# United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

### 40,785 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

• Andrea Rossi

Klas:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Klas

Dear Andrea,
The figure you present for the estimated average daily solar production in Rome still seems a bit too high.
An actual amount could become up to 25% lower (efficiency = 0.75) due to the influence of dust, snow, aging, direction, tilt, shading, and temperature.

About COP, I think there are also some good reasons NOT to introduce COP again in an E-Cat NGU specification, and this time with a different definition than before.
– For people already familiar with the term, COP is used as the relation of possible output power to input power and
usually found in heat pump specifications.
– Most E-Cat followers have already learned that an E-Cat SSM generator has an indefinite COP.
– COP is not used anywhere in solar panel specifications and by the large public majority COP relates to the large yearly climate conference, this year COP 28. https://unfccc.int/cop28

Instead, I propose demonstrating the superior power production performance of an NGU generator compared with a modern Solar panel by defining a typical “power multiplication factor” PM ( or perhaps “power amplification factor” PA).
Suggested definition:
An E-Cat NGU generator rated 100W/PM X should be expected to generate at least X times the amount of electricity in a year as generated by 100 W of installed solar panel power
The specified PM will be conservative set allowing the actual actual PM to be somewhat larger.

Let us check the example in Rome:

Production using a 100 W/PM 6 NGU generator:
Assuming 24/7 uptime the actual total AC production in a year: 100 W*24*365 h*0.95(inverter efficiency) =
= 832 kWh/365= 2.28 kWh /day, all year around.

Production using a 100 W Solar Panel :
Estimated total AC production in one year becomes: 0.75(efficiency)*1/4*1.786 kWh*365
= 122 kWh/365 = 0.334 kWh / day.
From the results above the actual PM of the NGU 100W/PM 6 can be calculated as 832/122=6.8.

Best regards
Klas

• Andrea Rossi

Ron Stringer:
It is more complicated and confidential.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Cathy Johnson:
We will discuss the COP issues when we will make hte related demo,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Dott. A.T.:
2. see 1
3. we’ll see
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Ulrich W.A. Kranz:
1. not necessarily
2. confidential
3. not necessarily
4. not necessarily
5. relevant, but I prefer to give the numbers during the demo we will make
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Dott. A.T.

Dear Dott. Rossi,
Could you please clarify the following:
1. Since the NGU ecat work in SSM, what is the need for connection with a solar system and what advantages (safety or technological) are obtained from this configuration compared to pure SSM?
2. Where does the need to combine a solar panel system come from?
3. Will the ecat NGU be connected to the solar plant system’s storage batteries, inverter or both, or other?

Thank you very much.
Best regards

#ecatNGU

• Cathy Johnson

Dear E-Cat fans,

A brief reflection on why CoP 30 was discussed:

Typical 500 Wp photovoltaic panel measures 2.2 x 1.1 m (2.42 m2).

Older 100 Watt E-Cat measures 9 cm x 6 cm x 6 cm. Inside this is probably an unconventional PV panel rolled into a roll. This scrolled panel can have an area 0.18 x 0.09 m (0.0162 m2) that is 149.38 times smaller than a 500 Wp PV panel.

As the 500 Wp PV panel has 5 times the power of the 100 W E-Cat, the comparable area of the PV panel would be 29,87 times smaller.

And CoP 30 is derived from this.

Or is this reasoning completely wrong?

Cathy

• Ulrich W.A. Kranz

Dear Andrea,
your answer to the question from Alessandro Ferrari if the e-cat NGU emits light that could be converted to electricity by solar panels, reminds me of your Patent Application No. AU 2021282556 A1 published 2023.01.05.

The residual light inside the apparatus can be conveniently used by transferring it wherever necessary by means of optic fibres, with very high efficiency.
An important application is the coupling of this apparatus with a LED lamp: In an experiment made with a customer we reached 200000 Lumens with 4 Watts of electric energy supplied from the grid to the apparatus.

1. I think this is the patent for the grid bound version?
2. Is the E-Cat NGU producing the same volume of light?
3. Do you intend using the light to generate electricity?
4. Will you use solar panels for this?
5. How big will the gain in energy?

Warm regards,
Ulrich

• Ron Stringer

Dr. Rossi,
A small clarification, please. Alessandro Ferrari wrote “is it radiating light that solar panels can convert?” to which you replied “Yes.” This makes it seem like you are using the light from the E-Cat plasma to power a connected solar panel. You have used this approach in the past, before you began to harvest power directly from the plasma, I believe. Certainly powering a solar panel with light from the plasma should be an effective solution. Given the brilliance of the plasma, and the ability to tune the colour of the light, you would be able to get much more from a solar panel. Also cheaper to build, probably. I previously asked, “can this amplification effect be extended also to other power sources, for example a) wind turbines, b) batteries, c) DC generators, d) AC generators?” to which you also replied “Yes.”
These two situations seem incompatible.
I see three possibilities:
1. The NGU drives an attached and isolated solar panel, getting much more power out of it than sun irradiance could. The benefit to other systems is not amplification but simply addition of the power generated by the NGU.
2. There is some previously unknown (to us!) amplification effect that would apply equally to all forms of electrical generators.
3. It’s more complicated and none of us understand what is going on.
Ron

