Radioactivity Physics Fundamentals

Will Schmidt


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The purpose of this article on radioactivity is to explain and describe the following subjects:
• What radioactivity is
• How radioactive decay processes work
• When radioactive decay is initiated
Radioactivity is like the atomic nucleus speaking.

This article is really about the neutrino.  How can such a small particle with no electric charge and very little mass (if any) control the destiny of the world and all living things?
Listen, the radioactive nuclear atom will tell you.  This article will explain how the neutrino works and what it does.  What the neutrino really is, has not yet been discovered.
There are three types of neutrinos: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino.  They will be mentioned in examples below.
There are three major classes of radioactivity processes:
• Radioactive beta decay
• Alpha particle decay
• Decay of proton particles
These radioactivity processes will be described below and include:
• Radioactivity decay of the free neutron.
• Radioactivity decay of the proton (if any)
• Pion particle decay
• Muon particle decay
By these radioactivity  processes, nuclear structure is unfolding.
H. Becquerel discovered the ionizing effects of radioactivity radiation in 1899, and Rutherford showed that alpha particles were emitted as well as beta electrons.
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448 comments to Radioactivity Physics Fundamentals

  • Andrea Rossi

    At the age of 105 not yet able to walk ?
    Warm Regards,

  • KD

    I found this on NBC News.
    If you take care of youself as this lady, you stil have long time to work.

    Edythe Kirchmaier has “”.

    At 105 years old, she’s been driving for 86 years – and says she’s never received a ticket or been in an accident. And… wait for it… she’s on Facebook
    Now, an anonymous donor has given the Santa Barbara, Calif., resident an incredible gift: a new Honda to replace her aging 1997 minivan. That’s right — at 105 years old, Kirchmaier is still behind the wheel.

  • Michael Schneider

    Dear Steven Karels,

    As you say, as soon as the ecat will be distributed in a larger way, reverse engineering will begin. But being in the Internet age, it will be impossible to avoid not having the technical details in the web rather sooner then later. We will have to learn to extinguish this new fire, which thanks to the apparent inherent instability of the process should not be to difficult (I hope…). I guess some kind of designed predefined feeble point or other best practice should be able to avoid the worst. At some point Andrea will probably do some safety briefings here 😉

    At least I hope so since I still am afraid of a burying off all this new science&technology.
    Dear Andrea Rossi, please don’t forget to carefully protect AND disseminate wisely.

    Kind regards,


  • gio

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    sometimes i’ve got it…..good ideas , i mean.



  • Andrea Rossi

    Congrats, good memory!
    I am still in contact with him, even if his duty with us is finished.
    I call him for very particular issues: he is still an asset in the R&D field.
    Warm regards

  • KD

    Dir. Mr. Rossi
    Over two years ago you told us, that the man in charge of powder nickel is 96 years old.
    Is he stil working for you or he retired because your new, US Partner took over his responsibilities.
    You sugested at the time, of how long you have to work to keep your health in good condiction.:)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Good idea.
    Warm Regards,

  • gio

    Dear Ing. Rossi

    I’m reading that you prepare to celebrate the prof.Sergio Focardi, publishing his math lessons.

    In addition to this, other material will be published?



  • Joe


    For the followers of the Electric Model of the universe, the news of nuclear reactions within fluorescent lamps would be of no surprise. That is because nuclear reactions occur at the sun, and the sun is modeled after a glow discharge tube to a great degree within this electric paradigm.

    Please see the section titled “Fusion in the Double Layer” in the following article:

