# United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

### 41,198 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

• Steven N. Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

I find your lofty desire to couple an eCat SK 100kW reactor with a gas turbine engine interesting. I have a Chevy Volt and the online specifications suggest somewhere around 31 to 34 kWhr are required to travel 100 miles. The large gas turbines are reportedly approaching 60% efficiency in conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy. No doubt, smaller gas turbines to electrical generation will have lower efficiency.

The Chevy Volt has a battery with range extending gasoline power generator. I used the car on a trip to and from Florida from New Hampshire. My range on a fully charge is between 29 and 40 miles, depending on the outside temperature (it affects charging).

Assumptions:

1. Assume a conservative thermal to electricity efficiency of 30%.
2. 100 kW thermal output eCat SK
3. Long distance drive (e.g. New Hampshire to Florida — ~1,300 miles) with a maximum speed of 70 mph.
4. 31 kWhr = 100 miles of travel

Question: would a 100kW eCat SK be able to continuously power my Chevy Volt for a long trip?

Average Energy required per hour of travel = 31 kWhr / 100 miles * 70 mph * 1 hour = 21.7 kWhr
Required eCat to Gas Turbine electrical production efficiency = 1 hour * 21.7 kWhr / 100kW (eCat SK thermal output) = 21.7%

Since the assumed efficiency is greater than the minimum required efficiency, the eCat SK could either be run at a reduced output level, or the excess energy could be used to recharge a partially deleted onboard battery.

In this case the massive battery of the Chevy Volt would be used to provide the input power to the eCat SK, which is assumed to have a very high effective COP.

Note: other electric cars have different but similar energy requirements. If we added the assumption of a rest stop every 2 – 4 hours (people need these stops for food, etc.), the eCat SK could still be running and charging the onboard battery during the stops.

• Stephen

Dear Andrea Rossi,

Regarding the external control of the Ecat devices over the internet. I wonder if you could answer a couple of questions I have with out getting in to the specifics details, which I understand you would want to keep close at the moment.

I have been wondering about the type of control at its implementation, its robustness and reactivity to control interruptions.

1. Is the connection needed for real-time (or “near real-time (NRT)” control) in closed loop?

1a In this case I suppose any break in the signal would result in a fairly quick shut down of the device perhaps with some thermal or SSM Inertia . Would this be seconds, minutes hours?

I understand that some closed loop systems of very sensitive systems like this can be very complex especially if RT or NRT is required.

2. Or is the connection needed for intermittent communication? For example of encrypted “control time lines” of commands operations or procedures that execute over a certain duration that are then executed in the device? If so this could be robust to breaks in communication, yet still allow control from the external source.

2a in this case would the control loop allow operation of minutes hours or days with a break in the communication?
2b or is it configurable depending on the application and security of the client?

This could be useful to know for industries that need to take these considerations and constraints into account with the start up and use of back up systems in case they are needed. For example Option 2 would possibly allow an 1 hour start up of their backup system with out a break in there heat supply.

3. Would there be a business model regarding the control aspect of the device? For example could the device it self be very cheap but the control it self require a monthly fee? A bit like the monthly fees for an application fon the internet?

Good luck to you your team and you partners with the progress.

Are you still open to applications for the event in January by the way? If I can I’d like to come and meet you, your team and the E-Cat but I understand your constraints.

• Oystein Lande

Dear mr.Rossi,

A suggestion: you should look into heat assisted electrolysis of water/steam to produce Hydrogen.

High H2 energy efficiencies may be acheived by supplying heat to the electrolysis process.

If the truck Company Nikola is successful, they will need a lot of hydrogen for truck fuel.

• CC

Dr Rossi:
You said that the customers you are dealing with belong to the highest industrial echelons: are they all listed in a stock exchange?
Cheers
CC

• Andrea Rossi

Frank Acland:
As I said, at the end of June: tomorrow and the day after tomorrow will be crucial for our experiments.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Eric Ashworth:
power of new fire.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Eric Ashworth

Dear Andrea, I wish you all the best in dealing with the highest echelons of the industrial world because as you are aware this is where the power exists. Regards Eric Ashworth

• Frank Acland

Dear Andrea,

In our recent interview you said that by the end of June you would have made a final decision on whether to go ahead with the QX industrialization. Has that decision been made yet, and if so, what did you decide?

