wladimir Guglinski. Indeed, you are making a great point. Thanks for sharing your experiences. Regards.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    In my post, the correct is:

    In 2001 I sued in court two Brazilian universities, trying to oblige them to repeat the Don Borghi experiment in their laboratories.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    The fried Claudio wrote:

    But, follow my advice, give as soon as possible an E-Cat to the Sveden university to make some indipendent tests. Before the “mud machine” starts.

    Claudio actually is a very ingenuous friend.

    Because academic physicists for decades instilled in people the belief that any experiment is confirmed only when it is repeated at a university, which confirms its results.

    Actually academic physicists hate new experiments that contradict current theories, and do everything to prevent such experiments be repeated in universities.

    The Don Borghi experiment was published by the American Institute of Physics: (Phys. Acts Nucl.), vol 56, No 7, 1993.
    The experiment proves to occur a cold fusion between proton and electron, forming a neutron.

    Ruggero Maria Santillli tried to repeat the Don Borghi experiment in universities worldwide for decades. All universities have refused to repeat the experiment.

    In 2001 I processed two Brazilian universities, trying to oblige them to repeat the Don Borghi experiment in their laboratories.
    HOwever, even with a lawsuit, the two universities refused to repeated the experiment.

    Reactor E-Cat does not need confirmation of universities.
    It’s already being marketed.
    If sales are successful, Andrea Rossi reactor will not need confirmation from any university to ensure that E-Cat really works.

  • giovanni guerrini

    Il suo aneddoto descrive un fenomeno su cui ho riflettuto spesso.Quando qualcuno presenta una idea radicale generalmente questa tende a scardinare concetti ritenuti al momento come scontati.Sembra quasi che nelle persone “meno aperte alle novità”l’inconscio prenda atto della veridicità della nuova idea, generando una resistenza a livello conscio che sfocia degli eccessi della derisione o rabbia.Forse l’inconscio è più vicino alla realtà,mentre lo stato cosciente è più portato a credere ciò che ritiene conveniente al personale,più schiavo del propio ego.Come la parte più profonda di noi attinga ad informazioni più vere non lo so,potremmo ipotizzare che sia in grado di integrare informazioni in modo più complesso,o che abbia accesso ad un ipotetico “mondo delle idee”,agli archetipi divini del progetto dell’universo,o che esista un inconscio collettivo capace di elaborare come un supercomputer..fantapsicologia.Cosa invece generi la resistenza conscia credo di intuirlo,sembra una sorta di pigrizia mentale,il cercare di evitare il dolore e lo sforzo del dover ricominciare da un piano nuovo concettualmente, dopo aver dovuto demolire ciò che era stato costruito faticosamente e su cui oramai si reggevano privilegi intellettuali e materiali.Questo dalle mie parti ha un nome,ma qui preferisco evitare.
    Quindi direi che di fronte agli accanimenti che leggo qua e là verso il lavoro dell’Ing Rossi,non posso far altro che pensare che siano conferme della validità e realtà di questa invenzione.
    Scusate la divagazione.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Billi:
    Thank you, and always…lavolale!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Sig. Fabrizio,
    Ha ragione.
    Grazie, comunque,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Victor:
    For now we serve business.
    Warm regards,


    An brief interview with Professor Emeritus Sergio Focardi. (in Italian with English subtitles.)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Dr Chini:
    Mi aiuta ad organizzare l’assistenza ai bambini malati di cancro?
    Ha letto i miei precedenti commenti su questo issue?
    Cari Saluti,

  • Francesco Chini

    Salve dottor Rossi.

    Volevo comunicarLe un divertente aneddoto che potrebbe essere attinente al suo caso.

    Anni fa seguivo un convegno di anatomia patologica e come relatore c’era un anatomopatologo il quale aveva fatto una scoperta importante, non dico da premio Nobel ma in ogni caso di un certo rilievo.

