A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

By prof. Christos Stremmenos

After several years of apparent inaction, the theme of cold fusion has been recently revitalized thanks to, among others, the work and the scientific publications of Focardi and Rossi, which has been conducted in silence, amidst ironical disinterest, without any funding or support.  In fact, recently, practical and reliable results have been achieved based on a very promising apparatus invented by Andrea Rossi.  Therefore I want to examine the possibility of further development of this technology, which I deem really important for our planet.

I will start with patent no./2009/125444, registered by Dr. Ing. Andrea Rossi. This invention and its performance have been tested and verified in collaboration with Prof. Sergio Focardi, as reported in their paper, published in February 2010 in the Journal of Nuclear Physics [1]. In that scientific paper they have reported on the performance of an apparatus, which has produced for two years substantial amounts of energy in a reliable and repeatable mode and they have also offered a theoretical analysis for the interpretation of the underlying physical mechanism.

In the history of Science, it is not the first time that a practical and reliable apparatus is working before its theoretical foundation has been completely understood! The photoelectric effect is the classic example in which the application has anticipated its full theoretical interpretation, developed by Einstein. Afterwards Einstein, Plank, Heisenberg, De Broglie, Schrödinger and others formulated the principles of Quantum Mechanics.  For the interactive Nickel/Hydrogen system it would be now opportune to compile, in a way easily understood by the non expert the relevant principles and concepts for the qualitative understanding of the phenomenon. Starting with the behavior of electrically charged particles in vacuum, it is known that particles with opposite electric charge attract themselves and “fuse” producing an electrically neutral particle, even though this does not always happen, as for instance in the case of a hydrogen atom, where a proton and a electron although attract each other they do not “fuse”, for reasons that will be explained later.   On the contrary, particles charged with electric charge of the same sign always repel each other, and their repulsion tends to infinity when their distance tends to zero, which implies that in this case fusion is not possible (classical physics).

On the contrary, according to Quantum mechanics, for a system with a great number of  particles of the same electric charge (polarity) it is possible that a few of them will fuse, as for instance, according to Focardi-Rossi, in the case of  Nickel nuclei in crystal structure and hydrogen nuclei (protons) diffused within it, Although of the same polarity,  a very small percentage of these nuclei manage to come so close to each other, at a distance of 10-14 m, where strong nuclear forces emerge and take over the Coulomb forces  and thus form the nucleus of a new element, either stable or unstable.

This mechanism, which is possible only in the atomic microcosm, is predictable by a quantum-mechanics model of a particle put in a closed box.  According to classical physics no one would expect to find a particle out of the box, but in quantum mechanics the probability of a particle to be found out of the box is not zero! This is the so called “tunneling effect”, which for systems with a very large number of particles, predicts that a small percentage of them lie outside the box, having penetrated the “impenetrable” walls and any other present barrier through the “tunnel”! In our case, the barrier is nothing else but the electrostatic repulsion, to which the couples of hydrogen and nickel nuclei (of the same polarity) are subjected and is called Coulomb barrier.

Diffusion mechanism of hydrogen in nickel: Nickel as a catalyst first decomposes the biatomic molecules of hydrogen to hydrogen atoms in contact with the nickel surface. Then these hydrogen atoms deposit their electrons to the conductivity band of the metal (Fermi band) and due to their greatly reduced volume, compared to that of their atom, the hydrogen nuclei readily diffuse into the crystalline structure of the nickel, including its defects. At this point, in order to understand the phenomenon it is necessary to briefly describe the structure both of the nickel atom and the nickel crystal lattice.

It is well known that the nickel atom is not so simple as the hydrogen atom, as its nucleus consists of dozens of protons and neutrons, thus it is much heavier and exerts a proportionally higher electrostatic repulsion than the nucleus of hydrogen, which consists of only one proton. In this case, the electrons, numerically equal to the protons, are ordered in various energy levels and cannot be easily removed from the atom to which they belong. Exception to this rule is the case of electrons of the chemical bonds, which along with the electrons of the hydrogen atoms form the metal conductivity band (electronic cloud), which moves quasi freely throughout the metal mass.