    All the best,

  • Hank Mills

    In the last hundred years or so the world has witnessed massive scale industrialization of many new technologies. A few of these include steam technology, the internal combustion engine, and electrification. My understanding is that these technologies rapidly proliferated. I think that is partially due to the lack of excessive red tape and safety regulations that exist today. If today’s beauracracy existed back then I fear these technologies would have taken much longer to be utilized. For example, when Tesla and Edison were wiring cities with DC and AC electricity, they probably did not have to worry about getting their technology certified for safety. The same is true worth early stream technology. Boilers sometimes exploded and people were harmed, but the technology moved forward. I can’t help but feel frustrated by the hoops that Andrea Rossi is being forced to go through. If this technology emerged in the year 1920, it would already be powering trains, providing heat for industry, or maybe producing electricity. Instead, due to the over cautious regulations that exist today, the ECAT is still in development. My guess is that over fifty percent of the effort going into the ECAT is to satisfy certification requirements. Meanwhile, the fossil fuel age continues, and Earth remains a rather hopeless place. I am in no way upset with Leonardo Corp about this, but I just wish the situation was different. I hope Leonardo Corp looks for applications where the certification and safety regulations are not as severe. With poverty growing, the environment being destroyed, energy process rising, and no conventional alternative energy technology offering any hope, we need the ECAT technology utilized as soon as possible.

  • orsobubu


    > Vladimir Ilich Lenin had good ideas for saving humanity, but ended in the death of millions and incredible suffering by hundreds of millions of others in many countries who survived

    Sorry, KD, it ended that way because Bolscheviks were defeated and killed one by one by Stalin; his project halted and an entire generation of revolutionaries perished, exactly because state capitalism won over communism; then, the only barrier against the second world war was gone: nobody could fight it like Lenin successfully did in 1915-18. When worldwide bourgeoise imperialistic powers recognized Lenin as a true menace for their war projects, they joined to invade Russia and wipe out the Bolsheviks using civil war and terrorism, but Trotkij kicked them in the butts out of the country. After Lenin’ death, Stalin and russian bourgeoise won the final game.

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi,
    Mahatma Gandi said:
    “First they try to ignore you.
    Then they try to ridicule you.
    Then they fight you.
    Then you win !”

    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale,Florida

  • Tom Conover

    @Joe; Andrea,

    I saw these ideas a while ago, and thought I would share them with you after seeing Joe’s comment. I have been able to make a CFL light bulb operate at Lowell brightness for up to 8 days continuously on one single double a battery with electromagnetic harmonics and a small amount of circuitry.

    The article below is interesting to read and I am referencing it since it is on topic with the current discussion.


    Tiny Nuclear Reactions Inside Compact Fluorescent Bulbs?

  • eernie1

    In 1953 Miller and Urey at the U of Chicago put a mixture of atmospheric gasses into a glass container fitted with electrodes and proceeded to cause an electrical discharge to be formed in the container. The results showed that the foundation of organic life(amino acids) was created. Miller received the Nobel prize for this work. Do you suppose that Atilla does not consider this to be a scientific experiment?

  • KD

    Mr.Robert Curto.
    Good idea about “Clean Cook” stoves.
    I see it also as a storage of heat energy.
    Since E-Cat can not be controled the way, as gas or electric devices are. ON/OFF any time.

    But biger stone stove with good insulation to keep the heat inside and heatet by circulated hot air trough pipe system, can absorb lot of heat at time not used but ready any time for cooking and heating house at night.

    The same way, it can be used in bakery or pizza business.:)

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Reply to Dr. Atilla Csolo by quoting the Conte-Pieralice experiment:

    Subject: CONTE-PIERALICE experiment RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    Date: Sat, 31 Aug 2013 10:29:11 -0300

    Dear Dr. Csolo
    The experiment made by Elio Conte and Maria Pieralice had obtained the same result obtained by Borghi. But Conte-Pieralice experiment had some interesting advantages, as follows:

    1- There is not need to collect data along several months, like in the Borghi experiment

    2- Conte and Pieralice had observed an anomalous production of heat during the experimentation so that the aluminium cathode melted entirely after one hour of experimentation.

    I am sending the paper attached

    Please do not claime that you cannot accept a paper not published in peer review journal. This is always the strategy used by the physicists who betray the scientific method.

