To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

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by
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U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
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Introduction
In this paper by highlighting the following 28 major short comings of modern big bang cosmology the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way [1-3].
From now onwards instead of focusing on ‘big bang cosmology’ it is better to concentrate on ‘black hole cosmology’.
Its validity can be well confirmed from a combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena.
It can be suggested that, there exists one variable physical quantity in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude can be considered as a “standard measure” of the present “cosmic rate of expansion”.
Michael E. McCulloch says [4]: For an observer in an expanding universe there is a maximum volume that can be observed, since beyond the Hubble distance the velocity of recession is greater than the speed of light and the redshift is infinite: this is the Hubble volume.
Its boundary is similar to the event horizon of a black hole because it marks a boundary to what can be observed.
This means that it is reasonable to assume that Hawking radiation is emitted at this boundary both outwards and inwards to conserve energy, and any wavelength that does not fit exactly within this size cannot be allowed for the inwards radiation, and therefore also for the outwards radiation.
According to Hawking, the mass of a black hole is linearly related to its temperature or inversely-linearly related to the wavelength of the Hawking radiation it emits.
Therefore, for a given size of the universe there is a maximum Hawking wavelength it can have and a minimum allowed gravitational mass it can have.
If its mass was less than this then the Hawking radiation would have a wavelength that is bigger than the size of the observed universe and would be disallowed.
The minimum mass it predicts is encouragingly close to the observed mass of the Hubble volume.
Thus it is possible to model the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon.
According to Tinaxi Zhang [5-7], the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses and gradually grew up through a super massive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes.
According to N. J. Poplawski [8-11], the Universe is the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole and began with the formation of the black hole from a supernova explosion in the center of a galaxy.
He theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.
Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.
Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.
The rotation of a black hole would influence the space-time on the other side of its event horizon and results in a preferred direction in the new universe.
Most recently cosmologists Razieh Pourhasan, Niayesh Afshordi and Robert B. Manna have proposed [12] that the Universe formed from the debris ejected when a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole – a scenario that would help to explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.

644 comments to To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    As a scientist, I am not superstitious, but I think is better not to talk of celebrations before the positive results are achieved.
    Anyway: I will forget nobody, in the good and in the bad, whatever happens, either positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giannino Ferro Casagrande

    Caro Andrea sono da anni che Ti seguo sperando presto di avere in casa i 4 E-CAT che Ti ho ordinato da tempo . Ora leggo , su indicazione dello Steven , che ci potrebbe essere una qualche festicciola ( IMMENSA ) nell’occasione di un successo consolidato dato dall’effetto “ROSSI ”
    Rammenta che io sono una tra i primi che spero vivamente in un successo dei Tuoi immensi sforzi , quindi rammenta che io vorrei esserci assolutamente in tale occasione ! Giannino di Udine

    Dear Andrea, I follow your work since your first steps: if at the end of the tests the results will be positive and there will be a celebration, please do not forget me.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco Serra:
    1- They measure the energy production with their gauges as any steam generator has. Besides, they have another “gauge” that is the most important of all: they have set their production to a level that demands 1 MWh/h of energy, so that either they receive such amount of energy, or their production is not fullfilled.
    2- The thermal output is constant in time, obviously with exception of the transitories during the start up and the shut down cycles.
    3- The control system maintains a constant output, so that we do not have relevant fluctuations: the values are maintained within the allowed band.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Well, this is a very good idea.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    One of these days, when eCat is a commercial success and you have your intellectual property protected by patent(s), you should throw a party and invite all your JONP admirers to join you in celebration. You might even invite me!

  • Marco Serra

    Dear Andrea,
    I wonder how does the Costumer measure Her performances. The requested energy is easy to measure, even the electricity bill can be a measure of it. But how the produced energy is measured ? Do they measure the steam production or what ?
    Is the thermal output a constant in time ? Or is it a floating value ? Do sometimes happen that the output is significantly more than 1MW ? And if yes are these fluctuations recorded and taken into account in the overall performance calculation ?

    God bless you

    Marco Serra

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    What is the outcome of the fuel exhaustion test?
    Is it terminated?
    If the answer is “yes”, then I have some more questions:
    1) How much does a charge last?
    2) What does change to the module with age?
    3) What is the initial, middle and final COP?

    Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    When you say you arrange the Hot Cats in clusters to increase power, are you able to use one Hot Cat reactor to drive another, thus reducing overall energy consumption from the grid?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine: thank you for this interesting information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fyodor:
    At the end of the present cycle of tests and R&D in the factory of IH’s Customer, if the results will be positive, the product will be ready, apart the normal evolution it will eventually go through, as any product does.
    The Hot Cat modules will too be assembled in clusters to increase the power.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fyodor

    Mr. Rossi

    Thank you for the update on the Hot-Cat. Do you think that it is close to being ready for industrialization/commercialization or that it still requires additional efforts to refine the stability/control/etc? Is there a comparable design for the Hot-Cat to your 1MW plant (in which you have serialized devices, unified control, etc) or are they being designed primarily as stand-alone devices.

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my question.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    Another typo. “Diamondoid” threads, not Diamandoid threads.

    Trying to get the spelling correct.

    Joseph Fine

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    Here is more on Diamond (or Diamandoid) threads.

    http://spie.org/x112253.xml?ArticleID=x112253

    Adamantane regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Joseph Fine

    Uh oh, here is the link. Please add:

    http://www.foresight.org/nanodot/?p=6550

    Joseph Fine

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Another comment in my series on new forms of Carbon.

    Yet another form of Carbon has been shown to exist, Diamond Nanothreads. The Diamond nanothreads are surrounded by a halo of Hydrogen atoms.

    excerpt from article:

    “From a fundamental-science point of view, our discovery is intriguing because the threads we formed have a structure that has never been seen before,” Badding said. The core of the nanothreads that Badding’s team made is a long, thin strand of carbon atoms arranged just like the fundamental unit of a diamond’s structure — zig-zag “cyclohexane” rings of six carbon atoms bound together, in which each carbon is surrounded by others in the strong triangular-pyramid shape of a tetrahedron.

    “It is as if an incredible jeweler has strung together the smallest possible diamonds into a long miniature necklace,” Badding said. “Because this thread is diamond at heart, we expect that it will prove to be extraordinarily stiff, extraordinarily strong, and extraordinarily useful.”

    —-

    Perhaps, an extraordinary conductor of heat as well.

    Extraordinary regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    1) Is it possible to change gradually the charges without stopping the whole plant for two days? For instance, stopping only a subset of the modules, letting them get cold and then open the chambers and replace the charges? With adeguate over-provisioning you can even maintain the rated output while changing only a subset of reactors at a time…
    2) Have you performed, started or at least planned a test with fuel exhaustion? As far I can uderstand, after one year you will change the charges to the plant, regardless fuel exhaustion, so we will not know if the charge would have last more than one year. A “longest run test” would be interesting also for COP characterization and performances under aged charge…

    Regards,
    Marco.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alexus:
    Thank you for your concern. Obviously safety first. We are working with full control of the 1MW E-Cat and our gauges give us all the possible information about all the safety issues involved in the operation, in full respect of the safety certification we got.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alexvs

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I have read the Silvio Caggia’s post and I am seriously concerned about your/ your team security. Even if you do not reach the contractual performance, please do not take risks. Any COP from 3 to 4 will be a great success and I am sure you can count with IH understanding even if 4 figure were not gotten.

    Take care

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    Thank you for your assumptions. I cannot disclose contractual clauses that are covered by NDA.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills.
    Obviously I cannot give this kind of information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    Due to the recent improvements you mentioned, how long are you able to maintain self sustain mode (constant or increasing temperature with zero input) in prototype individual high temperature E-Cat reactors?

    Does the higher ratio of Ni-62 in the spent E-Cat fuel/ash improve the performance of the re-processed fuel?

    What level of proton energies do you think the lithium in the E-Cat is encountering?

    Do you think the vaporization of the lithium provides a rate increase or nuclear cross section benefit? According to Ikegami there is a benefit when the lithium phase changes from solid to liquid, but he does not specify anything about vaporous lithium.

    Is the mouse in the mouse-cat setup you describe providing stimulation for the cat in the form of energetic protons that can undergo reactions with Li7?

    Have you ever placed the fuel of an E-Cat (just turned off) into a cloud chamber to look for alpha particle trails?