As in all transition metals, the nickel atoms in the solid state, and more specifically their nuclei, are located at the vertices and at the centre of the six faces of the cubic cell of the metal, leaving a free internal octahedral space within the cell, which, on account of the quasi negligible volume of the nuclei, is practically filled with electrons of the nickel atoms, as well as with conductivity electrons.

It would be really interesting to know the electrons’ specific density (number of electrons per unit volume) and its spatial distribution inside this octahedral space of the crystal lattice as a function of temperature.

Dynamics of the lattice vibration states
Another important aspect to take into consideration in this system is the dynamics of the lattice vibration states, in other words, the periodic three dimensional normal oscillations of the crystal lattice (phonons) of the nickel, which hosts hydrogen nuclei or nuclei of hydrogen isotopes (deuterium or tritium) that have entered into the above mentioned free space of the crystal cell.

It could be argued that the electrons’ specific density and its spatial distribution in the internal space of the crystal structure should be coherent with the natural frequencies of the lattice oscillations. This means that the periodicity of the electronic cloud within the octahedral space of the elementary crystal cell of Nickel generates an oscillating strengthening of shielding of the diffused nuclei of hydrogen or deuterium which also populate this space.

I believe that these considerations can form the basis for a qualitative analysis of this “NEW SOURCE OF ENERGY” and the phenomenology related to cold fusion, including energy production in much smaller quantities and various reaction products.

Shielding of protons by electrons
In the Focardi-Rossi paper the shielding of protons provided by electrons is suspected to be one of the main reasons of the effect, helping the capture of protons by the Ni nucleus, therefore  generating energy by fusion of protons in Nickel and a series of exothermic nuclear reactions, leaving as by-product isotopes different from the original Ni (transmutations). Such shielding is one of the elements contributing to the energetic efficiency of the system.  From this derives the opportunity, I think, to focus upon this shielding, both to increase its efficiency and to verify the hypothesis contained in the paper of Focardi-Rossi.  Of course, what we are talking of here is a theoretical verification, because the practical verification is made by monitoring the performance of the apparatus invented and patented by Andrea Rossi, presently under rigorous verification by many independent university researchers.

In my opinion, the characteristics of the shielding of the proton from the electrons should be defined, as well as the “radiometric” behavior of the system.

In other words, the following two questions should be answered:

  1. Which is the supposed mechanism that overcomes the powerful electrostatic repulse (Coulomb barrier) between the “shielded proton” and the Nickel nucleus?
  2. For what reason there is almost no radiation of any kind (experimental observation), while according to the Focardi and Rossi’s hypothesis there should have been some γ radiation (511 KeV) produced by the predicted annihilation of the β+ and β- particles that are being created during the Fusion?

I believe that some thoughts based on general and elementary structures, data and principles of universal scientific acceptance, might shed some light to this exciting phenomenon.  More specific, I refer to Bohr’s hydrogen atom, the speed of nuclear reactions (10-20 sec) and the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg.

I will take Bohr’s hydrogen atom as a starting point (figure 1a), which stays at its fundamental state forever in the absence of external perturbations, due to De Broglie’s wave, accompanying the sole electron.

As stated before, in contact with the metal, these atoms lose their fundamental state, as their electrons are being transmitted to the conductivity band.  These electrons, together with the “naked nuclei” of hydrogen (protons), form a freely moving cloud of charges (plasma at a degenerate state) inside the crystalline lattice. That cloud is being defused through the surface to the polycrystallic mass of the metal, covering empty spaces of the non-canonical structure of the crystalline lattice, as well as the tetrahedral and octahedral spaces between the molecules. As a consequence, the crystalline structure is covered by “delocalized plasma” (degenerate state), which is consisted by protons, electrons produced by the “absorbed atoms” of hydrogen, as well as by the electrons of the chemical valence of Nickel of the lattice, at different energy states (Fermi’s band). (Fig. 2)


In this system, if one considers the probability of the creation inside the crystalline lattice of temporary (not at the fundamental state) “pseudo-atoms” of hydrogen with neutral charge, for example at a time of the order of 10ˆ-17 sec, then that possibility is not completely ill-founded. (Fig 1b)