    The strategy of the peer review journals is obvious:
    a) They do not accept to publish the Conte-Pieralice , because it defies the current principles of Physics
    b) So, the scientists in the universities have not interest to repeat the experiment, because it was not published in a peer review journal.
    c) Therefore the scientific community uses to claim that Conte-Pieralice experiment is not confirmed, and so it cannot be considered seriously.
    d) But as the peer journals do not accept to publish, of course it cannot be repeated

    By this way the community of physicists succeed to claim that Conte-Pieralice experiment is not serious

    By such sort of strategy it is obvious that it is impossible repeat the Conte-Pieralice experiment in any university, so that to prove that its results are correct (in 2002 I tried to repeat the experiment in several universities of Brazil, and all they refused to repeat it).

    wladimir guglinski

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Interesting, thank you,
    Warm Regards,

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Reply by Dr. Atilla Csolo

    > From:
    > Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    > To:
    > Date: Wed, 21 Aug 2013 15:40:29 +0200
    > What I read at the link you sent me was something like: we
    > put hydrogen gas into a cylinder, made some sparks inside,
    > then put some detectors there, and saw something, and then with
    > a giant leap of faith, they conclude that electrons and protons
    > fuse into neutrons. That is ridiculous. This is not a physics
    > experiment, physics has passed this level 400 years ago. I can
    > only repeat myself: read the papers of physics journals to learn
    > how to put together a scientific experiment, and how to report
    > its results. You can not spare this effort. There is no royal
    > road to science.
    > In principle, there is nothing in Rossi’s work which
    > contradicts fundamental physics. Ni+p fusion is possible,
    > although with a very small cross section. There are
    > strange things with his effect, however. For example, he does
    > not say explicitely if he found gamma photons, or not.
    > If there were really fusion taking place, then he should
    > get 6.2MeV photons. This is obviously not the case (he
    > would be dead by now, because the shielding is not enough
    > on his gadget). I don’t know how this 6.2MeV photon would
    > transform into keV photons, which he may have seen. The problem
    > is, that Rossi never published his results in detail, in
    > a reproducible way. So, we don’t know yet, if he found
    > a new effect to beat the Coulomb barrier, or not. If he
    > found such an effect, then he would get the Nobel prize for it.
    > But, once again, he should publish his results in full
    > detail. But, then again, he wants to be a billionaire, instead.
    > A friend of mine ordered a gadget from Rossi last year. If he gets
    > it, we will put detectors in the place of the energy absorber,
    > to find out what comes out of it, whether it is really fusion,
    > and how it works, if it is. Then I will get the Nobel prize, if
    > Rossi does not want it (I don’t care about the billions).

    My reply:

    Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment
    Date: Sat, 31 Aug 2013 09:58:16 -0300

    Dear Dr, Csoto
    sorry the delay to answer your reply, because I was out of my house where I have the file with the Conte-Pieralice experiment.

    So, let me comment your last email

    1) ========
    First of all, I dont understand why Borghi experiment is not a physics experiment.

    Let’s analyse his experiment:

    1- He put hydrigen gas into a cylinder
    2- He used a high-frequency ionizing e.m. field (the same used by Andrea Rossi)
    3- He had placed a detector of neutrons outside the cylinder
    4- Along months he had collected data concerning the neutrons which had collided into the detector
    5- The quantity of neutrons which had collided in the collector are very far away higher then the background of neutrons.

    So, I would like you explain me the following:

    a) Why it is not a physics experiment
    b) How do you explain the excess neutrons detected beyond the level of neutron’s background ?
    c) If you have any doubt about the experiment, why dont you repeat it yourself ? All the parameters used in the experiment are described in the paper, and therefore it can be repeated in any laboratory (ask the help of an experimentalist, and repeat the experiment yourself. This is the procedure we expect from a scientist, and not to claim that a scientific experiment is ridiculous, without trying to repeat it. Because I presume that you have not a laboratory into your head. Your claim that Borghi experiment is ridiculous is not according to the scientific method).

    2) ========
    Concerning the Rossi’s effect, you claim that Ni+p fusion is possible at low energy.
    Therefore you claim that cold fusion is possible.
    Then I dont understand why the nuclear theorists do not use such new information in their theories of nuclear synthesis in the sun. After all, some nuclear fusions in the sun are not well understood yet.

    Besides, as you claim that cold fusion is possible, then there is need to change entirelly the theory of the fusion of elements within the stars. There is need to change the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cicle, by introducing in it the possibility of cold fusion reactions within the sun.

    wladimir guglinski

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, there is a major need for Clean Cook stoves.
    They hope to sell 100 million in the next 7 years.

