Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,

Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,558 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Levi Strauss

    Can’t stand it any longer, I have to have an Ecat even if I can only use it for my hot house. Please place my name on the waiting list. Thank you for commercializing perhaps the greatest discovery of the century.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni:
    As I repeadedly said, we will give a precise scheduling regarding the deliveries in Autumn. We also will give precise offers with the payment terms. All the persons who have pre-ordered the E-Cats will be free to cancel or confirm the orders once they will receive the offers.
    We are not able, now, to make the offers.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear RedRyder:
    I can’t give information regarding what happens inside the reactor.
    In any case your assumptions are distant from our work.
    Warm Regards,

  • RedRyder

    Reactor Stability:

    During the atomic transformations I keep seeing that many photons are being created then absorbed then recreated. The transformations from one particle to another particle will create more photons than can be absorbed over time. How much time for each cycle? That I am unsure of?

    For a reason that I find unexplainable I have the suggestion that at certain time intervals Photons will need to be released from the chamber to atmosphere or out of the chamber.
    The excess photons are somehow creating the instability issue.

    You may gain something like a throttle control for better control of the reactor if done correctly by expelling the correct wavelength over a cycle duration or (Time).

    In a way it is like a static charge gives of light.
    It must give off these photons for this type of so called room temperature fusion reaction to initiate.
    Expelling the photons during the moment of static initialization is essential for the reaction to take place. It is not an after effect; it is part of the process.

    Some control has been gained by the use of frequencies that most likely affects the hydrogen helping to create a anti-photon (not sure of that) or similar to stabilize the reaction somewhat but, over time this control will deteriorate to the point of impossible if, the right circumstances exist.

    The photons must be absorbed by atmosphere or something other than the reactant surfaces within the reactor.
    Ultimate control may be to expel the photons after a given time, the reactor response will tell you how much time should laps between releases.

    Depending on catalyst and purity of all, the time would change for these releases. Also depending on conditions in the reaction chamber, release time may change many times because of the transformations taking place over time in the reactor chamber. A filter could be used to expel the correct wave length photons.

    I find it probable these photons are in the visible light spectrum.

    “I find it fascinating to try and figure out just what is going on inside the reaction chamber”

    I sometimes wonder, do I have this wrong?
    Is it possible the lack of the correct wavelength photon in the correct quantity what is needed rather than removal
    for better control of the reaction?

    Have a Great Day!

  • Giovanni

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    when you will be ready to deliver e-cats to people who pre-ordered, how will you manage the payments? A full payment when order confirmed, or a partial payment at confirmation and full payment when delivered? Trivial question…!!!
    My best regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Daniele:
    We reach very high COP during self sustaining mode, and this is perfectly foreseen in the process. The E-Cats are regulated to be perfectly balanced. It is impossible to improve the power, for the engineering of the charge. By the way, the maximum you can obtain if you tamper with the E-Cat is that nickel melts and everything stops, since if nickel melts it loses the necessary morphology for the E-Cat to work.
    Warm Regards,

  • Daniele

    Dear Rossi,
    your heat generator claims a COP of 6 but in your experiment of 2008-5-28 you reached a COP of 415. How can you assure customers that ecat is safe and stable? Once we bought one “standard ecat” what could stop someone to try to increase its output power? Any important risks in this process?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Johm Atkinson:
    Of course, you can.
    Warm Regards,

  • John Atkinson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I live in Georgia,just south of Atlanta. Weather is very hot and humid in the summers and get very cold in the winter. You stated earlier that a consulting team would be available to analyze and recommend the size,type configuration and number of E-cats needed to fit the customers situation.I have ordered 1 e-cat but I believe more will be required especially when the electric portion of your e-cat is resolved.
    My question is when will the consulting team be available for this process and if they determine that more e-cats are needed,can we,those of us who have already placed orders be place in-front of new costumers applying for the first orders?
    That you so very much for you invention,time,dedication and your solid conviction of helping mankind..

    John Atkinson

  • K. D.

    Mr. Gennady
    In your question to Mr.Rossi you say.

    >I also have two air conditioning units outside of the >basement one for each level of the house. I also have separate >temperature controls on each level.

    Many time I ask my self. Since every air conditioner in process of its work, give out so much heat, which is wasted. Why this wasted heat is not reused to heat of water needed for household.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carloluna:
    My work has nothing in common with the studies you mentioned.
    Warm Regards,

  • carloluna

    dear ing.Rossi

    Because of its availability please allow me some remarks.
    I think that e-cat will have a major impact on greenhouse farming.Could build super-hot air airships or rebuild the baths of Caracalla.
    Then, how do you assess the model alpha extended of the atom of Roberto Monti and the work of Giuliano Preparata Kervran, etc. Oshawa?

    Yours sincerely

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chaz:
    We have studied the possibility of coupling the E-Cat with a Sterling engine, but until we are not able to reach higher temperatures ( 400 °C) and pressure, the efficiency is too low. I am convinced before or later we will couple with Sterling engines, though.
    Warm Regards,

  • chaz

    A penny (and maybe a pre-order) for your thoughts.

