Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

by Yeong E. Kim Department of Physics, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

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Generalized theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recent experimental results of Rossi et al. for hydrogen-nickel system.  Based on incomplete experimental information currently available, preliminary theoretical explanations of the experimental results are presented in terms of the generalized BECNF theory. Additional accurate experimental data are needed for obtaining more complete theoretical descriptions and predictions, which can be tested by further experiments.

I.  Introduction
Over the last two decades, there have been many publications reporting experimental observations of excess heat generation and anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in metals at ultra-low energies, now known as „low-energy nuclear reactions‟ (LENR).  Theoretical explanations of the LENR phenomena have been described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) in micro/nano-scale metal particles [1-3].  The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation.  While the BECNF theory is able to make general qualitative predictions concerning LENR phenomena it is also a quantitative predictive physical theory.  Some of the theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments reported recently.  The BECNF theory was generalized for the case of two species of Bosons [4].

Recently, there were two positive demonstrations (January and March, 2011) of a heat generating device called “Energy Catalyzer” [5]. The Energy Catalyzer is an apparatus built by inventor Andrea Rossi, Italy. The patent application [5] states that the device transforms energy stored in its fuel (hydrogen and nickel) into heat by means of nuclear reaction of the two fuel components, with a consequent observed production of copper [5,6]. According to Rossi‟s patent application [5], heating of the sample is accomplished by an electric resistance heater.  Details of March 2011 demonstration were reported by Essen and Kullander [7]. The report [7] also contains references to January 2011 demonstration. In the following, we describe hydrogen-nickel reactions in section II. Other possible reactions are discussed in section III.  Conclusions are given in section IV.