    A stove that burns charcoal is deadly in two ways.
    The smoke kills many people each year.
    They cut down all the trees from a Mountainside, to make charcoal.
    When it rains the mud slides down the Mountain, and buries the Villge at the bottom, and the 5,000 or more people who live there.
    They do not try and recover the bodies, they are already buried.

    I wish there was an E-Cat stove.
    The fuel cost would be very low, less than charcoal, and 100%
    safe, and zero emissions.

    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • KD

    Dear Mr.Rémi André I will try to say what Mr. rossi cannot.

    August 29th, 2013 at 3:03 PM
    Dear Mr Rossi,

    >> Thank you for your kind answer. The reason why I asked you >> to give the keys of the eCat is that I think that this major >> discovery should belong to the entire mankind.

    Not true. You are to much idealistic. Creator is the owner of his ceation.

    >> As an external observer I thought that your device was not >>.so complicated to realize. Ingredients (Ni,H, secret
    >> catalyst) are cheap and since the micropowder is not
    >> nanometric powder the safety issues seem simplified. But all >> these considerations are the ones of an external observer as >> I am.

    So far, we all are.

    >> Of course releasing the secret would have tremendous
    >> consequences for you and your business plan. Numerous clowns
    >> would try to sell their own device without considering the
    >> safety of the consumers.
    >> There would be accidents, injuries, deaths maybe.

    So Mr.Rossi try to avoid.

    >> I think you are right on these points. But by releasing the >> secret you could also bring to all of us the most important >> invention since fire.

    WE will see, as Mr. Rossi say the real product on the market will be the best prove.

    >> Your invention would be the beginning of a new era.
    >> Inventors, engineers, scientists of the entire world would >> study the eCat and improve it.

    About improving, I think Mr. Rossi and his team is working about.
    About competition, my point of view is. Go to work, find something better and not just copy what Mr. Rossi build.

    >> Of course I am not certain of all of these consequences and >> your point of view is certainly not a stupid one. This is
    >> the point where our visions are fundamentally different you >> have the vision of an entrepreneur and I have a scientist
    >> one…

    Warm regards
    Remi André

    Warm regards too, for you honest intentions.
    But have in mind, that Vladimir Ilich Lenin had good ideas for saving humanity, but ended in the death of millions and incredible suffering by hundreds of millions of others in many countries who survived.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Remi Andrè:
    You made your point, which I respect.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Herb Gills:
    Thank you, interesting,
    Warm Regards,

  • Rémi André

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Thank you for your kind answer. The reason why I asked you to give the keys of the eCat is that I think that this major discovery should belong to the entire mankind. As an external observer I thought that your device was not so complicated to realize. Ingredients (Ni,H, secret catalyst) are cheap and since the micropowder is not nanometric powder the safety issues seem simplified. But all these considerations are the ones of an external observer as I am. Of course releasing the secret would have tremendous consequences for you and your business plan. Numerous clowns would try to sell their own device without considering the safety of the consumers. There would be accidents, injuries, deaths maybe. I think you are right on these points. But by releasing the secret you could also bring to all of us the most important invention since fire. Your invention would be the beginning of a new era. Inventors, engineers, scientists of the entire world would study the eCat and improve it.
    Of course I am not certain of all of these consequences and your point of view is certainly not a stupid one. This is the point where our visions are fundamentaly different you have the vision of an entrepreneur and I have a scientist one…

    Warm regards
    Remi André

  • Herb Gillis

    Dear Dr. Rossi:
    It is known that electric current may be produced directly from the decay of radioactive materials (such as alpha emitters) without the use of a thermal conversion device. Examples of such non-thermal conversion devices are provided in expired US Pat. Nos. 4835433 and 3939366.
    It occurred to me the possibility that the types of devices (and principles) described in these expired patents might be useful to you for the direct (non-thermal) production of electricity in an Ecat device. This would have the potential advantages of not requiring very high temperatures, moving parts, and circulating fluids.
    Whatever the reactions that are taking place in the Ecat, they are clearly very energetic. They undoubtedly produce an enormous recoil near the site of each reaction event, which may be similar in some ways to the emission of alpha or beta particles from a radioactive solid (but only when the LENR reactions are taking place). It stands to reason that these recoil events, and the ejection of reaction products, near the site of reaction will produce charged particles near the site of reaction (ie. reaction products, combined with ions ejected from the lattice by recoil).
    Hopefully the information in these references may be useful in some way, however small. Please accept my apology in advance if you have already seen them.
    Kind regards; HRG.