Many thanks,

Frank Acland

• Andrea Rossi

Eric Ashworth:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Eric Ashworth

Dear Andrea, I am attempting to keep my posts as short as possible while trying to explain my embodied technology and how I feel it is closely associated with yours. I believe, both these technologies are required to open a new understanding in physics.
Further to my previous comments regarding the described Linear Propulsion Mechanism (LPM) and my reference to how geometry and mathematics comes from an understanding of energy. If a base understanding is comprehended with regards a physical interaction I see no reason why a virtual particle interaction cannot be comprehended so as to understand the auxiliary engine (Mach’s principle and Impulse engine) that is a requirement for propulsion outside of the Earths atmosphere. Maths and technique to follow at a later date. An important aspect of the understanding is that there are four dimensions with an ever present fifth, this being what is referred to as dark matter which has the weakest bond with regards matter. Plasma being a considerably thicker medium and one of the four dimensions. I am guessing but LENRs rely upon four dimensions of substance. Two substances form a structure with an exterior electro magnetic field, two other substances do the same, one is positive and one is negative and so too are their electro magnetic fields that combine and form flux tubes and from which virtual particles are emitted (this reaction happens at the nano level and is gravity activated). These four are in binary systems and therefore form a structure between which is a manufactured electro magnetic field interaction because of the positivity and negativity of each binary system in close proximity. The Earth being one such binary system. Maybe LENRs require an added stimulation to get the reaction going. Once the reaction starts between these two binary structures flux tubes will become evident and with them virtual particles a product of the produced plasma manufactured from hydrogen. Plasma as is known can be observed over the hemispheres as it is drawn into the Earth (volume on the south, size on the north) to be reconstituted into hydrogen i.e. plasma with a mass defect due to the Earths ‘Empty Set’ central position. I also believe the atom is a four particle set-up (a particle is a binary system of two neutrinos i.e. eight neutrinos in all) and so too is the neutron which is more tightly bound due to its position of manufacture i.e. closer in to the central ‘Empty Set’. Thereby eight quarks, sixteen neutrinos of two structures. Four is the required number to provide a mass defect of 50% in an interacting spiral format (the proton is a loose spiral whereas the neutron is a tight spiral (neutron formed before proton). The neutron contains more density/mass defect than the proton. The embodiment of the LPM is based upon a simple principle that can be reflected by design into an auxiliary Mach engine that produces virtual particles i.e. not absolute EVOs. My previous posts have dealt with dark matter being neutrinos in a binary system of very weak structure. This subject is vast and complex so this I intend as its introduction. The mathematics is based upon the creation of four dimensions of substance density, these being solid – liquid – gas – plasma that combine, in the plasma set, to form a four dimensional structure comprised of four densities that continue to navigate through three more ‘sets’ that are separated by three minor ‘ sets’. The final ‘End Set’ being central position of the overriding structure creates EVOs from the structure that partially destroys the structure/mount on its first pass by mass defect. Descending in from an event horizon, the first ‘Set’ contains four dimensions of plasma i.e. loose to thick as it comes into structure. The next ‘Set’ is the gas in its four dimensions, each dimension contributing to a density that corresponds from plasma to solid. The third ‘Set’ is the liquid with its four dimensions of density. At the fourth ‘Set’ the four dimensional structure enters the final solid ‘Set’ and continues to fuse down increasing its size dimension by mass defect and thereby increasing its volume dimension i.e. its positivity and negativity in unison. An event horizon represents the negativity of a structure. The central position ‘Empty Set’ finalizes the planck length. The