II.  Hydrogen-Nickel Reactions
The generalized BECNF theory [4] can be applied to the case of hydrogen-nickel fusion reactions observed in Rossi‟s device (the energy catalyzer) [5] under the following two conditions: (1) additives used (not disclosed in the patent application) form Ni alloy and/or Ni metal/alloy oxide in the surface regions of nickel nano-scale particles, so that Ni atoms/nuclei become mobile with a sufficiently large diffusion coefficient and (2) local magnetic field is very weak in the surface regions, providing a suitable environment in which two neighboring protons can couple their spins anti-parallel to form spin-zero singlet state (S=0).  Relatively low Curie temperature (nickel has the Curie temperature of 631 oK (~358 oC)) is expected to help to maintain the weak magnetic field in the surface regions. If Rossi‟s device is operated at temperatures greater than the Curie temperature ~358 oC and with hydrogen pressures of up to ~22 bars, the conditions (1) and (2) may have been achieved in Rossi‟s device. The mobility of Ni atoms/nuclei (condition (1)) is enhanced by the use of an electric resistance heater to maintain higher temperatures. This may provide a suitable environment in which more of both Ni atoms/nuclei and protons become mobile, thus creating a favorable environment for the case of two species of Bosons (Ni nuclei and composite Bosons of paired two protons). If the velocities of mobile Ni atoms/nuclei under the condition (1) are sufficiently slow, their de-Broglie wavelengths become sufficiently large and may overlap with neighboring two-proton composite Bosons which are also mobile, thus creating Bose-Einstein condensation of two species of Bosons. The generalized BECNF theory can now be applied to these two-species of Bosons and provides a mechanism for the suppression/cancellation of the Coulomb barrier, as shown in [4]. Once the Coulomb barrier is overcome in the entrance reaction channel, many possible allowed exit reaction channels may become open such as reactions (i) ANi(2p(S=0), p)ˆA+1 Cu, with even A=58, 60, 62 and 64. These reactions will produce radioactive isotopes 59Cu and 61Cu with A = 58 and 60, respectively. 59Cu has a half-life of 81.5 seconds and decays by the electron capture to the 59Ni ground state (58.1%) which has a half-life of 7.6 x 10ˆ4 years and to the 59Ni excited states (41.9%) which in turn decay to the 59Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 310.9 keV to 2682.0 keV [8]. 61Cu has a half-life of 3.333 hours and decays by the electron capture to the stable 61Ni ground state (67%) and to the 61Ni excited states (33%) which in turn decay to the 61Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 67.412 keV to 2123.93 keV [8]. Gamma-rays (and neutrons) have not been observed outside the reactor chamber during the experiment [6]. These gamma-rays may have been present inside the reaction chamber. If no radiations are observed, reactions (i) are ruled out. Focardi and Rossi [6] reported that the experimental results of Rossi et al. indicate the production of  stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu with an isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu ~ 1.6 (natural abundance is 63Cu/ 65Cu = 2.24). This production of Cu may be due to reactions (i). The production of 63Cu and 65Cu with isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu different from the natural isotopic ratio is expected and can be explained by estimating the reaction rates for 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu.  Reaction rates estimates based on transmission probability calculated from a barrier tunneling model similar to the alpha-decay theory indicate that the reaction rates for stable Cu productions, 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu, are expected to be much larger than the reaction rates for production of radioactive Cu, 58Ni(2p(S=0), p)59Cu and 60Ni(2p(S=0), p)61Cu. This leads to the prediction that intensities of the gamma-rays from the decays of 59Cu and 61Cu are expected to be weak and do not commensurate with the observed heat production, which is mostly from stable Cu production  reactions 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu. There are other exit reaction channels which are (nearly) radiation-less, such as reactions (ii) ANi(2p(S=0), α)ˆA-2Ni, (even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) [9]. For this case, we expect that the natural isotopic ratio of Ni isotopes will be changed in a particular way, which can be checked from the  sample after each experiment.  Even though reactions (ii) produce radioactive isotope 56Ni, it can be shown using the alpha-decay theory that its reaction rate is much slower (by many order of magnitudes) than those of other reactions. Other exit reaction channels, ANi(2p(S=0), d)ACu, ANi(2p(S=0), 3HeA-1Ni, and ANi(2p(S=0), t)ˆA-1Cu (all with even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) are ruled out since these reactions all have negative Q-values.  There are possibilities of neutron-emission exit reaction channels, such as reactions (iii) ANi(2p(S=0), n)ˆA+1Zn, (even A= 62, and 64; Q is negative for A = 58 and 60).  However, reaction rates for reactions (iii) are expected be substantially smaller than those for reaction (i).  Reactions (iii) involve emission of a tightly bound neutron (62Ni -> 61Ni + n, Q = -10.597MeV or  64Ni -> 63Ni + n, Q = -9.657MeV) while reactions (i) involve emission of a loosely bound proton from an excited compound nuclear state consisting of ANi (even A) and 2p(S=0). Therefore, the transmission probability of a neutron tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (iii) is expected to be substantially smaller than that of a proton tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (i). The branching ratios of reactions (i) and (ii) need to be determined by measurements of gamma-ray energies and changes in isotopic ratios from future Ross-type experiments.  Theoretically, the branching ratios can be estimated by calculating transmission probability of an emitted charged particle tunneling through both Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in the exit reaction channel, as done in the alpha-decay theory.

III.  Other Possible Reactions
In addition to the above reactions described in II, there are possibilities of reactions involving additives used (not disclosed so far). For an example, if lithium is added as an additive, reaction (iv) 6Li(2p(S=0), p 3He)4He may be possible. As in cases of reactions (i) and (ii), Ni nano-particles would be still playing an important role of providing two-proton singlet composite Bosons for reaction (iv). Reaction (iv) would not change the isotopic ratios of Ni.

VI.  Conclusions
In order to explore validity and to test predictions of the generalized BECNF theory for the hydrogen-metal system, it is very important to carry out Rossi-type experiments independently in order to establish what are exact inputs and outputs of each experiment.  If the entrance and exit reaction channels are established experimentally, we can investigate selection rules as well as estimates of the reaction rates for different exit reaction channels, based on the generalized BECNF theory [1-4]. Once these experimental results are established, further application of the generalized BECNF theory can be made for the purpose of confirming the theoretical mechanism and making theoretical predictions, which can then be tested experimentally. Basic description of the above theoretical concepts for BECNF in the hydrogen-metal system will be included in an invited talk at a forthcoming nuclear physics conference [10], and will be published in the conference proceedings [10].