  • Andrea Rossi

    To the Readers:
    We of the JoNP decided to publish in September in the Journal of Nuclear Physics the lessons of Mathematics that I got from Prof. Sergio Focardi four years ago, when I asked him mathematical help for theoretical calculations. He gave me few very intense and useful pages that have been extremely useful to my work, so I hope these pages will be useful to all our Readers studying LENR.
    My mentor and friend Sergio Focardi will continue to teach also from where he is now to our community.
    Warm Regards,

  • KD

    Mr Remi Andre.
    You wrote…
    >>>> I have also participated to a scientific study on a very controversial subject : life after death experience (called NDE Near Death Experience). I have no complete answer of course of what happens after we die but a great part of the people who did experience such experiences said that they were feeling all the good and bad things we did to the other people. If it’s true, by giving the keys of this wonderful invention you’ll be in the “nirvana”….<<<<<

    As those , who experienced the NDE effect testify, it look like the spirit of the person get out of body and can see everything around.
    We may look also from the point of view that, the real human person is the spirit form, in the like skafander suit, build of the matter we know, to operate in the material word, as a creator tool to continue his creation.

    Long time ago I found out that, when I was in relax condition when going asleep but still awaken, and I try to see something with my eye closed, I could see pictures.
    I realised that it is something what my eyes saw, and stored in the memory section of my brain.

    One time at work at lunch time, as usual I went to locker room upstairs to take a nap.
    When I was at relax condition i just try if I can see any picture with my closed eye.

    And then I see, something you can see on sci-fi movie.
    I see oval hole in the wall, trough it I see the space downstairs of the building, from which earlier that day, we removed machine for shipping to the customer.
    The space was clean and lited like it was really done.
    My partner which we builded machine together, and was temporary as lead man, was standing-leaning on my bench, legs crossed on each other, looking at the empty space.

    It was "not" like I got out of body. I saw this guy at the angle from up stairs and halve right-front direction.
    Just from the place I was and that time and in straight direction of my face and eyes at that moment.

    This gave me something to think about, that existence of third eye might be right. That, it is the eye the spirit can see through the mater.
    I don't have any abnormal abilities. I think that it was like short circuit in the brain, to the part of brain we are not able to use.
    It might be as an effect, we were seriously involved in what we were doing and at that moment our brains synchronized at the same frequency.
    It happened to me many times with other peoples, I was involved seriously in work.
    That when I was thinking about something we should do, my partner start talking about.
    Just like telepathy.:)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giuliano Bettini
    The Jazz band is the real problem.
    So far.
    Warm regards

  • KD

    Mr. Remi Andre
    It is wrong to demand from somebody who sacrificed years of work and spend lot of money to give it away, without recovering own expenses.
    If everyone jump on the wagon, of building Rossis E-Cats, only the financially strongest will survive. Others will get bankrupt (even inventor) and lose not only theirs own money but also investors.
    As we can see it in solar panel industries, were also large amount taxpayers money were lost. In example, Solindra (over half of billion of public money).

    There is nothing free. Even the really free energy as solar energy and gravity it cost to use it.
    Also the laws about security of product on the market, even if it is different in each country. It is to secure public from accidents, but also is abuse by the bureaucracy.

    Authorities have the right come to you, confiscate the illegal without proper security certification devices.
    Also can punish you financially or even put into jail.

    We can see it all over the world. In many countries, even inventor have no right to use his own invention without proper permission.

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Dear Andrea,
    for quite some time now you started talking about informations to share BAD OR GOOD.
    What do you refer with “BAD”?
    -the jazz band was found to be impossible? 🙂
    -broken the relations with the partner?
    -the Cat seemed to work, and yet nothing works?
    -delays in production / industrialization?
    Warm Regards
    Giuliano Bettini

  • Steven N. Karels


    In my opinion, the release of eCat techology without license would be socially bad. Even after IP protection (e.g., a patent), firms will reverse engineer the process, modify it slightly and develop their own “IP”. At least it will be in the hands of well-funded and professional companies to safely provide energy producing devices.

