United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

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35,471 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your insight, obviously if the “medium” is not the vacuum the situation is different. Surely in a non vacuum field the Cherenkov effect exists.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I was actually thinking of Cherenkov radiation – electromagnetic radiation emitted by particles moving through a medium at speeds greater than that of light in the same medium. (Reference Wikipedia) While a particle will travel below the speed of light in a vacuum, when the particle is in a medium with an index of refraction greater than one, it can, momentarily, exceed the speed of light in that medium. The particle loses speed to come below the speed of light in the medium and gives off light energy. For a specific energy particle in a specific medium, there is a characteristic wavelength of the photon emission – thus the “blue” light in the water of a nuclear reactor.

    On the other hand, “bremmstrahlung” is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus. The moving particle loses kinetic energy, which is converted into radiation, i.e. a photon, thus satisfying the law of conservation of energy. The term is also used to refer to the process of producing the radiation. Bremsstrahlung has a continuous spectrum, which becomes more intense and whose peak intensity shifts toward higher frequencies as the change of the energy of the decelerated particles increases. (Reference Wikipedia)

    My error in confusing the two in my previous posting.

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    I am very glad to hear that the integration of the SK in the gas turbine is moving forward quickly. I hope you and your team will succeed.
    As an escape you might consider the following:
    It is thought that the QX and SK E-cats produce light wich may be largely XUV.
    According to Axil on ECW this UV light can efficiently dissociate water into H and HO.
    Have you ever considered/tried doing this?
    http://e-catworld.com/2018/07/23/problems-adapting-the-e-cat-to-a-gas-turbine/ See one of the latest comments of Axil.
    Kind regards, Gerard

  • A. Goumy

    Steven N. Karels,

    When a charged particle travelling in a medium is exceeding the speed of light in that medium (which is smaller than its speed in vacuum), an electronic radiation is emitted, but it is not bremmstrahlung, but Cherenkov radiation (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherenkov_radiation)

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    It appears to me that http://www.rossilivecat.com is not updated as quickly (as it was in the past) at the moment. The last update was: ‘Updated: 2018-07-23 19:10:14’ Maybe a temperal problem or holiday period of the independent webmaster? Anyhow, I know of this website already long ago, and as a user I want to thank the owner/webmaster for his work.

    Kind Regards,
    Daniel.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    If we maintain our scheduled path we will make the presentation of the industrialized product on the next January.
    We are already working on contracts to sell our heat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Absolutely not. Besides, based on the Relativity Theory, it is impossible in any condition that any elementary particle, even Bosons, can go faster than c, let alone electrons, that are Fermions !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mary Kleftogiannis:
    Yes, we have invented a fantastic system, now to be tested. If it works, it gives close to 100% efficiency of exchange to produce steam.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mary Kleftogiannis

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Have you resolved the problem of the heat exchange with a so high energy density as in the Ecat SK?
    All the best,
    Mary

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I remember “bremmstrahlung” as emitted radiation when an energetic particle, typically an electron, is exceeding the speed of light in the medium. It is typically seen as the blue glow in nuclear reactor water. Are we talking about the same effect?

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    An industrial production of high-powered, high COP LENR plants would be very momentous indeed. When do you think the dream will be come a reality?

    Best regards,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please go to
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    to find comments published in other posts of this blog,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daniel De Caluwé:
    The cases you write of are all interesting.
    In general, the Ecat can be integrated in a retrofitting system for other technologies, but this is an issue that has to be confronted case by case along its specifcities. The problems are complex and they are not only technological.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Directing the R&D of the SK and the preparation of the manufacturing system of the QX. Ten years ago it was thought that LENR were a trash of the history of science, today we are talking of starting an industrial productio: isn’t this momentous ?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eric Ashworth,
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Eric Ashworth

    Dear Andrea, This information could be a part of the eCat understanding, not all but a part.
    Flux tubes could be magnetic mono poles/skyrmions. This is because researchers claim that they produced artificial mono poles by creating skyrmions from magnetic fields. Thereby skyrmions between two planets, skyrmion within a hydrogen structure. Skyrmions originate from the neutral charges that track backwards to the electron and forward to the proton (neutral positions exist in specific locations between the base of a pyramid and its apex with regards a multiple part constructed structure i.e. hydrogen atom). This is what I have observed in the Linear Propulsion mechanism with regards the oscillating whirls within their designated area ( The mechanism unlike an atom has one strategic location only, being middle of pyramid). I referred to this flow as the economy flow, being a binding force between the whirls. Wikipedia mentions skyrmion together with a lot of related information. No mention of the hydrogen atom. From what I gather computer chips contain their information in a skyrmion. I would describe a skyrmion as a field connected to any point and the field can be absolutely massive or extremely tiny and dependent upon the material structure either solid or soft. The LP mechanism displays its massive skyrmion. The eCat I presume produces tiny fleeting skyrmions that represent transitions into VPs.