  1. Y. E. Kim, “Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Deuteron-Induced Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles”, Naturwissenschaften 96, 803 (2009) and references therein.
  2. Y. E. Kim, “Bose-Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, 188 (2010), Proceedings of Symposium on New Energy Technologies, the 239th National Meeting of American Chemical Society, San Francisco, March 21-26, 2010.
  3. Y. E. Kim, “Theoretical interpretation of anomalous tritium and neutron productions during  Pd/D co-deposition experiments”, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.  52, 31101 (2010).
  4. Y. E. Kim and A. L. Zubarev, “Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter”, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Cold Fusion, Marseilles, France, 31 October – 5 November, 2006, World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 711-717.
  5. Andrea Rossi, “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTION”, United States Patent Application Publication (Pub. No.: US 2011/0005506 A1, Pub. Date: Jan. 13, 2011);
  6. S. Focardi and A. Rossi, “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”, March 22, 2010. ,  February 2010
  7. H. Essen and S. Kullander, “Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna, 29 March 2011”, a travel report, April 3, 2011;
  8. Table of Isotopes, 8th Edition, Volume I: A = 1-150, edited by R. B. Firestone et al., published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1999), pages 270 and 284.
  9. Reactions (ii) were suggested by T.  E. Ward, private communication, May 11, 2011.
  10. Y. E. Kim, “Deuteron Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles”, an invited talk to be presented at the Fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics 2011(APFB2011), August 22-26, 2011, Seoul, Korea. (

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859 comments to Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steve,
    Very good, continue with your experiments. I think also electrolysis will gave satisfaction, before or later; I am not an expert of it though.
    About gas: as I always said, energy sources have to be integrated, no one of them has to be harassed.
    Warm Regards,

  • Steve

    Dear Andrea,

    I work in the natural gas industry and will probably become unemployed when LENR becomes a reality – however, I have followed your progress with huge interest and admiration.
    Please make this work for humanity across the world – poor and rich alike.
    This could have the potential to be a great leveller.
    Beware of the power-brokers however – as they have no interest in poor, working people being independant or affluent. It provides them with choices!

    P.S. Has anyone thought of using electrolosis to split water in a figure-of-eight cell. In this configuration the hydrogen can be collected from the cathode and fed into your E-cat. The oxygen could be exhausted to atmosphere from a high point vent from the anode. I have experimented with sodium chloride and tap-water using 12 volts DC @ 3 amps and 304 stainless steel coils. This provides a reasonable rate of production.
    My experiments are at a very early stage but I hope to improve upon this in time.



  • Andrea Rossi

    Net of all the shielding, a 5 kW module has a volume of about 1/4 of liter
    Warm regards,

  • Catscanner

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    Interessting that you have decided for 5kW modules. Can you say anything about the size of one module?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ghoste Dawge:
    We will manufacture modules of 5 kW which will be clustered in any combination, op to MWs of power.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Norman:
    Our attorneys are working on the patent issue,
    Warm Regards,

  • Bob Norman

    I’m very excited about the technology and what it offers mankind, but I worry about the US Patent situation, protection is essential for survival long term. Is there anything you can report in this area?
    Best regards,
    Bob Norman

  • Ghoste' Dawge

    Greetings Mr. Rossi,

    I thank you for taking time out of your very busy schedule to answer our questions. It is greatly appreciated as the world understandably waits in great anticipation for October and the whirlwind which will inevitably follow the public demonstration of the Megawatt level reactor.

    Are your E-cat units rated at 30kW each?

    Will it still be a 20ft container with units connected in parallel?

    If so, how many E-Cat units will there be? At what power rating per unit?