    To do an open architecture will invite amateurs to attempt this and we will see enormous safety problems. Not nuclear weapons but explosions, fires, etc. At least the companies have to worry about lawsuits to force them to produce a good and safe product.

    If eCat technology can be well received and implemented, we can see a relaxing of the tensions over energy availability. The world has enough problems without wars over energy production/supply.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Remi Andre’:
    I answered many times to this issue. To give away the IP will kill all the serious investments, for obvious reasons. We are making a rigorous work of test and validation and when it will have been finished our technology will reach a wide diffusion made by the concerns that now are investing because they have an IP.
    My responsibility is to make this technology have the strongest possible backing to be really useful, not to go to the Nirvana. Honestly, I think we have to serve God not to go to the Nirvana, but to merit the life and give a sense to it. If you want to really diffuse a technology you need real backing, and no backing has ever been given to open source stuff. You have a paradigmatic example if you make a comparative analisys between Linus and Microsoft. Should we give away the IP we would lose all the serious backers and should have a Brancaleon’s Armada of clowns playing with it.
    About the situation in Siria, I do not agree with you. The situation in Siria is enormously more complex than you say, even if today they always say that whatever happens of bad is born by the bad guys dealing with energy. As a matter of fact the sociological evolution ( revolution?) in Africa and Middle East has much more complex origins: it is the difficult awakening of a people that disrupts equilibria made by leadind classes that have not understood the line of evolution of History. Energy plays a marginal role in this situation.
    Thank you for your kind and persistent attention, for which I conserve gratitude.
    Warm Regards,

  • Rémi André

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I follow your work since the 14th of January 2011. I wrote three articles on webzines about LENR and I did translate the slideshow of Mr Van Houwelingen in French in order to catch the attention of French people. I also spoke of your work to all of my numerous pupils around me. Today if I am writing to you it is to ask you to make something that is completly out of your business plan. The world lives very great tensions between the OTAN and the Syrian which are allied of Russians. A major war can begin like this. The gazing of innocent children in Damascus has not been proven to be the result of Bachar El-Assad’s army but Mr Obama is decided to attack. Of course, the moral pretext of protecting innocent Syrian citizens hide the true reason, and this reason is, as usual, energy. Syria is exactly located where the qatari gaz pipes are supposed to be installed in order to play a major role in the commerce of gaz.
    I know you worked hard in your life and espacially concerning this project. Asking you to give all the secrets you have concerning the e-cat is more than probably useless but I needed to ask you to do so.
    I am not only teaching physics and chemistry to teenagers. I have also participated to a scientific study on a very controversial subject : life after death experience (called NDE Near Death Experience). I have no complete answer of course of what happens after we die but a great part of the people who did experience such experiences said that they were feeling all the good and bad things we did to the other people. If it’s true, by giving the keys of this wonderful invention you’ll be in the “nirvana”….

    What a big responsability you have in your hands Mr Rossi….

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fabio 82:
    As you know there is considerable speculation about the Rossi effect. While we test our work it will be for me impossible to talk about what we are doing. When we will have information to share – good or bad- it will be done.
    Warm Regards,

  • Fabio82

    Dear Andrea, in your opinion, which should be the e cat’s annus (or even mensis) mirabilis?
    Thank you

  • Martyn Aubrey



    Washed down with a glass of red wine…

    Hearty Regards,

  • Martyn Aubrey

    Hello Steven, Thank you for your supportive comments.

    As you said, the smoke from badly ventilated cooking fires is deadly, particularly with the burning of animal dung as fuel.

    If this stove is practical and could be built, it would make a huge difference to the lives of many people in poorer rural areas around the World.

    At the moment the stove is just a concept. However, I wonder if once the larger e-cats are built commercially on a large scale and widely in service, maybe with Andrea’s kind support the research teams might be able to find some spare time and resources to try to make a small prototype. Please, Andrea keep this in mind for future research, Thank you.