structure thereby becomes a solid dead body minus two of its four dimensions. This is no doubt confusing so I shall use geometry to further explain. The ‘linear propulsion mechanism (LPM) was designed upon a four dimension integral structure with regards the triangle/pyramid the circle/sphere and the square/cube. The four dimensions within each ‘Set’ represent minor phase changes of the created four dimensional structure. These phase changes represent the transition within each ‘Set’, therefor 16 transitions happening simultaneously within the overriding structure that contains four pyramids. To visualize The formation of a planet view a flux tube on an event horizon (pyramid apex in) of a cubic neutral. The flux tube is between two huge structures, one positive and one negative in a quasi gravitational position. The two structures form a union on their event horizons. At the central position of this union is the ‘End Set’ being the inner most major point of gravity of the cube. Plasma spirals out via gates/‘Sets’ and one major central gate/‘End Set’ of the cube and circulates to the base of each pyramid being the event horizon (apex inner most positive position, resting on the inner ‘Empty Set’. To circulate, the plasma has to do four ninety degree turns on a helical trajectory i.e. it has to negotiate four flats being the pyramids negative base. Consequently each trajectory ascends the pyramid by gravitational forces between the ‘Sets’. Each flat induces more mass defect of the structure within a ‘Set’ of four as it ascends the pyramid and each flat represents one of the four dimensions i.e. plasma, gas, liquid, solid. Then a major transition occurs as the structure leaves the positive zone of one’Set’ and enters the negative zone of the next ‘Set’ as it crosses a minor ‘Set’ i.e. gravity value, gains mass defect and ascends the pyramid. The structure contains gravity by spin and density by traversing through ‘Sets’. Thereby its last position in one ‘Set’ becomes its first position in its next ‘Set’ as it continues to ascend to the apex of the pyramid which is actually a descent into the central position of the cube. The neutral position between these four ‘Sets’ i.e. crossover from the gas ‘Set’ into the liquid ‘Set’ represents the major cross over whereby the consciousness in the lower pyramid is transformed into a degree of intelligence in the higher section and of course the pre history of the planet becomes extinct due to a major evolutionary transition of energy. This phenomena because of distance travelled and everlasting zones allows time travel to be an available phenomena, not as some people think i.e. visiting deceased relatives, but being able to visit an era that is less intelligent i.e. one that we have previously passed through. The zones could be said to be the theatres and the planets the stages upon which activities exist. I will try to attempt to explain more about the L.P.M., its purpose and how these dimensions are brought into being and the geometry and maths required later, too confusing now. I believe, LENRs is a division of this technology. I have just described one flux tube but there are actually four flux tubes to a system i.e. four apexes at the central position and four square bases that form a cube. The LPM is based upon the four model system. The liquid and solid ‘Sets represent the neutron of the cube and the plasma and the gas ‘Sets represent the proton of the cube. Think of the cube as a metropolis with three gates/‘Sets’ that have to be traversed within each pyramid to reach the ‘End Set’. Thereby four pyramids/suburbs, twelve gates but thirteen in all if you include the ‘End Set’ towards which all structures eventually gravitate. This is an activity of the overriding cube but this activity is reflected within and between the minor ‘Sets’ due to the suburbs eventually becoming more integrated further up within each pyramid. Thereby if you have a negative planet a neutral planet and positive planet you have two ‘Sets’ and twelve phase changes. In the neutral position midway is a situation that requires a balancing act between six and six which represents a neutral cube. The overriding cube within which the four pyramids sit, is midway between two huge field charges i.e. in their event horizons. Too much information defeats its purpose therefore I shall provide more at a later date. Hope this is not too confusing. Regards Eric Ashworth