    What will the total HEAT output be if it is not 3.45 MW?

    Thank you very much. I wish you great success, and hopefully a little while to rest after the October demonstration is finally over.

    Best Regards,
    G. Dawge

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco: In november we will decide our commercial roadmap.
    Warm Regards,

  • Buonasera Dott. Rossi
    Sto seguendo con estremo interesse le sue scoperte e la sua invenzione.
    Ho grande ammirazione per la sua perseveranza e per il suo coraggio.
    Commercializzo impianti fotovoltaici per conto della SIET concessionaria ENEL Si e svolgo la mia professione con una consapevolezza ed obiettivi che vanno oltre alla semplice vendita. Sogno l’autonomia energetica, quindi autosufficienza economica, quindi una maggiore libertà individuale. Quanto da lei realizzato è in assoluto lo strumento che, a mio avviso, più di ogni altro “promette” il raggiungimento di questo NUOVO stato di cose.
    Mi auguro che il/la Rossi E-Cat diventi presto un prodotto commerciale e commercializzabile anche in Italia ed intendo partecipare a questa nuova “età” energetica.
    Le chiedo (se può rispondermi) se è prevista una rete commerciale per l’Italia, se Si a quale azienda farà capo?
    La ringrazio per le risposte che mi vorrà dare.
    Con stima
    Marco Alberghini – Bologna

  • Peter Heckert

    @Hamdi Ucar,
    According to the Kullander – Essen report the reactor contains 0.11g of hydrogen and 50g of nickel.
    So the hydrogen mass is 0.22% of the nickel mass. This should be far away from saturation, because nickel can absorb more.
    I think, at higher temperature, the nickel should absorb all the hydrogen and the pressure should not rise, possibly it could fall.
    Im not totally shure….



  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Visscher:
    1- Yes
    2- We have a Pertner in the uSA who will be able to develope the maximum level possible of expansion.
    Warm Regards,

  • H. Visscher

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    First of all, thank you once again for answering my previous questions. I have thought of some answers regarding the applications which will be used by the E-Cat. I remember you once said that the E-Cat lacks the flexibility which is required for a E-Cat to be used in a car. Would is be possible, however, that the E-Cat would charge a battery or capacitor while you were driving and use the power stored in the battery/capacitor to drive? The flexibility comes then from the battery/capacitor instead of the E-Cat. The E-Cat is only being used to recharge the battery/capacitor.

    Another question is regarding the household use for the E-Cat and other applications. I remember that you once said the introduction of these applications would take a while due to certification and the required engineering. Don’t you think, however, the development while go much quicker than you think once the whole engineering and scientific world embraced the E-Cat? If it is true what you say than this time next year all the R&D departments of every self respecting technical firm in the world will be working with the E-Cat. All the firms will frantically try to be the first to launch products with E-Cat in order to have the competitive advantage.

    Thanks again

    H. Visscher

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Catscanner:
    Self sustaining is possible, but not totally, for safety reasons. for a long time, yes.
    Warm Regards,

  • Catscanner

    When you have working converting to electricity is it a goal to make it totally self sustaining?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear catscanner:
    The E-Cats now can be self sustaining for good part of the time.
    Warm Regards,

  • Catscanner

    Dear Mr Rossi
    Do you planning to make the 1MW totally selfsustaining? If so will the one presented in oktober be selfsustaining?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Georgehants:
    Yes , I will.
    Warm Regards,

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Do you think that in October after your demonstration, it would be good for you to give interviews etc. especially for the small Cold Fusion Websites that have given open-minded reporting of your E-CAT venture for so long.
    It would be a shame if the Main-line Media after neglecting you for so long then get preferential treatment.

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr Heckert,
    I totally agree with your observation as far as the overview goes. The problem is that many sources on the Internet is actually bias towards the eCat but like to portrait themselves as impartial.

    To rationalize their position, they focus on what they consider to be evidence of irregularities or fraud. Often they make multiple own “estimations”, .. mostly on the negative side and thereafter sum it up to reach a negative conclusion.