    Kind regards,

  • Aah!!!
    An ecat steak, well done for me please!
    Just joke, regards, Giuseppe

  • Steven N. Karels

    Martyn and Andrea Rossi,

    An excellent idea. A typical stove consumes around 2 kWh per hour of operation. What is proposed is a dual use – stove for cooking and space heater. Given the need to throttle back the output during warm times of the day or season, I suspect micro-eCat units, in the order of 100 W maybe needed. This would allow control to about 5% if the maximum output was 2 kW or 1% if the maximum output was 10kW.

    This assumes that 100W eCat reactors were possible and that mass production lowered the cost to a competitive range. Many developing nations burn wood in their rural areas causing air pollution, illness, etc. It would be marvelous if eCat solved this human and environmental problem area.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Martyn Aubrey:
    No reason not to publish your comment.
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,

  • Martyn Aubrey

    Andrea, please don’t post this if you think it is too over simplified, or gives too much away.


    A crazy, slightly frivolous idea not truly practical in the short term, but who knows after the long hard slog of certification and acceptance testing of the e-cat?:

    An e-cat stove-heater… For use in the remoter areas of The World, away from the luxuries of grid electricity and piped gas supplies.

    This is an imagining of a possible development of the Cat & Mouse e-cat for portable heating use.

    The heating module consists of two thin, horizontal, flat disc shaped containers.

    The lower disc is the Mouse and the upper disc is the Cat. They are filled with just enough treated nickel powder fuel and hydrogen tablets to give out heat to warm a large tent or cabin but not cause a fire risk.

    The discs are held apart at a small predetermined fixed distance, set to create a Mouse COP of very slightly over Unity, possibly separated by small ceramic heat insulators.

    The unit would be initiated by heating the Mouse from below with a conventional gas camping stove or canister fed blow-torch and the Mouse heated until LENR commences.

    The Mouse then heats up the Cat directly above it to the point that the Cat LENR starts.

    Sufficient feedback would be generated between the Mouse and the Cat to self-sustain the LENR and radiate local heat for warming the immediate surroundings.

    The temporary gas heat source is now removed and the LENR heat feedback loop self-sustains the ongoing heat generation, maybe for many months.

    The heating module could be mounted in a free-standing metal tubular shaped frame, standing firmly on four legs on the ground.

    The Cat would be fixed to the frame by fixing points on its rim with the Mouse positioned directly below the Cat.

    The frame acts as a guard to prevent people touching the sides of the hot discs, and to act as a chimney drawing cool air upwards past the heating module.

    The top of the stove would be flat, so you could easily cook a meal on it.

    To switch off the heater, the Mouse is pulled down by an eye-loop fixed to its lower surface. The Mouse would be pulled away from the Cat to a distance that breaks the heat feedback loop and both the Mouse and the Cat allowed to cool down, stopping the LENR.

    I would envisage the heater being used as a long term heat generator, not switched on and off regularly, otherwise the benefit of being independent of extra fuel supplies would be lost.

    If the heater could be cheaply produced it could be distributed, or sold at cost plus shipping, to Third World countries where there is a shortage of clean heating and cooking fuel.

    To bring the stove into quick beneficial usage, the initial distribution could be to aid agencies working in disaster zones.

    Also, the Dual Flat-Plate concept could even be scaled up for commercial/industrial use.

    Maybe not so frivolous after all?

    Warming Regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eric Ashworth:
    Thank you for your kind words.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eugenio Mieli:
    Actually, the mechanism of the Rossi effect makes different the duration, but I cannot give you more information about it, in any sense.
    Warm Regards,

  • Eugenio Mieli

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I get back on the subject of energy per gram of Ni just because today you have done this clarification on the maximum extractable energy.

    Going into more detail, the mass of an atom of Ni is equal to:

    M (Ni) = 58,69 amu = 9,75 x 10^-27 kg

    The development of maximum energy of the atom of Ni is therefore (annihilation energy, E = mc^2):

    E(1 atom Ni) = 8,775 x 10^-9 J = 5,4768 x 10^4 MeV

    which, multiplied by about 10^22 atoms per g of Ni, gives the 25.000.000 kWh that you mentioned.

    However, in nuclear hot fusion reactions the energy exchanged per atom is about 15 MeV, while in the fission of uranium 235, about 200 MeV.