  • silvio caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Now it’s clear to me the meaning of your motto: “positive or negative”.
    You are not talking about the Rossi effect, that you consider obviously “verified”, you are talking about the fulfillment of contractual Service Level Agreements between IH and the Customer.
    The Plant needs to produce at least 1MW of thermal power for h24/24 350/400 days using at most 250kW of electric input power!
    In other words the plant can’t have more than 50 “negative days” over 400 trial test days, right?
    The numbers that I extrapolated (I omit the math) from your historical assertions about the customer trial test are that, till now, the plant has produced a bit less that the half of the requested “positive days”, but has also produced a bit more that the half of the tolerated “negative days”.
    In other words, if the ratio negative days/positive days will remain the same, the global result of the test will be negative!
    Am I wrong?
    Obviously I hope that the second half of the test will have a better ratio, and that all big problems were solved in the first half of the trial test.
    Do you have the same hope?
    Now it’s clear to me that the game is not about COP (with COP 20 you have already dropped the energy cost by 95%) but about reliability of the plant (50 “negative days” over 400 is still not acceptable for many industrial processes!).
    In other words, it’s no more time of creative thinkers but it’s time of engineers…
    Reliable Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gregg Testen:
    Yes, it is. We have very good results, also due to a substantial modification made after the Lugano test’s results, upon which we have studied very, very much.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bruno Galvan:
    I would settle for a parachute.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bruno Galvan

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I do my best wishes because when you wake up you are actually in a a green park with a beautiful lady 🙂

    Sincerely, Bruno Galvan

  • Dr Rossi:
    did I understand well that the Hot Cat you are testing in the container of the computers inside the factory of your customer is the basic module to make the domestic Ecats? How is behaving?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1- during the test and R&D period we are free to make any change we deem opportune
    2- 2 days
    3- aggregate and individual
    4- during this period the E-Cat 1MW is always manned by our Team, even if it normally would not be necessary: the control system makes it man- free, but in this period we have to study it constantly, being the first plant in operation 24/7 in the factory of a Customer
    5- we are following the procedures foreseen in the contract, which are under NDA.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    He,he,he…
    Obviously I do not agree, but your comment is funny.
    Permanent Regards,
    A.R.

  • orsobubu

    > Andrea Rossi
    > May 1st, 2015 at 7:48 AM

    > BroKeeper, I cannot give the numbers, as correctly Steven N Karels anticipated and,
    > also, after consulting Orsobubu, I have to add that what we have now is not the
    > final result, things can worsen substantially in time and the final results could
    > be either positive or negative

    One of the absolutely craziest events in the history of the world is Andrea Rossi and his accolites pretending that the orsobubu works his butt off as consultant about the positive and the negative just on May 1st, the day all socialists, anarchists and internationalists of the whole planet celebrate their working class. Clearly here there is no respect for the orsobubu, with someone wanting the slavery be suddenly restored for the sake of the cold fusion. The very idea of Andrea Rossi himself and the Fabian striving 16 hours straight in the container on the day of May 1st, makes my two COPs break down to -15 level.

    Traditionally, due to the strong anticommunist connotation developed in United States after the October Revolution, May 1st assumed the meaning exactly opposite, at least at the official level: americanization day, loyalty day, law day… the paradox is that, originally, the celebration was instituted just after the tragic Haymarket affair, Which occurred in Chicago on May 4 1886.

    In US, the memory is kept alive mainly by immigrants from those countries where there is a strong May Day tradition, as in Latin America. In March 2008, the International Longshore and Warehouse Union announced that dockworkers wouldn’t have moved any CONTAINER at West Coast ports on May 1st as a protest against the continuation of the Iraq War and the diversion of resources from domestic needs.

    But Andrea Rossi beats everyone related to containers, including the Americans themselves, and May 1st 2015 spent 16 hours INSIDE his one; he comes from Italy, works in America and loves Russia, and he is an interesting synthesis of the three cultures, perfectly fused in the new human kind known as the Creative Stakapitalist: italian creativity, russian stakanovism and american capitalism. So at this point, for consistency, I ask that he establishes September 7, US Labour Day 2015, as the Container Day instead, sweating 24 consecutive hours inside it. At his great convenience, on the morning of September 8, he will be already there, in the stinking Container, up to start his next regular 16 hours shift. He will peep his head out of the doors expecting to see the team is busy and his coffee is fizzling and instead he will stare at the void and at a big red cartel with only six capital letters painted on it: S-T-R-I-K-E.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1- While the test is ongoing, are you allowed to make significant changes to the software or firmware of the 1MW control system?

    2- If the eCat fuel “runs out” as shown by a decrease in efficiency, how long will it take to replace all the charges (hours or days)?

    3- I assume you are monitoring the individual eCat reactor’s efficiency or do you only monitor the aggregate efficiency?

    4- You state you are with the unit many hours a day. I assume the unit is operating 24 hours per day, 7 days a week. Is in unmanned during those times when you are not there or is there another member of your team (or someone else) who mans it?