• Andrea Rossi

Wilber Averhart:
At the moment we are dealing only with the highest echelons of the industrial world.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Wilber Averhart

Dear Andrea,
I suppose you are already in advanced status with the development of agreements to supply heat, after your announcement that the deals are open. Curiosity: which is the average dimensions of the companies you are mainly engaged with?
Godspeed,
W.

• Andrea Rossi

Anonymous:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Pekka Janhunen:
Thank you for the suggestion.
We have very good brains working on this issue. Believe me, reverse engineering will be very, very difficult and the entities that could be able to make it belong to so high echelons, that surely have better to do than reverse the engineering of the Ecat, QX or SX as it might be.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Dear Andrea,
While designing the E-cat to require Internet, if I were you, I would make it so that the Internet feature can be quickly removed from the products, should the business environment change. It may happen after some time that someone reverse-engineers it, or develops his own product which he sells cheaper because it has no need for network. It seems to me that to the E-cat, the Internet is a “good servant but bad master.”
regards, /pekka

• Anonymous

Hi Rossi
I think that all the Ecat stuff is only a hoax.

• Andrea Rossi

Anonymous:
Yes, the difference is that the prototype shown in Stockholm yelded a power of 20 W, the industrialized Ecat QX yelds 1 kW
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Svein Henrik:
I agree.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Steven N.Karels:
The external source of electric power can be a series of batteries.
In case of internet blackout a backup energy generator is fundamental.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Anonymous

Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
Did I understand well that the dimension of the Ecat QX is still the same of the prototype shown on youtube Ecat demonstration in Stockholm Nov 24 2017?

• Steven N. Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

You posted “Honestly, I do not see the point, though.” to a question about closed loop electrical generation.

I was around for the 1965 electrical power outage. The electrical generation plants had no means of starting up from a cold start without externally supplied electricity. When the entire electrical grid was down, they could not restart.

If you are going to design or integrate your system into an electrical generation plant (in the future or now), don’t forget the lessons learned from the past.

You mentioned again the safety issue. It seems like a Red Herring issue to me. Are you saying there is an intrinsic problem with the eCat technology that precludes it from operating from the power it generates (heat or electricity)?

What about an eCat powered jet aircraft using eCat technology to produce the heat for the jet engines? In that application, the aircraft generators are powered from the jet engines. The aircraft electrical power comes from the jet engines and, conceivably, would control the eCat operation. In that class of applications, you will need to be isolated from the national electrical grid (or have a very long power cord – LOL). Same issue associated with marine propulsion. I think this a valid issue and should not be so easily dismissed by the wave of the hand and saying it is a “safety issue”.

• Svein Henrik

Dear Andrea.
There will be millions of eager engineers, businesses and energy users that will grasp all the possibilities a heat-source as the E-Cat may open.
The R&D of the E-Cat is what they and the world now need.
Regards: Svein Henrik

• Andrea Rossi

Rodney Nicholson:
Thank you for the information.
I already expressed my opinion on the matter, it did not change.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Probably there is a misunderstanding: we produce heat, not electricity and the Ecat needs an external source of electricity, not heat.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

Dear Andrea Rossi,

I saw the discussion and your answers regarding closing loop in the eCat by bringing some of the heat produced as an input into eCat. I spoke about it with my wife who is a mechanical engineer and designed largest power and cogeneration stations from LA to Buenos Aires to Taipei and Tokyo. She told me that there is always a way to route part of the heat produced to various parts of the system. Can you elaborate on what prevents eCat to do the same?

Kind Regards,

• Hi all:

Regular readers of this blog may recall that several months ago there were a few posts here seemingly attempting to promote investment in Bitcoin and other blockchain entities.

In that regard the following chart may help place those discussions in perspective.

Rodney.

• Andrea Rossi

Giuliano:
He,he,he…Yes, I am following a bit. I hope Sweden will win.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

SK:
Today has been a very good day and we are making a strong progress.
At the end of this week I will have fundamental information to go on.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• SK

Dr Rossi,
How is going the day with the Ecat SK test?

• Giuliano

Dr Andrea Rossi,
I know you are focused on the industrialization of the Ecat, but are you following the soccer world championship? Which team are you hoping will win?
Cheers
Giuliano

• Andrea Rossi

Stefano:
Only for short time, far from a possibility of a real application. Now we are focused only on heat production.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Steven N.Karels:
We cannot make a closed circuit with all the safety system and have not experience so far in the matter. So far we just make heat. Possibly in future the situation will change. Honestly, I do not see the point, though.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

B.R.:
Very promising, with many correction on course, though.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• B.R.

Dear Andrea,
How are going the tests on course with the SK in the USA?

• Steven N. Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

You posted “As I always said, an external power source is necessary and to measure its consume is always possible.”

Yes, you have been consistent in your statement to that effect. However, there are repeated questions by different people as to why a self-contained eCat electrical power generation is not possible.