    Sicché egli iniziò a relazionarci su come aveva fatto a giungere a questa sua scoperta e la prima cosa che disse fu:

    ”quando la proposi risero: “ma che stupidaggine!”, “ma che idiozia”, “ma quali corbellerie”… Invece, dopo che la scoperta si rivelò efficace, ecco che le cose cambiarono e iniziarono a dire: “ma era stata scoperta da questo qui già cento anni fa!”, “ma l’aveva scoperto quello lì già cinquant’anni fa!”, “ma l’aveva scoperto quell’altro là già venti anni fa!”… Insomma: venne fuori che prima di me la medesima scoperta l’avevano già fatta in almeno altri cento!!!”

    Quindi si prepari per ciò che Lei potrebbe attendersi un domani!

    In bocca al lupo per tutto.

    Francesco Chini

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi, thanks for your kind answers.
    I’ll look into a purchase for my home.
    Hope you’ll change your mind about Italy.
    Sincerely, Gherardo

  • Viktor

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    How easy could one operate the units eg. at home? Does it require some special maintenance or could the house owners operate it alone, without any external services (apart from the fuel of course)?
    Do you actually intend to sell these units on the general market, or only to businesses?
    Thank you.


  • Fabrizio P.

    … “we will not work in Italy for the next years”
    Non è un problema di nazionalità, ovunque troverà estimatori e detrattori..
    Noto però con piacere che molti Italiani, me compreso, la seguono, credono nel suo lavoro e le manifestano il loro appoggio morale.
    Non appena il mercato le riconoscerà i meriti fin qui messi in dubbio di certo anche i detrattori faranno a gara per salire sul carro del vincitore..
    Avanti così Rossi, siamo in molti a crederci!!

  • Enrico Billi

    Dear Ing. Andrea Rossi,
    I saw the RAI program about you and the e-CAT, i just want to tell that every new idea or invention is always not accepted at the first sight. As Arthur C. Clarke said: “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic”. This is not a “Mr. Rossi’s Magic” because you are not an illusionist, but “Eng. Rossi’s Advanced Technology”.
    In any way, history have a lot of examples about this behaviour and a good book that describe them is “A Short History of Nearly Everything” written by Bill Bryson.
    When your systems will start to work in Greece and USA, all the rumors will vanish, so continue to “lavolaLe lavolaLe”.
    Best Regards

  • A. Findlay

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I’ve been following your progress since January and I’m impressed – it really does look like you’ve cracked the LENR puzzle!

    I have a few questions that I hope you don’t mind answering:

    1) Does your theory explain the missing nuclear reaction signatures (gammas, neutrons etc)? This being what conventional nuclear physics cannot tolerate about LENR.

    2) Have you considered testing for any gamma ray shielding that an e-cat affords to an external source? A gamma ray shadow-gram of an operating e-cat compared to that of a quiescent e-cat might be interesting. I am, of course, thinking of the claims for this effect in Widom & Larsen’s recent patent.

    3) There have been several claims that LENR devices can ‘clean’ nuclear waste products and recover energy in the process. Can you see a mechanism for this to be achievable with a modified e-cat?

    4) Where can I place an order for one? 😉

    Thanks for your time, I wish you every success!

    Andy Findlay.

  • Chris Johnson

    Eng. Rossi,

    Do you think that it will be difficult to mass produce the E-Cat or the fuel?

    How many re-fueling facilities do you think it will require to support the growing number of E-Cats, once they are on the market?

    Best Regards,

    Chris Johnson

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claudio:
    we will make further research with Uppsala University and Bologna University, for R&D. The mud doesn’t worry me, we will start the delivery of our plants this year and the market will be the sole judge. About the Italian bullshit, no problem: we will not work in Italy for the next years.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gherardo:
    1- I will not work in Italy, at least for the first 10 years
    2- a recharge every 6 months is necessary, is less frequent than usual technologies and very cheap.
    3- possibly
    4- yes
    5- is the same price of standard technologies, but with a fuel price reduced by orders of magnitude
    6- within the year
    Warm Regards,

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