    In that picture Mr Kullander and Essen ”..I was there and it seems to works”-style observation have no room. Mr Kullander and Essen observed the eCat firsthand in operations for several hours. Going there they have a mind-set not easily fooled, probably skeptic.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enzo Bellato,
    Thank you for all.
    We will organize visits for persons like you. Contact me in November, we will meet.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Erik,
    I am interested.
    Please contact
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonello Lai:
    1- yes
    2- no
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kim Patterson:
    The important is that my 1 MW plant will work well. All the rest will follow, like wagons follow a locomotive.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Robbie Rice,
    Thank you, please contact us in November.
    Warm regards,

  • Dear Dr. Rossi,

    The ramifications of your invention are world changing.
    I will be purchasing products based on this technology, and
    incorporating them into products for my industry,
    as soon as they come to market in the US…

    God bless you sir, and may you always be so blessed…


  • Kim Patterson

    There has been no Main Stream Media News of the E-Cat.

    What are your thoughts on this ?

    I’m very excited about this, I have followed for past
    2 years.


  • Antonello LAI

    Dott. Rossi alla domanda di Fulvia che le chiedeva se ha ricevuti minacce o pressioni lei risponde chiaramente YES. Qualora le fosse possibile rispondere sempre con un SI o un NO, mi piacerebbe chiederLe due cose.

    1.Le minacce sono state anche fisiche, ossia sulla persona ?
    2.Tra le pressioni, ve ne sono stati anche da parte di qualche governo?


    Antonello L.

  • Erik

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    You said that for electricity you are not ready yet. I’m working in a company in Germany which produces inverters with high efficiency for solar technology, wind energy and fuel cell energy. My question is: Do you have inverters for the electrical generator of the turbine of the E-cat already or is there interest to experiment and try out inverters with high efficiency? I’m convinced that the E-cat has a very big potential for the help of our world-energy-needs and if there is interest i would talk with the innovation-manager of my company to develop and produce inverters for the E-cat (the 1 MW plants included).

    Kind Regards

  • Caro andrea, grazie per le risposte precise e puntuali. Dalle disavventure si impara sempre. probabilmente l’esperienza Petroldragon nella quale i soliti serpenti si sono accaniti le ha dato l’indirizzo su come gestire la sua nuova scoperta. Forse tutto il male non viene per nuocere. Ha fatto bene a creare un prototipo perfettamente funzionante prima di presentarlo. Sarebbe stato molto più facile screditarlo sul nascere. per me lei ha una innata dote di marketing. E pensare che qualcuno si sta concentrando se c’è qualche goccia d’acqua nel vapore senza alzare gli occhi per vedere a cosa si è davanti.
    Penso che lo abbia in programma, ma il lancio del primo impianto dovrebbe creare un impatto mediatico enorme, tipo il lancio dei primi space-shuttle. Non sarebbe difficile, io, e moltissimi come me in tutto il mondo, saremmo disposti ad affrontare un viaggio per esserci. Non è difficile immaginare la quantità enorme di persone che parteciperanno. Dopo questo evento gli scettici dovranno mettersi “zitti e in fila indiana”. Tutti sanno e provate a fermarlo. Mi piacerebbe esserle utile in questo progetto in maniera disinteressata. Mi piacerebbe avere una sua e-mail, qualora lo ritenga opportuno, per discuterne. Grazie

  • Hamdi Ucar

    1) It is said that reaction rate is dependent of hydrogen pressure.

    2) Gas pressure is dependent to temperature by law.

    3) It can be interpreted as rising temperature makes difficult to regulate the reaction.

    If not already implemented in the design, keeping the H pressure constant by using a reservoir of fixed temperature H2 which ensure fixed pressure may help to reduce the positive feedback (1,2).