    As a person who tinkers with a lot of everything… I was considering purchasing one of your home units for the use of powering a Stirling engine.

    I’m able to envision the entire process… but it would be nice to know more specifics about the home unit.

    As for the possible pre-order… you might as well write up another one because I’d like to be a customer as well.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gennady:
    1- wrong: we will apply the E-Cats to the existing heaters
    2- yes
    3- If you need all the thermal energy to heat the house you cannot make also electricity. We will have to analyse your situation ( the consulting will be free) to see if you need further E-Cat to make electricity, but remember: we still do not know when we will have also the electric generators.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fred R.
    Your pre-orders have been accepted,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefan:
    As I answered to Giuseppe B., I never said that the 1 MW E-Cat has been already delivered to the Customer, probably it has been a misunderstanding due to not precise translation. As I repeatedly said, the 1 MW E-Cat is still in our Bologna Factory to complete the control system upgrading we are making with National Instruments and to make modifications asked from the Customer. The plant will be delivered in the next 1, maximum 2 months.
    Warm Regards,

  • Gennady

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I want to congratulate you on great achievement. Also, I have couple questions for you, if you do not mind. I am not very knowledgeable in this are so please forgive me for rather simplistic questions.

    I have a two level house that is typical to the North East US are where I live. It is about 4000 sq ft. My current setup consists of 2 heating units, one for each level, a gas water heater all in the basement. I also have two air conditioning units outside of the basement one for each level of the house. I also have separate temperature controls on each level.

    1. With e-cat, what out of this setup, I will no longer need?
    2. Since you mentioned that each e-cat unit is good for 1000 sq. ft, will I need 4 e-cat units?
    3. When electrical generation will be available, will I need another unit to provide for my electricity needs?

    Kind regards,


  • Fred R.

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Please put me on the list of pre-orders for 2 home units!
    Warm regards,
    Fred R.

  • Stefan

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    you answered yesterday to Mr. Wolf:

    “Andrea Rossi
    January 19th, 2012 at 10:39 AM

    Dear Wolf:
    Please read the answer to Giuseppe B. of today,
    Warm Regards,

    I can´t find your answer to Giuseppe B. Which answer do you mean?

    Could you clarify this?



  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Robert Mapp:
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Helmut H.
    No headaches: we guarantee a COP 6. That’s all.
    Warm Regards,

  • Helmut H.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    the COP is giving me headaches. It seems i have a complete wrong impression of what the COP is or how the unit operates.
    In the interview it was stated, that in self-sustain-mode the only power needed was for the additional tasks, like the control-system, but not for heating.
    If the unit produces, let’s say “only” 5 kW, how much can the control-system with all the pumps or vents need? 100, 200 Watts?
    Therefore my understanding of the COP-factor leads me to the calculation of, for example, 5 kW/200 Watts = 25.

    Where is my mistake?

  • Dear Mr Rossi,
    I have ordered a E-Cat last November.
    My 80 year old neibour Rosemary who is very up with this system,
    And has pre-ordered E-cat,has a question.
    Will the E-cat control unit contain a programable timer?
    So rhat it may be switched on and off at pre arranged times.
    Obliged Bob.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Helmut H.:
    No, the COP guaranteed is 6.
    Warm Regards,

  • Helmut H.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    i followed your interview for with utmost interest.
    There are so many positive surprises and the development seems to make huge progress!

    What i don’t understand: If the home unit can run in self-sustain mode doesn’t that mean that the COP becomes much, much higher than 6?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dario:
    You have understood well, the answer is yes.
    Warm Regards,

  • Dario

    Egregio Ing. Rossi,
    I would like to make a preorder, but before doing that I need some informations : I have a 150 m2 home , 18kw oil heating system, 200 l boiler.
    Basing on latest E-Cat improvement, my understanding is that I do not need the 18kw oil heating system any more, I can totally replace using the E-Cat technology.
    Please confirm.
    If this is confirmed, do I need 2 10Kw E-Cats to replace the 18 kw existing heating system ?
    Is it possible to put the 10 kw E-Cat in parallel ?
    Thanks in advace

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tony Bolek:
    The E-Cat will be very small, it will not be a problem to put 2 in parallel. I prefer to make only 1 model to have biggest numbers and smallest costs. I can’t exclude a change of this policy in future, though, improving the production engineering.
    Warm Regards,

  • Stuart Sanderson

    Hi Andrea

    I’m really genuinely glad that your invention is getting some mainstream exposure.

    I don’t want to be the first to say this (and hopefully I’m not), I hope that you are protectect against something like the Stanley Meyer’s alleged mysterious demise.

    I’d hate to think that some tycoon from the oil industry would want to put a stop to your plans.

    Warm regards


  • Mr. Rossi,
    I have been following the progress of the e-cat with great expectations. This morning you posted a reply to peter who had a question about how many sq.ft. an e-cat was expected to heat. Your reply being about 1,000 sq.ft. This would show that the average home in America, (which is between 1,700 and 2,000 sq.ft.), would need a minimum of two e-cats to heat the home. Would future plans include a larger output e-cat or can the one under development be pumped up to make a larger output?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wolf:
    Please read the answer to Giuseppe B. of today,
    Warm Regards,

  • Adrian Cutler

    Hi Andrea,

    I have been following the developments of your e-cat. Firstly congratulations, naturally on a personal level I have already submitted a request to purchase a home unit once it is available.

    I wanted to ask if you had spoken to anyone about digital marketing yet, I head up a global paid search team in one of the largest agencies worldwide and would very much like to work with you on promoting the e-cat and ensure you maintain your market position.

    I would be happy to talk further with you or your team.

    Either way I wish you all the success you rightly deserve.

    Many thanks

    Adrian Cutler

  • Wolf

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    regarding the recently surfaced video from, you told us that the 1MW unit, which can be seen in the video, is actually the same unit as from the end of october. Some people are a little bit confused regarding an earlier statement of yours (here:, in which you stated that the 1MW plant is gone (which we refer to as has been shipped to the customer). You further said that you started building a second 1MW plant. Additionally you somewhat later said that you are attending the customer’s US site to do the install.
    Would you be so kind and clarify this? It would really help us in resolving some of the current confusions.

    Thank you very much!



  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claud:
    I am working in the USA since many years, and I have always been helped from all the People I have been in contact with, directly and undirectly. Nobody has ever put obstacles against my endeavours, also in the most difficult moments of my life, and I will be always grate to the USA for this.
    Warm Regards,

  • Claud

    Dear Andrea, recently you affirmed that you “want that this technology is American”. I understand that this is due to your horrible experience in Italy with the Petroldragon, that we all know well. But as the Physicist Ralph Steiner affirmed in reported interview by Whitley Striebe “….in other countries inventors are not constrained by the type of counter-intelligence interference that inventor here in the United States have suffered through over the past fifty years or so…..”
    Being you involved in a tremendously strategic innovation, aren’t you afraid that intelligence will take care of you and of your work?
    With my utmost appreciation.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mario,
    I think yes,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter:
    About 1,000 sq. ft./E-Cat
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.
    The certification process is in course.
    Warm Regards,

  • Pietro F.

    Buongiorno signor Rossi,

    riguardo la certificazione dell’ecat puo’ dirci se UL é l’unico organismo a cui ha richiesto la certificazione e se, sempre UL, ha già visionato l’ecat?

    grazie e auguri

  • Roger Oesterling

    Mr. Rossi,

    A simple E-Cat space heater could be assembled with an E-Cat, radiator, forced air fan and water pump. Antifreeze could be used to keep the circulating water temperature below 100 degrees C. All components are readily available. A single E-Cat should be adequate and electrical consumption would be minimal.

    Best wishes for you and your staff in 2012.

  • Peter

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Regarding your 10kW Home e-Cat:
    How many sq. ft. would approximately heat?
    So if a home has 4,000 sq. ft. of in-floor heating, how many e-Cats may that need?

    My thanks,

  • good morning eng. Rossi

    Will it be possible in the near future to order an E-Cat space heater to plug into the wall (230v ac) like a normal electric heater? ( proprio come una normale “stufetta elettrica” ).
    it is completly indipendent from the central heating system, having the heat that we need “on demand” helping also people with no central heating.
    If you think it is possible, i order it even though you have not invented it yet.
    i can wait
    Thank you
    your fans from CREMONA.



    IS AN ITALIAN !!!!!!










  • @Andrea Rossi; I am delighted to hear that you have settled on a easily replaced sealed cartridge for the fuel elements. Service charges for a complex refuel would be a real negative. Now direct marketing will be much easier. I would avoid Big Box marketing as they will squeeze a manufacture to death. pg

  • Thank you for your answer the other day. I would like to mention what I plan to do for domestic hot water when I get my hands on my own e-cat. I will take my two existing 50US gal. (100USgal./380L total) electric hot water heaters and remove the wiring that supplies the lower elements. I will remove the lower elements and have a machine shop copy the screw in mount. I will use the copys to tig weld two stainless steel tube heat exchangers to go in place of the lower elements. I will circulate A FRACTION of the heat from the e-cat through the fabricated heat exchangers with a low volume curculator pump. The existing lower thermostats on the tanks will control the circulator pump rather than the removed elements. With some adjustment and as long as we don’t all shower one after another, the upper 3000watt elements will rarely come on. We will be glad to change our personal habits in order to: suit the slow recovery, be carbon neutral, and save big money. At the prices that the e-cat will be introduced at I am sure I can afford a second e-cat if this is too much demand in the winter (-15C here now). Please note, I think you need to be a plumber like me before you try this method.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Victor:
    No, this is not possible, because the domestic E-Cats are made with a completely different technology, on a completely different economy of scale.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dario:
    You can turn it on or off when you want.
    Warm Regards,

  • Dario

    Egregio Ing. Rossi,
    how does the E-Cat behave during warm periods of the year, when heating the home is not needed ? Is always off ?


  • Victor

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    You have mentioned that you have been able to reduce the size of the home e-Cat down to ‘laptop’ size. Does this also imply that you will be able to reduce the size of the 1MW e-Cat as well? Today it fits inside a shipping container. Tomorrow?

    Kind regards,

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