    I do not know what exactly is the energy exchanged in the Rossi effect, but this would place probably in the range of 10-100 MeV.

    Therefore the energy actually available from the reaction Ni-H should be about less than one hundredth of the total annihilation energy.

    This calculation would lead the duration of the charging of 1 g of Ni for a reactor of 10 kW to about one or few months (about 1.000 h).

    Is this correct?

    Thank you,


  • eric ashworth

    Dear Andrea Rossi, Thanks for your reply 20th August inst. It does not explain the behaviour that I have experienced and continue to experience but I do understand your position and I wish you all the best in getting the e-cat technology into the industrial market place. If it does get acceptance into the industrial market will it still remain a virtual mystery to the general public? or do you think you will be allowed to publish its technology?. Being the inventor I would assume you would, like all inventors, want to share your knowledge especially if as you say it does not violate any known physics principles. In the meantime I like many others will follow your progress with great interest. All the best Eric Ashworth.

  • Andrea Rossi

    I owe to the Readers a correction: in my comment od August 12 2013, 6.35 a.m. I wrote
    1 g of mass = 23 000 000 kWh.
    I have corrected the equation as follows:
    1 g of matter is equal to 25 000 000 kWh.
    This was not a typo, but an error: I remembered wrongly the number. I ricalculated, using obviously the Einstein equation, and I discovered the error. Sorry. The substance of the comment, anyway, does not change.

  • Jan.Gustavsson

    Thank you very much, I am celebrating, because I won!
    You could be a great teacher.
    Many thanks from Sweden,

  • Andrea Rossi

    He,he,he… nice bet. I have studied all I could of the Higgs Boson, and, as a matter of fact, it is very difficult to explain what it is and how it works without the rigorous language of mathematics; this said, I want to help you win your bet, even if I am sure my “vulgarization” will raise not few eyebrows.
    To explain what is the Higgs Boson and how it works we need a model easy to be understood.
    Let us start from an attempt of scientific definition, and then down to the model.
    The Higgs Boson is a scalar boson that breaking the symmetry makes the particles get mass ( or, better, “feel ” the mass).
    Now the model: imagine a biosphere, a closed glass sphere in which you have no gravity and nothing at all inside, but cats and butterflies ( no snakes, all gone to sell apples). In this situation of no-gravity and no hurdles inside the biosphere inside the glass sphere you can see from outside cats and butterflies move and fly without difficulty and with no much difference between their lines of movement: up, down, clockwise, counterclockwise , left, right, and so on: you can say that between them there is a sort of a symmetry, because they move symmetrically in the biosphere, due to the fact that they don’t meet any obstacle, nor pull from anywhere. Now imagine that after this calm ( and inconclusive) symmetrical situation, arrives the game- changer, which is the fact that inside the glass ball of the biosphere we put gravity and also put inside a big bunch of flowers. At this point, the symmetry is broken, because, while the butterflies continue to fly around, even if with less easiness, the cats fall down and move with difficulty among the flowers: in few words, they FEEL their mass.
    Now, consider that in the model the butterflies are the bosons, the cats are the fermions and the gravity combined with the flowers are the Higgs Boson.
    The Higgs Boson has spin zero ( is a scalar force): as a matter of fact it does not move, like the flowers, while the fermions and the bosons are vectorial forces because they have total orbital angular momentum ( orbital momentum + intrinsic spin), and also have an isospin, which in the lattice model is determined by their position along the z axis of the lattice. Without the Higgs Bosons, the particles would fly linearly without interact and the Universe would be very boring: a lot of waves at the speed of light going on straight for ever. The chaos created by the Higgs Boson has generated everything: atoms, molecules, everything. Probably for this reason it has been called the “Particle of God”. I hope the Higgs Boson also will make you win your bet.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thank you for your enthusiasm to help us, but: this is not a product, is an interesting prototype, but not mature for industrial application, so far.
    We will follow its development with interest.
    Warm Regards,

  • Jan.Gustavsson

    Dear Dr Rossi: are you able to explain to us not expert what is and how works
    the “Particle of God”? I made a bet with friends that you are able to make simple what is difficult.


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