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guido Chiostri:
    Good considerations, thank you.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter Heckert:
    Well written.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fulvia:
    1- heat
    2-in the USA
    Warm Regards,

  • Fulvia

    Caro Ing. Rossi, non vedol’ora che lei completi la centrale da 1Mw e così tacciano tutte le male lingue e finalmente si passi ad una nuova era!
    Mi permetto due domande alle quali spero vorrà rispondere come ha sempre fatto sino ad ora:
    1) la 1a centrale produrrà calore solamente o anche energia elettrica?
    2) a questo punto sarà assemblata in America o i rapporti con i Greci sono stati ripresi?
    3) il costo del catalizzatore quanto incide su quello totale dèll’apparato?
    4) a parte quel che si scrive e dice su di lei in questo periodo, ha ricevuto pressioni o minacce?
    Saluti cari e ci stupisca al più presto.

  • Peter Heckert

    I want to emphasize what changed may mind:
    There is a PDF report available, written by Kullander and Essen.
    Its here:

    On page 2 they write:

    It is worth noting that at this point in time and temperature, 10:36 and 60°C, the 300 W from the heater is barely sufficient to raise the temperature of the flowing water from the inlet temperature of 17.6 °C to the 60 °C recorded at this time. If no additional heat had been generated internally, the temperature would not exceed the 60 °C recorded at 10:36. Instead the temperature increases faster after 10:36, as can be seen as a kink occurring at 60 °C in the temperature-time relation. (Figure 6). A temperature of 97.5 °C is reached at 10:40. The time taken to bring the water from 60 to 97.5 °C is 4 minutes. The 100 °C temperature is reached at 10:42 and at about 10:45 all the water is completely vaporized found by visual checks of the outlet tube and the valve letting out steam from the chimney.

    In all the online storys published I have not seen this. I cannot understand why they ommitted this.

    This, confirmed by two independent scientists, gives very clear evidency about considerably high energy production. An error is almost impossible, a schoolboy -when good in physics- can calculate this correctly. Two scientists cannot be in error here.
    The waterflow is measured by weight, so an error is almost impossible about the waterflow.
    About this, you can forget all steam calculations. It doesnt matter if there might be errors in steam calculations.

  • Guido Chiostri

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    I followed the news about your discovery with genuine skepticism, but also hoping to be wrong in this skeptcism in the interests of all and especially of the valiant and courageous scientists and journalists who have given credence to your results.
    I must say that the arguments of some of your detractors have left me indifferent and sometimes even have got the result of moving, as I’m concerned, the balance in the direction of hope.
    That said, I would like to know, in relation to the response you gave to Mr Romanato, what is the purpose of the group that is collaborating with you ( group that you called enlightened and interested in the fate of mankind) to provide such a collaboration if it will have ‘no control over the basic technology and its development (or so I thought I understood from the above answer).

    With best regards and good job

    Guido Chiostri

  • Peter Heckert

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    thats too much respect for me, I feel a little bit ashamed.
    Im just a normal thinking person and have basic skills in technics and physics, but mainly in electronics.
    Im not a specialist for steam, readed a lot about in the last time.

    My respect is with you as you do an higly important and risky job there.
    Hope you will have success, but even, if not, Im not with those that in this case would blame you.
    Good luck!


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter Heckert,
    Your attitude is the paradigmatic example of a clever and honest skepticism, the kind of skepticism I have a deep respect for.
    Warmest Regards,

  • Peter Heckert

    @Mirco Romanato

    I fell victim to this too.
    It is easy to calculate the maximum steam flow: Multiply the water flow by 1700 and you get the dry steam flow at air pressure.
    Divide by the hoses cross sectional area and you get the steam speed. This is a purely theoretical value.
    It must been considered, that the hose is quite long. So, when there is dry steam at the chimney, then the steam will cool down a little bit while travelling and reduce its volume. So the steam flow at the input of the hose can be much higher than the output flow at the end of the hose.

    It must also be seen that the outlet of the hose ist above ground. So if water would be spilled out, then the hose should be filled with water and no steam at all can come out of the open end. Now, we see, there is steam, so the hose is not filled with water.