    5- Is the customer actively participating in the operation of the 1MW system? Has the customer’s technical people been trained on operations and maintenance. I assume at the end of the 400 days (or 350 days of operation), the operational control will transition to the customer’s technical staff. Is this true?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daniel de Francia:
    Lost the accounting. The test will end between December 2015 February 2016.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bruno Galvan:
    Let me make an example: suppose that a sleepwalker falls down from the 70th floor of a skyscraper, without realizing it because he is dreaming to walk across a green park with a beautiful lady. Suddenly somebody approaches him by a deltaplane at the height of the 20st floor and asks him, who is still sleeping his dream: ” Hey, guy: if within 30 seconds you will be well as you are now, would you repeat the experience?”
    Let us finish the test, then I will answer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    The 1MW E-Cat does not have the power to supply 1 MWh/h of energy without the Rossi Effect. The total power of the resistances is about 250 kW, therefore by Joule effect we can give max 250 kWh/h of energy. This is why we have to study well the duration of the charges and, until we have not a precise idea, we have fixed in 6 months the fuellife. This time we have the possibility to try 1 year; obviously as soon as we notice a decrease of efficiency we change the charge.
    Since we have 400 days at our disposal to operate 350 days, in this test and R&D agreed upon with the Customer, we have room for this experiment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • silvio caggia

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    In the improbable hipothesis that the fuel suddenly finishes, is the plant able to continue working for days at COP 1 relying only on the joule effect?
    In other words, does the customer need to programme with large time ahead the refuelling or can he wait the fuel total consumption, then to request the manutention operations and wait for its execution for days without stopping the production process (obviously at the cost of a 1MW electric power consumption for those days)?
    No-stop Regards

  • Bruno Galvan

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I reformulate the question of Silvio Gaggia: suppose that the e-cat works until the end of the test as it worked, say, during the last mounth. Would the result of the test be positive in this case?

    Best regards, Bruno Galvan

  • Daniel de França

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    at what day of the 350 day run are you in?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Peter Metz:
    The plant, if the positive results will be obtained, will continue to make Her job in the factory of the Customer: if the E-Cat makes money, there is no reason to decommission Her!
    The fuel will be changed after one year, along the programmed maintainance, provided it will not be necessary to change the charge before: we are very curious about this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    OK. Thank you anyway for your insight.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    My imagination set aside (a difficult thing to do in practice), with a two or three level control system (mice, cats and tigers, oh my) and about 100+ units, there are a limited amount of variable arrangements that make any sense. My writing was about one possible configuration. When the 400 day period has passed, and your team celebrates with Champaign (or diet soda), please remember my posts to see how close they are to reality.

  • Peter Metz

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You mentioned that the plan is to run the 1MW for a year skipping the 6 month refueling and that there is some uncertainty involved with this. This brought to mind the question of what will happen to the plant after the 1 year trial period? Assuming success, for example will the plant be shutdown and decommissioned for study, or run until the fuel exhausts, or refueled and continue operation? I imagine it’s probably up to the customer since they own it but given that it’s the first 1MW there may be special provisions. Any comments would be appreciated.

    Sincerely
    Peter Metz

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    I cannot disclose our patent strategy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    Obviously at the moment we are not able to indicate precisely a delivery term, but I suppose we will be in the average of the delivery terms of the sector.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eernie1:
    Provided the test on course ends up positively, an outsouring system and a manufacturing system has already been organized to be able to sustain the amount of plants that will be ordered. We will manufacture only the confidential parts, outsourcing all the rest.
    The development of the manufacturing capacity will be developed proportionally to the actual amount of orders.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    My previous question of course assumes a certified and completely positive tested MW device.
    Regards.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Will the patent applications for 1 MW plant be published before the 1 year test is complete?

    Or are you keeping the details an industrial secret?

    Paul

  • eernie1

    Dear Andrea,
    If a customer today orders 100 of the Mw devices, how long would it take IH to ship them complete with technical backup?
    Regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    Examples:
    1- assume that today everything gets destroyed for any event, so that the plant has to be rebuilt: this would annihilate any payback possibility and make the former good results just virtual achievements, without any economic value
    2- assume that the COP today becomes less than one and we are not able to repristinate it: same as above
    3- etc ( use your fantasy)
    Conclusion: better fly down and maintain a low profile until the 350 days are performed, so that statistics will allow us to confirm a positive result. So far the result chances can be explained to you by Orsobubu and the F-Something function.
    P.S. Luckily today ( now is 08.00 a.m. of Saturday May 2nd) She is stable and well. Obviously I am inside the plant.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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