    Magnetic monopoles have been searched for in vain in the area of particle physics for a long time. In 1931, Paul Dirac postulated the existence of a fundamental particle to explain why electrons and protons carry electrical charges of the same size. This is surprising because the elements of the protons and electrons are completely different fundamental particles. Dirac, however, argued that the existence of a single magnetic monopole would be enough to explain that the charges of all fundamental particles have to be quantized, i.e. exactly an integer multiple of an elementary charge. This partial article is taken from ‘artificial magnetic mono poles discovery — Science Daily’ site. Makes for interesting reading. Also see ‘Knotted structures called skyrmions seem to mimic ball lightning’.

    The Linear Propulsion Mechanism produces skyrmions in exactly the same way that the research team produced skyrmions by magnetic fields. The LP mechanism uses air to form one whirl in each section of the frame i.e. 16 whirls. If you use a four section frame you get eight whirls that oscillate within their restricted areas of confinement. When these spinning vortices within there respective chambers meet beneath the frame, one portion spins back as a helical trajectory within the frame to recirculate as a flux tube/skyrmion. The other portion being of two curvature forces cancel one another out and exit the frame as propelling linearized flows that eventually track back i.e. a macro skyrmion. I mention this because I think magnetic mono poles have to exist but because they exist on only the macro and micro level in nature they are unable to be recognized as a mono pole on our level. The Linear Propulsion mechanism can be considered an artificial magnetic mono pole that contains eight mono poles and I believe that by using the mechanism as a tool, structure can be more fully understood with regards forces, flows, oscillations and interactive fields. I put this information forward because I am not a nuclear physicist studying the electron and proton but maybe someone who does will be able to carry the mono pole hypothesis to a conclusion or maybe someone qualified in ‘string theory’ is able to see a connection that will help explain eCat technology. In my last post I explained 1 became 1.5. thereby 4 became 6 and 6 became 8 and 8 became 12 and 12 became 16 and 16 became 24. Why did 6 become 8 not 9? because 6 equals a cubic neutral. 9 in energy does not exist. It’s an interregnum that settles 9 to 8 i.e. a cubic neutral with a flux tube of x1 that expands. That’s why water pipes burst when water becomes ice. It represents the expenditure of energy into a mass defect that defuses into the environment via the pipe. 8 = the neutral position between 16 i.e. 7777 – 7777 transitions. In the mechanism 7777 equals one oscillating whirl outer and one inner. The eCat ,I believe, works on a similar principal to produce multiple VPs. Regards Eric Ashworth

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    While you have a team with a wide variety of expertise, what are you personally spending most of your time and attention on currently?

    Thank you very much,

    Frank

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    In a previous message Koen Vandewalle wrote: ‘If someone had to invest in a new power plant today, but later on it would have to be converted to work with your technology, which power station would have to be built?
    It would be great if you could answer this.’

    You answered: ‘Can you rephrase in a more precise way?’

    If you and Koen allow me to interfere: He’s talking about electrical power plants, and i) given the fact of climate change and the need to reduce carbon emissions, and also given the fact that we need to replace old nuclear power plants (that at present deliver/cover the ‘base load’ of the electricity production), we need as much as possible renewable energy sources like wind and solar, that unfortunately have to be backed up when there’s no wind or sun, so his question is: what (electrical) power plants should we built, taken into account that your technology (E-cat SK and/or QX) will take over after some time? I think the best we can do is building gas powered plants, that take over the production of the renewable sources when there’s no wind or sun, but of whom the steam generator later is replaced by your heat delivering E-cat plants, so producing more sustainable and cheaper than now is the case.

    ii) At present and in Belgium, an important part of the peak load of the electricity production is also done/covered by gas turbines (old aviation motors) coupled with alternators, that can start very quickly to deliver peak demand electricity, but of course this is more expensive than base load production. But probably your E-cat SK in combination with an apropriate gas turbine coupled with an alternator could be a good replacement for the old gas turbine peak power plants?