In the past you have suggested that a safety requirement is what precludes the possibility. That it might be possible for an eCat feeding its own power back to itself could become unstable in its operation, and shut-down.

I believe what you should explain, if you can do so without revealing confidential information, is why an eCat connected to an electrical generator of some type, could not siphon a small portion of the produced electrical energy into a storage medium (e.g. a battery or thermal storage unit) and then convert the stored energy back into electrical energy to supply the input to the eCat. The capacity of the storage unit could be so great as to isolate the output and input to an effective very long time constant, thus assuring stability.

When the effective COP was 6 (many years ago), I could reason that system efficiencies could preclude that configuration. However, with reported COPs above 100, it seems that reason is no longer valid. Please clarify.

• Stefano

Dr Andrea Rossi:
Did you already couple any Ecat with a genset or an electric power generator?
All the best,
Stefano

• Andrea Rossi

Dan Galburt:
As I always said, an external power source is necessary and to measure its consume is always possible.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Dan Galburt

Dear Dr. Rossi,

If you are successful in combining your E-Cat SK with a turbo generator would you consider doing a demo where the E-Cat SK & turbo generator run for perhaps 24 Hours generating 10 KW without an external power connection?

I know you believe that further demos are unnecessary, but a public demonstration of E-Cat based electrical power generation would be the world’s first, and even if it is not immediately accepted as proof of E-Cat capability in hindsight you will be recognized as the first one to achieve this great milestone.

A streaming video of the demonstration with a few third party witnesses would be appropriate.

Best Regards,

Dan Galburt

• Andrea Rossi

Sam:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Sam

Hello Dr Rossi

https://e-catworld.com/2018/06/23/rossi-now-retrofitting-a-gas-turbine-with-the-e-cat-sk/

Regards
Sam

• Andrea Rossi

Yrka:
Thank you for the information.
Certification processes work not as you say, domestic certification is different from industrial.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Yrka

We have a geographically separate heat station with gas boilers with a total capacity of 3000 MW. providing a small town with heat. (This is an average example, there are many objects of this type). This station is certainly an industrial enterprise. Industrial gas boilers are certified accordingly. Can we install, at the initial stage in addition to gas boilers, the installation of E-Cat?
Dear Dr. Andrea Rossi.
The certification of boilers for heating residential houses and heating of industrial premises does not differ. this is the same certificate.
The production of heat for the technological needs of industrial enterprises can be significantly different and in each case we need our own, special parameters and this apparently can create additional difficulties. But this is beyond the scope of my activity.

I can expect to purchase, on your terms, in the foreseeable future, an installation with a capacity of 1 – 3 MW. for use and testing in our environment?
The heating season in our region (Siberia) begins in September and ends in May, ie. lasts 8 months, in the northern regions even longer.
Good luck to you, I believe that you will win!

Yuriy Isaev
Engineer
Tyumen, Russia

P.S. I took advantage of your offer and sent an application for an invitation.

• Andrea Rossi

Alvin:
Yes and here, in the USA.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Xavier Pitz:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Rose:
Thank you for the sustain,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Rose

@Lilly2:
Dr Rossi has always said that he was not sure about succeeding to make the presentation within 2018 and, frankly, I do not see any difference if he makes it several weeks later. As a matter of fact, even if it will be further delayed we must understand that he is achieving something that thousands with immensely major financing have not been able to achieve and that therefore the difficulties this man is confronting with are enormous.
What he is making is miraculous. Whatever the presentation date of the industrialized Ecat.
All the best,
Rose

• Xavier Pitz

Dear Andrea,

Here’s an informative video also about turboshaft engines, aimed at producing shaft torque instead of thrust :

Understanding Helicopter’s Engine | Turboshaft

Probably also a good match for the e-cat in the combustion chamber and an electric generator coupled on the shaft.

I can’t wait to see an e-cat powered turbo(jet/prop/fan/shaft) in operation.

Keep up (you and your team) the impressive work 🙂

Torquy regards,

Xavier Pitz

• Alvin

Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
Are the important tests with the SK you cited yesterday already on course? If yes, where?
Alvin

• Andrea Rossi

Michael S.: