Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,

Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,558 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Mahler

    Gentile ing. Rossi,
    grazie ancora per la precisazione! In merito alla sua risposta a Piers D, può confermare che un E-Cat funzionante si trova dentro le mura dell’Alma Mater? Scusi se sono ridondante, ma questa è davvero una notizia!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Piers D:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mahler:
    the test of the 1 MW pklant will be made on the last week of October.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland:
    One thing is sure: jobs creation is a priority of us. This is what my family always did, by the way.
    Warm Regards,

  • It’s very difficult to predict the effect that the E-Cat might have on the employment picture. It has the potential to spark the birth of new industry surrounding this new technology — there will need to be manufacturing, distribution, mantainance, marketing, etc. if the E-Cat becomes a mainstream energy source. On the other hand, there could be disruptive impacts on the economies surrounding the coal, nuclear and oil industries which could affect people employed in those sectors.

    Whatever the impact on employment, however, if energy is much cheaper as a result of the E-Cat, it should ease the pain of unemployment or underemployment when so much of the cost of living is connected with the cost of energy.

    Looking forward to learning more, Mr. Rossi!


    Frank Acland

  • Mahler

    Gentile ing. Rossi,
    in quest’articolo ( si parla dell’11 ottobre come data di lancio del suo impianto da 1MW. Può confermare? Grazie per la risposta.

  • Piers D

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I would like to congratulate all your team who have worked on bringing cold fusion from the lab to industrial and commercial reality. It seems so many years ago that Fleishman and Pons first introduced the concept to the wider global audience.
    I have two questions that you might wish to answer:
    • Have fully working E-Cats been provided to the Bologna and Uppsala Universities for research and testing?
    • Do you have any prospective European or Asian partners that will license the E-Cat technology for commercial production?
    Yours sincerely
    Piers Dickinson

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tim Harrell:
    Thank you for your comment.
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Mr. Rossi et al.,

    It sounds as though many of us are on the same page regarding jobs. If all goes as planned, the E-Cat’s announcement next month may be the beginning of the end of unintentional unemployment for the foreseeable future. Maybe the changes to patent law passed by the senate yesterday will also help Mr. Rossi move the E-Cat into the mainstream more quickly.

    As far as a trustworthy presidential candidate who would help, not hinder the E-Cat, I tip my hat to Ron Paul. I’m not sure the man is necessarily electable, but if you’ve every read “Atlas Shrugged”, you will undoubtedly recognize some truths about the current political/power structures that could stand to be dismantled in order for true prosperity to be possible. The E-Cat alone can do some of this. I hope that everyone reading this will at least seriously consider who they really think the best candidate would be, strictly in light of the E-Cat.

    I’ll be the first to say that this isn’t the place to get into a political arguments. So far we have only be able to help Mr. Rossi by being cautiously optimistic in our promotion of the E-Cat. If anyone can think of a better way, especially you, Mr. Rossi, I’m all ears.

    -Tim Harrell

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear tj:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,

  • tj

    To Wladimir Guglinski — It is very doubtful that Obama would have seen your letter, and in any event there is no reason to think Obama is afraid of cold fusion. To the contrary Obama has repeatedly emphasized how important new clean energy technologies will be for the US and the World.

    Clean Energy Technology like the E-Cat will save the World economy, and even more important, it will help halt Global warming.

    Nobel economist Paul Krugman recently said the economy needs a major new invention to stimulate investment and create economic activity and millions of jobs.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Maurizio W:
    Thank You!
    Warm Regards,

  • MaurizioW

    Caro Andrea,
    mi permetto il “caro”,
    un pensiero va a ai suoi cari che hanno condiviso le sue gioie e le sue amarezze per tanti anni,
    spero con tutto il cuore che possiate finalmente sentirvi in pace, quando il “prototipo” sara’ in funzione.
    La ringrazio di aver avuto la forza e la determinazione per rispondere a tanti messaggi nonostante il suo carico di lavoro.
    A presto !

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    TH wrote
    ”What better way to create jobs and usher in the new “Nickel-ar” age you will be giving to the world”

    Dear Mr. TH
    I think actually President Obama is afraid cold fusion can bring a collapse to the economy of the world.

    Look at the letter I sent to President Obama in 5th August 2009.

    In my letter I wrote:
    ”Cold fusion can be the answer for the world’s need of energy in comming years, if the research be encouraged and supported by funds. So, a solution for the troubles of energy can be found from the cold fusion research, if you decide to order to supply funds for the developmento of its technology.”