    Kind Regards,
    Daniel.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jenny:
    The German word Bremsstrahlung is originated from “Bremsen” ( = to brake ) and “Strahlung” ( = radiation ). It is the electomagnetuc radiation caused when a particle is deflected by an atomic nucleus. For example, when an electron is deflected by an atomic nucleus it loses kinetic energy and this delta of energy is turned into vibrations in the adjacent electromagnetic field raising waves that correspond of quantistically defined photons, so that the sum of the energy quanta of the photons are equivalent to the kinetic energy lost, to conserve the energy.
    Surely in my effect there is also a bremmstrahlung component.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jenny

    Dear Andrea :
    What is exacly the bremsstrahlung and has it anything to do with your effect?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ulrich W.A.Kranz:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ulrich W.A. Kranz

    Dr Rossi:
    Thank you for the publication of my paper about the steam distribution by the Ecat. By the way, I think it is also possible to combine the distribution of heat with the distribution of cold, for example with the utilizaton of a heat pumping system.
    Best Regards,
    Ulrich W.A. Kranz

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Today has been published on the Journal of Nuclear Physics the article ” Saving Steam Costs in Paper Producing Companies Using the Ecat”, by Ulrich W.A. Kranz ( Germany ).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pekka Janhunen:
    Thank you for the information and the link.
    Interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea,

    On the concept of car-sized aerial vehicles, there is an interesting French project “Xplorair” (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xplorair and the links under “External links” section near the bottom) which uses something they call “thermoreactor jet engines”. Apparently those are some kind of pulsejet engines that are fed through valves by moderately compressed air, thus avoiding a normal turbine which is expensive. The plane lifts off and lands vertically, but it has no rotating blades and is thus safe to bystanders.

    That said, I do no know if their project is currently active, and I do not know how noisy their engines are (if they are noisy, it is a show-stopper for widespread use as a flying car). Anyway, their use of the Coanda effect seems a good idea.

    I have the opinion, anyway, that in the long run, maintaining the present dense road network is not sustainable (because needs asphalt, produces dust and must use salt in wintertime which slowly spoils the groundwater) and hence cars need to be replaced by something else, such as flying vehicles which need no roads and can access all places. I could be wrong, but that is what I think, presently. The E-cat could obviously play a role in such development, although some people seem to be optimistic that “going airborne” can already be done with conventional technologies likes batteries, fuel cells and combustion engines.

    Furthermore, I am rather sceptical about self-driving cars, because rules and situations on the road are complicated. On the contrary, self-flying aerial vehicles would be much simpler to implement from the software intelligence point of view, in my opinion. I have some trust on my opinion here because I am rather good at programming.

    regards, /pekka

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion and yes, that is an option.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If the projected maximum equivalent temperature of the eCat SK series is on the order of 10,000K, would not a direct conversion of output energy to electricity by “solar” cells be possible?

    Of course, the classical approach of using the thermal power to “boil” a medium and then drive a turbine is possible but a direct conversion to electricity by solar cells seems so much more reliable — no moving parts. The turbine approach is around 40% efficient (approaching 50%).

    Perhaps the best solution would be to use the “optical output” of the eCat SK to drive solar cells (with an efficiency around 20 – 40%) and then use the “waste heat” to drive the conventional turbine approach. Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    1- Yes, we are still on track.
    2- This information is confidential.
    Thank you for your kind wish,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    In construction yes, in operation I do not thnk, at least so far, but I am not sure.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Will you have E-Cat QX plants delivered to customers and working before the planned public presentation is held?

    Best regards,

    Frank Acland

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    Can you give us an update of the progress? Are you still on track?
    Just a technical question: Does the emitted licht of the QX/SK change of colour (frequency) when the power is limited, or does it just reduce the intensity (amplitude)?
    Thanks, and be the light with you and your team.
    Kind regards, Gerard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Brokeeper:
    That’s exacly what I mean, he he he…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    1- our theoretical bases are improving, I think
    2- can you rephrase in a more precise way?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Eric Ashworth:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Chuck Davis:
    We are working like beasts to achieve the date within January 2019 and presently the odds are high for the QX, hopeful for the SK.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chuck Davis

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    The day of the presentation of your industrialized Ecat will be a historic date.
    Best Regards,
    Chuck Davis