    Finally, I have carefully read the report of Essen and Skullander again. They reported, that they had a heater of 300 Watt. They calculated that this is just enough to heat the water (at the given flow rate) to 60 centigrade. So the water could not boil at all, if only 300 Watt of power is produced!
    They also reported, that the temperature rised above 60° without increased electrical power and finally it boiled.
    If you read their report (the pdf document) then you find these details.

    Now all these consideration has changed my mind a little bit.
    Of course yes, I still have doubts but I still hope, this all will be true and at the october demonstration will be an success.
    @All: Yes I am still sceptic, but who will be not, if he has never seen in reality? I beg for pardon. Im not sceptic in this sense that I dont believe it, Im sceptic in this sense that I want to see and want to know more. Unfortunately this is not possible via Internet, so we must wait until the October Demo.



  • I have been trying to predict where this all going. I’ll just enumerate some imagined consequences.
    !. Price of oil will drop to less than $20 per barrel just on the news.
    2. All present government administrations will accept the credit for their crucial roll in the discovery and creation of the new technology.
    4. Things will begin to settle down after the news and licensed mfg will begin throughout the globe.
    5. The new abundant energy will soon be used to recycle everything (since we can now afford it) and the earth goes green without the pain and sacrifice.
    6. Old arid, uninhabitable, and infertile lands will begin to produce and many displaced ethnic groups will begin to desire to return their natural ancestral homelands as their particular needs can be met and where their ancient traditions can be respectfully restored.
    7. Cities will begin to shrink as the need to congregate for security and work, and governments will shrink as well as their support and protection is unnecessary.
    8. Space exploration will become less perilous and more fun.
    9. Hostile animosities due to economics will fade away.
    10. Then a new ice age will come, and we’ll have to start all over again. (Thought I would throw that in for fun.)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Simon Knight:
    The protocol will be prepared directly by the Scientists who will make the test of the 1 MW plant.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Sacchi:
    The tests we made have been made by University Professors whose specific preparation is several orders of magnitude superior to the preparation of the blogger you referred to, and they are perfectly able to distinguish between steam and hot water.
    As for the speed calculated in that blog, it is so ridiculous a calculation, that puts in evidence the lack of basic knowledge of this imbecile.
    With all respect,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mirco Romanato:
    1- it will be used by the Customer
    2- yes
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Dr. Rossi, with respect for the limits of what you are able and wiling to disclose now, could you say:
    1) Will the 1 MW generator delivered in October be put at an actual industrial use by the client or will it mainly be used for testing by the client?

    2) It is my understanding that Leonardo Corp. (in Miami) is and will be the sole producer of the kernel (the actual reactor chamber) for the e-cat module and other will integrate them in e-cats and actual power generator sets. In a way, the Leonardo Corp. will act like Intel. They make CPU for computer developed and assembled by others. You will build the kernel of the e-cat and do the R&D for the future improved versions and others will assemble the final products delivered to the end users (industrial or civillian). Am I right?

  • Francesco Sacchi

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I read in a blog of your competitors that there are methodology flaws in your testing setup, in particular, there is no proof that all the water has been converted to steam because the output hose attached to the chimney may drain even hot liquid water to the sink. He also claims that the steam speed in output from the device should be much higher (something between 67 and 137 mph) if all the water were vaporized.

    Could you please reply to this points?

    Kind Regards

  • Simon Knight

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Thank you for your answer regarding the test protocol, even though it was a bit shorter than I had hoped for.
    (See this thread August 14th, 2011 at 1:55 AM)

    Even if you do not consider making the test protocol public until after the test, can we assume that the test crew will be informed before the test so they can prepare properly before boarding their flights?

    Kind regards, Simon Knight

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter G. :
    1- yes
    2- Heat : for electricity we are not yet ready, but in this last month we made big steps ahead. We are close.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Simon Knight:
    After the test will be published a report indicating the participants and the protocol.
    Warm Regards,

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