According to the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg, the temporary atoms of hydrogen will cover during that small time interval Δt, a wide range of energies ΔΕ, which means also a wide range of atomic diameters of temporary atoms, satisfying the De Broglie’s condition.  A percentage of them (at fist a very small one) might have diameters smaller than 10ˆ-14 m, which is the maximum active radius of nuclear reactions. In that case, the chargeless temporary atoms, or mini-atoms, of hydrogen together with high energy but short lived electrons, are being statistically trapped by the Nickel nuclei at a time of 10ˆ-20 sec. In other words, the high speed of nuclear reactions permits the fusion of short lived but neutral mini-atoms of hydrogen with the Nickel nuclei of the crystalline lattice, as during that short time interval the Coulomb barrier (of the specific hydrogen mini-atom) does not exist.

Afterwards, it follows a procedure similar to the one described by Focardi and Rossi, but instead of considering the capture of a shielded proton by the Ni58 nucleus, we adopt the hypothesis of trapping a neutral temporary atom, or a mini atom, of hydrogen (with a diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m) which transforms the Ni58 nucleus into Cu59 (copper/59, short lived isotope*).

It follows the predicted “β decay” of the nuclei of the short lived isotope of copper, accompanied by the emission of β+ (positrons) and β- (perhaps the electrons of the mini atoms trapped inside that nucleus during the fusion). These particles are being annihilated with an emission of γ radiation (two photons of γ of energy 511 KeV each, for every couple of β+ and β-).

In other words, whoever has experimented with this system should have suffered the not-so-harmless influence of those radiations, but that never happened.  The radioactivity measured at the experiments is almost zero and easily shielded.

In any case, a rigorous, in my opinion, theoretical approach for the interpretation of that phenomenon with quantum mechanical terms, would give clear quantitative answers to the above stated models. With my Colleges of theoretical chemistry, we are already planning to face the problem using the time-depended quantum mechanical perturbation theory, bearing in mind the following:

  1. The total wave function (of the nucleus and the electrons) of temporarily, non-stable states.
  2. The total time-depended Hamiltonian, for temporarily states.
  3. Searching for the resonance conditions at that system.

Such an approach had a successful outcome at a similar problem of theoretical chemistry and we hope that it will be valid in this case as well.

Let’s go back to the intuitive, with ideal models, approach, in order to give a qualitative explanation for the (almost) absent radiations of the system, by using:

  • First of all the Boltzmann’s distribution (especially at the asymptotic area of high energies).
  • The photoelectric effect
  • The Compton effect
  • The Mössbauer effect

We have already mentioned that from the temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, the ones with diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m, have a larger probability of fusion. But, in order for them to be created, high energy bond electrons should exist at the “delocalized plasma” of the crystalline lattice.

1. Boltzmann’s statistics:
There are reasons to believe that the H/Ni system, at first at temperatures of about 400-500oC, contains a very small percentage of electrons in the “delocalized plasma” with enough energy to create (together with the diffused protons), according to the wave-particle duality principle, the first temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, that will trigger the fusion with the nickel nuclei and the production of high energy γ photons (511 KeV).

2. Photoelectric Effect:
It is not possible, the HUGE amount of energy (in kW/h), that the Rossi/Focardi reactor produces, as measured by unrelated scientists in repeated demonstrations (at one of them by the writer and his colleagues, Fig 3), to be created due to the thermalization of the insignificant number of  γ photons at the beginning of the reaction.


I believe that, as stated above, these photons are the trigger of fusion at a multiplicative series, based on the photoelectric effect inside the crystalline structure.

The two γ photons can export symmetrically (180°) two electrons from the nearest Nickel atoms. The stimulation, due to the high energy of γ, concerns electrons of internal bands of two different atoms of the lattice and has as a prerequisite the absorption of all the energy of the photon.  A small part of that energy is being consumed for the export of the electron from the atom and the rest is being transformed into kinetic energy of the electron (thermal energy).

The result of that procedure is to enrich the “delocalized plasma” with high energy electrons that will contribute multiplicatively (by a factor of two) at the progress of the cold fusion nuclear reactions of hydrogen and nickel and at the same time transform the hazardous γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

3. The Compton Scattering:
It gives the additional possibility of multiplication, this time due to secondary photons γ, in a wide range of frequencies, as a function of the angular deviation from the direction of the initial photon of 511 keV. That has as a result the increase of the export of electrons, due to the photoelectric phenomenon at the crystalline mass, in many energy/kinetic levels, which gives an additional possibility of converting the γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

4. The Mössbauer effect:
It gives another possible way of absorbing the γ radiation and transforming it into thermal energy. It is based on the principle of conservation of momentum at the regression of the new Cu59 nucleus/ from the emission of a γ photon. Relative calculations (Dufour) showed that this mechanism has an insignificant (1%) contribution.

It follows that, according to given data, the Photoelectric phenomenon and the Compton Effect, could explain the absence of radiations in the Focardi-Rossi system, which, from the amount of producing energy versus the consumption of Ni and H2, as well as from the experimental observation of element transformations,  lead undoubtedly to the acceptance of hydrogen cold fusion.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The author wishes to acknowledge Aris Chatzichristos for the contribution in formulating this paper in English

(1)www. journal-of-nuclear-physics.com /Focardi Rossi/  (A new energy source from nuclear fusion)

* I believe that the phasmatometric tracing of copper is the most definitive sign of nuclear fusion: From the relative bibliography (HANDBOOK OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 66TH edition), it follows that the stable non radioactive isotopes of nickel are the following five:

58, 60, 61, 62 and 64. These, when fused with a hydrogen nucleus, are being transmuted relatively to Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-63 and Cu-65. From these isotopes of copper only the last two (Cu-63 and Cu-65) are not radioactive, i.e. they are stable. The other three Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, are being transmuted again to Nickel, with an average life expectancy of some hours and the most unstable Cu-59 in 18 seconds.

By prof. Christos Stremmenos

850 comments to A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Casey:
    I cannot give this information.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    So far we are in schedule.
    I have not a chrystal ball, so I cannot know unforeseeable events, but for what concerns our work, it’s on scheduled time. If some unforeseeable event will delay the delivery I do not think there will be any major problem, but a delay. No sign of this, anyway, so far.
    Warm Regards,

  • Martin

    Dear mr Rossi,

    This afternoon i adressed a question about which consequences
    there will be if the 1 mw power plant is (serious)delayed.
    I didn’t see that message anymore maybee it is lost by an error.
    Is it possible to answer this question.

    Thanks en best regards


  • Casey

    Can you please clarify on why you use enriched Ni62&64?

    I had asked earlier if you increase the amount of Ni62&64 to slow down the amount of energy released by lowering the amount of unstable Cu isotopes, and I had thought you agreed with that statement. I had assumed that unstable Cu isotope production is a major source of instability.

    When Herald Patterson asked for clarification you stated that without enrichment the reaction would be weaker.

    Does the catalyst simply work better with Ni62&64? I would expect creating unstable Cu isotopes would result in a stronger energy reaction, but potentially unstable and perhaps undesirable.

  • Herald Patterson

    Hello Mr. Rossi,

    Have you done any tests to determine if the fusion reactions in your reactor produce electromagnetic pulses? If so, do you think you could wrap a pick up coil around the reactor vessel (the reactor vessel would need to be non-magnetic so it would not block the EMP pulses), and collect the EMPs as electricity?



  • martin

    Dear mr Rossi,

    I think it is very important that the delivery of the first plant of 1 mw power
    is conform schedule (and also delivers the expected energy) . This could be a very strong signal to all criticasters. But just in case of…. What are the consequences when the plant is being (serious) delayed?

    Best regards


  • kgb27r

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I am keeping my fingers crossed, for the october event.

    I am sure that all the hard work of your team and you,

    will change our lifes.

    The Fukushima incident, for me is a sign that things are changing ,

    The time has come for paradigm shift.

    May I send this link that might be of some interest for you:http://www.enerzine.com/603/12314+panasonic-developpe-des-tubes-thermoelectriques-innovants+.html.

    Toussaint françois

  • Ivan

    Dear Dr Rossi:
    Your invention is the best thing I have hear of since the invention of fire. I wonder how you will prevent your discovery not to be lost for human race in case you die, or some one kills you or some conpiracy tries to stop your device to came reality.
    I belive you deserve the nobel price, and your name to be said with losts of respect and admiration. but please no not risk your discovery to be lost.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Santorsola:
    Please contact us in November for any commercial issues.
    Warm Regards,

  • carlo santorsola

    Vorrei diventare rivenditore del prodotto e-cat come posso fare e con chi posso parlare ?

    Distinti Saluti
    Carlo Santorsola

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Casey:
    I did have an idea about the sort of catalyzer could be idoneous, eventually I made different trials.
    A lot of them. As Edison said: 105 intuition, 90% perspiration are the founations of an invention.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nkepile Mabuse:
    Wise attitude!
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Eernie:
    Good Thought.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herald Patterson:
    Warm Regards,

  • Herald Patterson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    You stated that the following statement from Casey was correct.

    “Is the reason that you alter the Nickel isotope ratio to regulate the reaction and prevent the decay of too many unstable Cu isotopes further adding to the output?”

    Does this mean without enrichment, the reaction would be stronger or weaker?

    Thank you for your time.


  • eernie1

    Dear Maryyugo;
    If I wanted to separate the Nickel isotopes,I would grind the metal down to the smallest cluster of atoms possible. Then utalizing the magnetic property of the Nickel,I would impose a pulsating magnetic field on a quantity of material and wait for the clusters containing the lighter isotopes to move away from the heavier.Like an electrophoresis strip after a time there should be a concentration of isotopes by weight that can be harvested. Just a thought.

  • Nkepile Mabuse

    Hello Dr Rossi,

    I can’t wait to see how this saga will unfold in October when the plant in Greece is to be built, should be fun. I’ll keep an eye on your Atomic Blog.


  • Casey

    Did you first stumble upon your catalyst by chance or did you first have an idea what an ideal catalyst would be for your reaction?

    No one thinks any less of Alexander Fleming for discovering penicillin by accident, nor the many other accidental scientific discoveries. I think everyone knows how many times it took Thomas Edison to find a good “catalyst” for a light-bulb.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brugia:
    1- About 15 years
    2- That I was going into an ocean of troubles and an enormous amount of work. I was right.
    3- Energy at very low price: better quality of life; maybe less wars, more time for Culture.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Casey:
    Your considerations are correct.
    Warm Regards,

  • Casey

    Is the reason that you alter the Nickel isotope ratio to regulate the reaction and prevent the decay of too many unstable Cu isotopes further adding to the output?

    I’m sure your proprietary separation method is economical. Ni must be easier to separate than uranium, and even at $1,000 a kilo that’s only $1 a gram.

  • Brugia

    Congratulations Mr. ROSSI,
    3 questions from an Italian supporter:
    How many years of study it took to get the first working prototype of E-Cat?
    what was your first thought when you realized it was working
    what could be the more beautiful consequence of your invention for mankind?
    However I think there is a Nobel Prize waiting for you ..

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.
    Yes, with the support of a generator for the start of every cycle.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fabiano:
    I will not attend any conference, nor make any interview until the start up of our 1 MW plant in October ( 4th week).
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Staffan:
    Of course he will join me when the work I have to do there will demand it.
    Warm Regards,

  • […] were performed prior to contracts signature. An early result from our testing has been published in http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=497 by prof Christos Stremmenos (graph with date stamp) Thank […]

  • Staffan

    Dear Mr. Rossi
    Will Focardi be joining you when you visit Sweden?

  • Dear Mr Rossi,
    I’m reading enthusiastically all the blogs and the news about the LENR and as indipendent small company we decide to sponsor and organize the first conference (I think) in Tuscany (Viareggio) about the e-cat and the progress in the field.
    I’m sorry I’m writing you int this blog but I didn’t know how to contact you. I think someone of the staff already contacted you if it will be possible to have a skype connection. The event will be the 23rd of july from 16.30 to 19.30.
    thank you very much

  • Pietro F.

    Buongiorno sig. Rossi,
    é immaginabile in un prossimo futuro (se “si” quando) la commercializzazione di un ecat a circuito di raffreddamento chiuso e senza apporto esterno di elettricità per l’attivazione/disattivazione e controllo, da utilizzare ad esempio in situazioni estreme come ad esempio in mezzo al deserto?

    La ringrazio e buon lavoro.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Maryyugo:
    1- No, the method is confidential
    2- Of course.
    Warm Regards,

  • maryyugo

    Dear Mr. Rossi:

    You said you are able to enrich isotopes of zinc economically. Can you say something about the method — just generically without revealing secrets?

    It was previously my understanding that separation of isotopes of any element is a very difficult and demanding process– for example the separation of uranium isotopes for use in power stations and bombs requires either huge gas diffusion plants costing billions of dollars or very complicated and again huge collections of very fast centrifuges.

    How do you separate isotopes of zinc without those difficulties?



  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luiz Carlos:
    Thank you, thank you very much for your kind encouragement. I think you are right.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Xanthi:
    I am pretty sure we will meet in Xanthi soon: and I suggest to everybody in the world to visit the wonderful Greece.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Zimmerman:
    Defkalion is a Customer of us, they will do of the 1 MW plant what they will prefer, it will not be our decision.
    What we know is that they will use the plant for their needs and to supply energy to adjacent utilizers, but it is better you ask directly to them.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Eng. Philip Newell:
    Thank you very much, really interesting.
    Contact me in November to visit our 1 MW plant.
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Ing. Rossi,

    Have you ever thought of using Demron for your radiation shielding. Demron is a fabric with radiation shielding similar to lead except it is very light weight and flexible. With a very high electron density it could keep the radiation under control and remove a very toxic material from the e-cat, see attached link.

    Best Regards

    Eng. Newell

  • Charlie Zimmerman

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    These are very exciting times. In many ways, the future of our world is being decided in your labs and enterprises. The 1MW power plant will be a momentous achievement that cannot be denied.

    I am confused by the Defkalion Green Technologies white paper. In it they talk about having a 1 MW plant installed at their factory to provide partial heating and to be a showcase. Is this the same 1 MW plant that you speak about installing at a customer factory, or will there be two 1 MW plants installed in October, one at Defkalion and one at another customer?

    “The 1 MW Hyperion will be inaugurated in Q4 of 2011 with its production phase to commence in Q1 of 2012. This first 1MW reactor will be the first large scale unit based on multiples of the smaller Hyperion models in array. It will be used to partially supply the energy needs of the factory. It will also be used as a showcase unit.”

    Also, if you might, the white paper says that “A third factory, belonging to Praxen Defkalion Green Technologies (Global) Ltd., will operate as the producer of the industrial secret in the products’ kernel.” Is Praxen a separate entity with different ownership designed to protect the secret of your powder? Do you have ownership in Praxen Defkalion GT? It seems like this ownership would be vital to protecting your secrets.

    Best Regards,
    Charlie Zimmerman

  • Xanthi

    Dear Mr.Rossi,

    I am from Xanthi. All people in Xanthi are reading and hearing about e-cat with very much interest. It is very important for us that e-cat will be manufacturing here.We are looking forward to see you here in Xanthi. We are looking forward you to present the e-cat to us.

    Warm Regards from beautifull Xanthi!

  • luiz carlos

    Dr. Andrea Rossi, people who criticize you are jealous because you have persistence and ability, inventing the catalyst. Congratulations.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wade:
    Every module has its own shielding.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luiz Carlos:
    1- I am not Professor. I am Phylosophy Doctor, with a Thesis on the Relativity, and this is important to underline, after some clowns have written in New-Bullshit News that I have not a Phylosophy Doctor degree.
    2- We enrich the charge of the isotopes 62 and 64 Ni, with a proprietary system, very cheap to deal with.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roman Radionov:
    Yes, we did. We can reach 500 °C.
    Warm Regards,

  • Roman Rodionov

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Have you ever tried to place ecat inside waterproof/steamproof and heat isolated vessel, so water could recirculate through
    the ecat and vaporize raising the pressure and temperature inside the vessel (simple steam boiler)? Possibly high enough pressure
    could be reached to make it efficient for electricity generation using some turbine. If you did such test what pressure/temperature were achived?

    Roman Rodionov

  • luiz carlos

    Dear Professor Andrea Rossi, reading the report of Professor Sven Kullander regarding radio isotopes involved in the process of transmutation of nickel in copper that happens in his wonderful invention, the E-cat, and read that tests were carried out to verify the quantitative composition radio isotopes of copper (Cu) result of transmutation, it was reported that the fuel used during a period of 2 ½ months, the sample contained 10% copper (Cu), with the proportion of radio isotopes 70/30 (Cu-63, Cu-65). I found that Professor Sven thought it strange that proportion of radio isotopes for believing that as the fuel before use had the following proportion of radio isotopes: Ni-58 (68.1%), Ni-60 (26.2%), Ni -61 (1.1%), Ni-62 (3.6%), Ni-64 (0.9%, the same place the transmutation of all the Ni and Ni-62-64, for the formation of isotopes of copper (Cu) present in the fuel after use, represent only 4.5% in the final result. How were found 10% of radio isotopes of copper (Cu-63, Cu-65), he said it would be something that would have to be better understood.
    It was clear that other isotopes also participated in the process of transmutation which is even more spectacular, since walnut transmutation processes of mergers occurred over a core of the proton nuclei of nuclear isotopes with mass below the Ni-62 (61, 60 and maybe 58).
    This result is sensational.
    Professor Andrea, I would ask you if were measured the proportions of radio isotopes of nickel were not consumed (transmuted)?
    In another message I send to you my theoretical work. I’m at the end of translation (The original is in Portuguese (Brazil)), but as soon as I finish this translation will send with pleasure.
    Sorry if my text is difficult to understand because I’m not very fluent in English.

  • Wade

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    I have a question in response to your reply to Greg’s point number 1.

    In your modular units, how are things like the basic shielding and structural components scaled?

    Does each individual module have it’s own seperate Lead shielding (seems expensive due to very high surface area from modularity)? Or is it like one big lead box encasing a cube of several smaller units?

    Put another way, does each module have it’s own shielding, or do you build the shielding custom to what the customer would want?

    If it’s “plug and play” then that is a lot of surface area to cover in Lead and insulations.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sebastian:
    1- about 4 kg of water
    2- no increase: if they need steam of hot water corresponding to a known amount of energy, the consumption of water does not change
    3- Contact us in November, remind me this comment of yours, to be invited.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Manik Sahai:
    We made a test with a group of Indian scientists and we hope to put this technology at the service of India. In India I visited what I deem to be the most beautiful building Mankind ever made: the Taj Mahal. Hope to return there.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greg:
    1- It is useless, since a modular connection reaches the same power and is much safer
    2- Yes
    3- I hope this technology will help:we are working for this
    4- Good question. Using good sense and hoping in the help of God.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wade,
    Thank you for your suggestions. We will think about them.
    Warm Regards,

  • Wade

    I don’t know how much thought has been put into this, but something in the range of 4kw should be ideal for totally taking a home off-grid.

    You could use a steam cycle generator, and let’s say round numbers for 35% efficiency, as a rankine cycle gets up to 41%, then 35 is not unrealistic.

    0.35 * 4kw of heat = 1.4kw as electricity.

    Ok, so maybe 4kw isn’t quite enough for peak power usage, but you see the point.

    Now the other deal is, you’d use the output electricity from the generator to power the 80watts input (or whatever it is down to now,) so that you are totally off-grid.

    You would use any excess electricity to charge batteries to save “excess” energy for later use, and as “Start-up” energy for any time after the reactor needs to be shut down and re-started. This way you NEVER have a need to be on the “grid” at all.

    Use the “waste heat” from the E-cat to do your water heating as in cogeneration techniques, and just disable your existing heater coil. Hot water is around 1/3rd of your energy bill anyway, so in this example, it would cut your peak electricity NEEDS by around 1/3rd, but also supply 1.4kw of electricity continuously.

    if a customer needed more than 1.4kw, they could buy a larger model E-cat and a larger generator.

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