  • Eric Ashworth

    Dear Andrea, I try to be brief. The connection that I see between your eCat and the Linear Propulsion mechanism is with regards the hydrogen and the activity of structure. With regards your eCat it’s the destruction of hydrogen and the resultant heat. Hydrogen, unlike how the mechanism structures, is structured at the central ‘Empty Set’ within the Earth by producing mass defect with regards plasma. The mechanism structures air, using mass defect instigated by rotating propellers, set above a geometric frame. These structures, I believe, possess a dynamic geometrical relationship whether produced within the LP mechanism using air or within the Earth using plasma. The LP mechanism uses its structure to produce a vertical lift by a linearized expansion within its already existing field of structure i.e. outside atmosphere and an increase in its internal density. The hydrogen structure within your eCat uses the hydrogen to produce expansion into VPs that produce compression within an existing fully loaded field and that consequently produces heat and as you are aware compression creates heat, expansion absorbs heat but that which contains mass defect also contains an electromagnetic field that relates to the energy that was required to create the defect. Thereby upon hydrogens eventual expansion into VPs it creates heat by compressing the outer environmental substance. The Woodward effect operates on the same dynamics but does not require hydrogen. To explain the geometry of a structure with regards the process to structure and the process to restructure explains the cycle of energy with regards its conservation i.e. maths. To fully structure, the units used must transition from past positions into future positions of more positivity so as to achieve the Absolute mass defect for a specific location/ density and in doing so create the relating VPs. Hydrogen does the same as it enters more positive locations within a flux tube. When the confinement of the units become absolute the mass defect is fully fused and the units repel i.e. like repels like as unlike attract. Thereby to create, requires three distinct phases when in a cycle of rebirth to death and this requires four distinct zones. The zone that begins, the zone that completes i.e. that which contains the perfect structure and the zone that ends the process but there has to be a fourth zone in order to connect and complete the cycle so as to repeat the entire process and this is the fine structure. Regarding hydrogen, zone one plasma in, ‘Empty Set’ central Earth, zone two hydrogen outer atmosphere, zone three flux tube/electromagnetic field interaction VPs, zone four central ‘Empty Set’ Earth, plasma back. To do this requires the fine structure to transition from future positions into past positions and it is this zone that is the all important fourth zone and the one that is neither here nor there and consequently gives mathematicians a good puzzle when working out a cubic neutral with its fine structure field. This fourth relates to the fine structure constant which is a tricky number due to the 1 becoming 1.5. There is a good question as to where does the energy to create mass defect come from?. With regards the hydrogen atom, the energy is the attractive force of gravity of the central ‘Empty Set’ of Earth but how does the central ‘Empty Set’ remain empty?. Simple, the Earth rotates upon its axis, centrifugal force is a directional outward force from centre to periphery. If a sphere rotates in two directions simultaneously the ‘Empty Set’ increases in its gravitational inwards pull. This is able to be demonstrated and actually was approximately 35 years ago. Any rotation that incurs a nutation increases the ‘Empty Set’ of that which rotates. The LP mechanism works the same way only it uses propellers to induce the required force. The propellers when rotated form a pyramid with regards air flow, above is the most negative i.e. alpha ‘Empty Set’, below is a frame to provide density of air by constructing four flux tubes, apex inward, that circulate the frame as mass defects and beneath the frame is the omega ‘Empty Set’ out of which flows linearized air, only to return to the alpha gate above the propellers by circumnavigating the entire fuselage. This I hope explains a little about structure from my understanding. The difference between the hydrogen cycle and the LP mechanism is that the mechanism represents the creating process only to achieve a propelling force whereas in the eCat the hydrogen is introduced as a fully formed structure to be destroyed within a flux tube to extract its energy from its mass defect. Therefore, no need to mention the Earth which in my last lengthy post included this information so as to include its complete cycle by maths.

    [Just as a matter of interest. Could the Earth be considered as a clay pot with a density, as the pot evolves it gains more density i.e. becomes more positive/perfect, so too does its negative outer field and also its hydrogen within with its specific degree of mass defect. It seems almost as if there is a potter trying to improve upon a perfect pot but is never satisfied so he breaks his creation and starts again but if the pot is perfect, it means the potter is a perfectionist, driven by a purpose and I think this is why progression is a driven natural aspect of evolution].

    Anyway I am dealing with hydrogen and its conversion into VPs to produce energy. The Earth has its electromagnetic field and is one structure within a ‘Set’ of four. Consequently its electromagnetic field interacts with the more positive electromagnetic field above i.e. the planet in a more positive position. Between two structures that contain gravity there is always an ‘Empty Set’ being midway in the interacting electromagnetic fields and therefore an omega gate at the apex being a division within a ‘Set’ and at the base is the negative planet corresponding to the alpha gate unlike the LP mechanism and this originates from negative planet Earth. Thereby any hydrogen from planet Earth that gets within the gravitational force of the omega gate is gravitated in (hydrogen contains gravity) whereupon it becomes more confined and produces VPs as it ultimately self destructs when at absolute. This activity projects heat/light into a fully loaded field or onto a planet dependent of circumstances due to the produced VPs and that then produce plasma. [This could be a consideration. When VPs are formed there is a tremendous expansion at the apex close to the substances that forms the field. In theory a positive pressure upon nano substance could induce a very slight change, over a period of time, it’s like pushing the atomic parts forward into a more positive position at its central ‘End Set’, could be an unavoidable side effect]. What is plasma?, plasma I believe, is a substance of four neutrinos. Each neutrino is a unit of one but as plasma it takes up a half space more being out of structure as it tracks a geometric path, so four 1.5s being neutrinos = 6 i.e. cubic neutral of a charge and one charge = quark and four charges = x 1 structure being the proton plus electron i.e. 16 charges but plasma = 24 i.e. 16 x 1.5 when expanded into its negative plasma state i.e. neutral cube (6 x 4). Once plasma is formed, there is only one place for it to go i.e. back to planet Earth where the 6 become four due to mass defect. There is a connection here to dark matter with regards neutrinos and densities. The eCat I presume provides the necessary interactions. This technology can be considered as a door that has barely been opened and therefore what an exciting future. Also could it be that the eCat demonstrates ‘the conservation of energy’ with regards a complete cycle?. and could this be correct?. 16 x 4 = 64 + 32 i.e. 1 becomes 1.5 =96. 32 equals force of x 4 ‘Sets’ being 4 structures which = x 4 fine structures i.e. expanded structure so divide 32 by 4 = 8 being the outer most extremities of any structured cube. Thereby 4 becomes 6, 6 becomes eight, 8 becomes12, 12 becomes 16 and 16 becomes 24. Every structure even hydrogen contains a positive, neutral and a negative aspect together with its electron plasma state. The maths:- Plasma 7777 goes from four to 6, negative 7777 goes from 6 to 8, 8 neutral 7777 goes from 8 to 12, positive 7777 goes from 12 to 16 and 16 of field energy = 24. 7 = transition. Hope this helps to explain. Regards Eric Ashworth.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Given the enormous variability of the waves and resonances that occur, Do you already have a good numerical model of the process ? Or are the QX and the SK still originated from intuition (the 3D model in the heads of you and your team )?

    If someone had to invest in a new power plant today, but later on it would have to be converted to work with your technology, which power station would have to be built?
    It would be great if you could answer this.

    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Brokeeper

    Everything is relative. (hehe)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Brokeeper:
    Maybe this mantra can help: ” The Universe is expanding, but my backyard never a square inch more (damn)”
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Being the industrial Ecat already certified it is not difficult. There is a procedure to go through with the help of an engineer certified by the State, related to the connections etc. Obviously all the components must be certified.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    The specific licenses and authorizations you speak of — with a technology as new and revolutionary as the E-Cat, how difficult is it to obtain them?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Brokeeper

    Dear Andrea,

    It is becoming evident the E-Cat is much rarer in this universe than previously thought:
    http://flip.it/-BG3UW
    My belief in ET is diminishing. Help me. Maybe I should repeatedly clap my hands and say “I do believe in ET, I do believe in ET…”
    Brokeeper

  • Andrea Rossi

    CC:
    Glad to read this!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Glen Pastorin:
    We have to get a specific licence, the Customer has to get the authorization to the installation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    AS:
    -1 Annihilation of -2 Resonances at -3 Low -4 eV -5 Temperature.
    Attention: 4 means fourth substantive, not 4 eV
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Romeo & Juliet:
    Well, as a matter of fact the distinction is not that clear also to me.
    I think that we could try to say that Astrophysics is the part of Physics that investigates the Universe and the bodies in it by means of the technologies typical of the experimantal Physics, while Astronomy studies the nature and the physical evolution of the bodies in the Universe and of the Universe as a global system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Romeo & Juliet

    Dr Rossi,
    Do you know what is the difference between Astronomy and Astrophysics? I don’t see any substantial difference.
    Cheers,
    R&J

  • AS

    Dr Andrea Rossi,
    How would you make a synthesis in five words of your attempt of theory of the so called Rossi Effect?

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