    President Obama never sent me any reply.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Monaco Davide,
    We are getting very close. Now we must resolve the problem of certifications.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Filippo De Carlo:
    please take a look to my answer to Peter Grombach…
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mar:
    I am working with INFN’s scientists : Sergio Focardi, Giuseppe Levi, and I learn from them every day. My work is strongly indebted to the institution of INFN.
    Warm Regrds,

  • Mar

    Buongiorno signor Rossi,
    lavoro all’INFN da 10 anni e sono certo della bontà del suo lavoro.
    La ringrazio immensamente per avermi dato la possibilità, durante la mia vita, di vedere questa scoperta.
    Sapevo sarebbe successo un giorno, ma non sapevo se tra 1, 10, 50 o 100 anni.
    Sono ancora piu felice e orgoglioso per il fatto di essere italiano come lei e il professor Focardi.
    Prego affichè tutto vada nella direzione giusta e spero, “una volta superato il dosso”, di poterla conoscere.

  • Filippo De Carlo

    Dear Mr.. Rossi,
    I’ve been following your amazing story from a few months and would like to wish you all the best.
    Please do not forget the poor and deprived people of the World who may have great benefits from your work.

    Greetings from Florence

    Should I wait to change my gas boiler?

  • Buongiorno,
    Con immenso orgoglio e stima seguo qua e la il Suo progetto e comprendo le Sua difficoltà in questa nazione vecchia,corrotta, malfidente e retrograda ma tenga duro!!

    Noi vorremmo prenotare le prime unità di E-Cat, ci dica qualcosa in più sui tempi di commercializzazione per cortesia perchè il mercato è in forte attesa e fermento.

  • […] quotidianamente trova inoltre il tempo di rispondere tramite il suo blog alle persone che si interessano di fusione fredda in generale e al suo lavoro in […]

  • TH

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I wonder why your miraculous invention isn’t being promoted by the Presidential politicians. Has anyone, including President Obama, ever talked to you about giving their support to your 1MW plant? I would think the President’s speech tonight would be the perfect opportunity to announce the E-cat to America and the world since next month it will be headline news anyway. What better way to create jobs and usher in the new “Nickel-ar” age you will be giving to the world.

    God Bless!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jason Le Leivre:
    We have industrialized the system.
    Warm regards,

  • Jason Le Leivre

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In the past you have indicated that your Ni fuel charge is prepared by a single elderly gentleman in his 90’s. Has he been responsible for the fuel for all 300 reactors in your 1MW device or do you have a new preparation system better suited to mass production?

    Best Wishes

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Powdereffect = A x Enr x PhDistr
    A= surface
    Enr= easier to enrich for isotopes with homogeneous lattice structure
    PhDistr= improvement of concentration in the phonon-spectrum in the lattice. (ai, those poor intruding protons)
    This looks a little complex for computer modeling (although the nano-level must make it easier), so your invention is based on pure intuition.
    Andrea, you should write books and teach. Share your knowledge. Please. The world needs better knowledge and insights.
    It is were chemistry, physics and nuclear science meet each other.

    What I do not understand, is that if Prof Focardi reached a gain in power of a factor 2 with the basics of the phenomenon, this is even huge and spectacular, but the world did not hear about this. So your work to bring it to the market is possibly the most important step.

    Again, congratulations and thanks.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Thomas Florek:
    We will produce jobs, this is for sure.
    Warmest Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Billi:
    1- Yes
    2- Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    (lavolale, lavolale!)

  • Enrico Billi

    Dear Andrea Rossi, do you think the e-CAT could be used for heating several greenhouses during winter? And quarters composed by several apartment buildings?

  • Thomas Florek

    Dear Mr. Andrea Rossi,

    I am anxiously following your progress, and cheering for your successes. I would love to somehow suggest that I would be thrilled if e-cat devices could someday be manufactured in my impoverished city of Trenton. Best of luck to you!

  • Rick Meisinger

    Dear Silvano Mattioli;
    I understand that the E-cat only consumes about 1 gram of hydrogen per day. The combustion energy in this quantity of hydrogen would be negligible.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Silvano Mattioli:
    1- without Ni the process doesn’t work.
    Warm regards,

  • Silvano Mattioli

    Hi, many compliments mr Rossi; I hope that your invention could solve many problems in our country and in the world, but i have a question:

    Have you make a measurement without nickel in your reactor (only Hydrogen and resistor) ?

    In this way ECAT will be only boiler, no reactor, then it will be the real background energy (not consumed energy as calculated).

    Witch is the ratio “Background energy / Nickel reaction energy” ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bertil Nilsson:
    Soon you will see the photos of the 1 MW plant.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prometeo:
    Thank you a lot. This makes easier the fatigue.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hans- Joachim Muller:
    Thank you very much for your kind expressions regarding the work of the Team of the Journal Of Nuclear Physics.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Christian Pommer:
    The work with the 1 MW plant isgoing on along the schedule.
    We will organize visits .
    In november we will start to organize our commercial strategy.
    Warm Regards,

  • Christian Pommer

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    How is your work on the 1Mw powerplant going?
    Is it possible to visit it once it is running?
    We got a small buisness which sells cogeneration unit’s. This technologie is quite similiar with yours (surely not the mechanism and physics but the basic principle of transmuting heat to electric power).
    You said once you will start the sale in November. Are you still holding that timeline?

    Best regards

    Christian Pommer

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    I’m looking for a publisher for my new book:

    THE MISSED U-TURN, the duel Heisenberg vs Schroedinger
    – From Newton to Rossi’s eCat –

    I would be very thankfull to anybody help me to find an editor


  • Hans-Joachim Müller

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    it was in the spring 1989 when I heard first of the experiments of Fleischmann and Pons. For us in the former GDR this was an exiting time because of the breakdown of the political system in our part of Germany. But nevertheless,the news about the possebility of a “cold nuclear fusion” was also exiting and I discussed it with my colleagues in an institute of the east-German Academy of Science.Later the scientific community became more sceptically.I am not a specialist in nuclear physics and did not have a own founded opinion, but I always could not believe that there is no real physical background behind the Fleischmann/Pons experiments.
    In 1998 I take part in a Gordon Research Conference about “Water and Aqueous Solutions” in Plymouth, NH.In the end of the conference F.H. Stillinger (he published together with Rahmann some important papers about the structure of water) gave a contribution about flops in physical chemistry. Clearly he mentioned the polywater story, but as he came to the cold nuclear fusion, a professor from Italy strongly protested against this characterization. (If I remember correctly it was Malamace from Messina.)

    I was interested in this matter until now and when I checked the web some weeks ago for possible news about cols nuclear fusion, I found your “Journal of Nuclear Physics”. I am very impressed by your success with a strong variation of the original concept. Clearly, I am keen to understand the physical fundamentals of the process and I think that the contributions in your journal are valuable for this.
    I wish you further success, the breakthrough of your ideas and the wisdom and the power to direct the use of your results to the benefit of man.

    With kindest regards

    Yours sincerely

    Hans-Joachim Müller

  • Prometeo

    GOOD LUCK!!!

    firmato un papà che aveva perso le speranze per il futuro dei propri figli

  • Bertil Nilsson

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I am looking forward very much to see the pictures from work with the 1 MW module that you have mentioned will be shown in September. Will they be published here or where shall I look for them?

    The excitement and, at places, tension is getting higher as end of October is getting closer. Keep up the good spirit!

    Best Regards

    Bertil Nilsson

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Elena Campis:
    I love Greece and the wonderful People of Greece. I am sure that in future I will work again in that Country, I hope with my great friend and scientist Christos Stremmenos. Thank you for your very kind and delighting words.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco Cominetti,
    I cannot give this information.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Amos:
    1- Scientific heritage is a complex integration of knowledge, wherein all the contributions work like synapsis in a big, unic brain. I hope I will give my contribution, as all the scientists and the inventors do.
    2- I am a Christian and I read the Bible every day, every day learning something.
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I’ve got 2 questions i’d like to ask you:

    1. Albert Einstein spent the last 20 or so years of his life ostracized from the scientific community because of his disregard for Quantum Mechanics. And when died he had not completed his work on the Unified Field Theory. Do you think your invention will allow Mankind to see things they have not seen before in science, giving them a better understanding of Quantum Physics and thus allowing Einstein’s work on the Unified Field Theory to be finally completed.

    2. Are you a christian, and what are your thoughts concerning the Bible?


  • Marco Cominetti

    Buongiorno Sig. Rossi,
    in merito alle dichiarazioni sulle radiazioni gamma, Lei e Focardi avevate dichiarato che si trattavano di gamma a bassa energia.
    Questi gamma a bassa energia sono sotto i 100keV, sotto i 50keV o sotto i 10keV?
    Grazie per la risposta

  • elena campis

    Dear mr Rossi
    I send you my best wishes for your effort and i hope that we ‘ll soon “see” the 1 MW project in operation.
    Our fear here in Greece is whether our country has lost the opportunity to participate in this great project in such a crucial period of time.

    Thank you in advance for your answer

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Georgehants:
    Yes, so far, thanks to God.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alvaro:
    Whwn I will be allowed to.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mahler:
    I cannot give this information regarding the behavior of the internal parts of the reactor.
    Warm Regards,

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