• Andrea Rossi

Again about my comments related to the COP applied to the Ecat NGU connected to solar systems: it appears that such COP should be much higher, after reading the Extract from GPT-4 chat 2023-11-12 “Estimated AC production from a modern, 400W-2m2, solar panel in Rome”.
From this technologically updated report, the real production of electricity per day is 1 786 Wh/24 hours for 2 m^2, therefore 983 Wh for 1 m^2, equal to 37.5 Wh/h as the average of the whole year for a solar panel with a surface of 1 square meter.
Obviously the Ecat NGU should be a veritable game changer of this universally diffused sector of rebewable energy sources.
These data have been measured in Rome (Italy), therefore we can assume that this value corresponds moreless to the world’s average, considering that the irradiance value grows up toward the equator and decreases toward the poles.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Robert Bobik:
Not yet,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Harry:
Thank you for your attention to our work,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Harry

Hello Dr Rossi,
Thank you so much for your informative reply to Alessandro. Supplementing the electrical power by way of radiated light clarifies the recommended usage with solar panels.

Regards,
Harry R.

• Robert Bobik

Dear Dr.Rossi,
when did You reach the million?
Best regards Robert

• Andrea Rossi

Ron Stringer:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Alessandro Ferrari,
Yes,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Alessandro Ferrari

Dear Dr. Rossi,
daily reading about the E-Cat NGU I find myself scratching my head in an attempt to understand this coupling with solar panels.
So I’m wondering, if I can ask, in addition to current generation is it radiating light that solar panels can convert?
Best luck,
Alessandro

• Ron Stringer

Dr. Rossi,
Thank you so much for your clarification. I will anxiously await the demonstration! This is a fascinating extension of the E-Cat’s utility, with great promise to create extremely efficient hybrid systems. Now it will be clear what you mean when you have repeatedly said the the E-Cat will work together with all kind of energy systems.
Further to what Claudio Varotto just wrote regarding your “failures,” this invention wipes clean the slate. If you had had more success with previous ventures you would probably never have created the E-Cat. This creation has the potential to remake the world, at a time when this could hardly be more critical.
As for the recently discovered problem with the SKLep, if you had not found this now, it would have been discovered later, perhaps at a time when it could have destroyed faith in the safety of the E-Cat completely.
As to the business side of things, I have some very, very humble advice. Don’t look to make big deals with big partners – make lots of little deals, where you can maintain some control, and if some of the partners are bad, it doesn’t create problems that endanger the whole enterprise.
Whatever you choose, you have many supporters who believe in you. Bring this project to fruition and you will have an honoured place in history.
Your overly wordy friend, Ron Stringer

• Andrea Rossi

Frank Acland:
1. yes
2. yes
3. yes
4. also
5. yes
6. yes
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Pekka Janhunen:
He,he,he…of course yes: in the early sixties this song has been very popular in Italy,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Claudio Varotto:
Thank you for your inspiring comment,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Giuseppe Censorio:
Yes,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Ron Stringer:
The Ecat SKLep NGU does not come as you supposed. More details will be given during the public test.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Sam:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Sam

Hello DR Rossi
Electrons trapped on
a 3D Crystal for the
berry first time.

Regards
Sam

• Ron Stringer

Dr. Rossi,
Thank you for your answers! I am still uncertain regarding the setup of the solar panel / NGU configuration. Here is what you said regarding the COP – “I calculated the COP based on the ratio between the irradiation of the sun ( 1 kW/m^2 ) and the energy generated ( 200 W/m^2 ). With the application of the ECAT SKLep NGU the generation would be 30 times higher.”
My problem is that “the ECAT SKLep NGU” is underspecified. The NGU comes (I assume) in units of 10 watts. If this is still the case, how many 10 watt units would be required to get a COP of 30 with, say, a 500 watt solar panel?
If this is still confidential, no problem, I can live without the answer. But it seems a simple thing to specify, if you don’t mind. And it could make a difference in the economic viability of the system.
Ron

• Giuseppe Censorio

Dear Andrea,
Can we simply say that ECAT is an electricity generator that can be used stand alone or combined with any other power production system?
Regards, Giuseppe

• Claudio Varotto

“That’s is a quantum of solace for me: I failed so many times in my life”……….. caro Dr. Rossi con questa frase Lei ha risposto al post di Daniel Zavela Questa frase Le fa un grande onore e devo confessare che mi sono profondamente emozionato nel leggerla. In tutti gli anni che La seguo, e credo di interpretare il pensiero di molti frequentatori del blog, mi si è rafforzato il convincimento di essere dinanzi a una grande personalità, una persona onesta, sincera e dotata di grande tenacia. oltre che geniale. Il mondo ha bisogno di persone come Lei. La prego, conservi questa forza interiore e, come ha già dimostrato molte volte, non ceda alle avversità. Spero di essere in grado di esprimere anche nel mio stentato inglese ciò che ho espresso in italiano.. Un grande augurio per il successo che si merita.

“That’s is a quantum of solace for me: I failed so many times in my life”………dear Dr. Rossi, with this phrase you responded to Daniel Zavela’s post. This phrase does you a great honor and I must confess that I was deeply moved when I read it. In all the years that I have been following you, and I believe I am interpreting the thoughts of many blog visitors, I have strengthened my conviction that I am dealing with a great personality, an honest, sincere person with great tenacity. as well as brilliant. The world needs people like you. Please maintain this inner strength and, as you have already demonstrated many times, do not give in to adversity. I hope to be able to express even in my broken English what I expressed in Italian.. Best wishes for the success you deserve.

• Frank Acland

Dear Andrea,

From many questions and answers here, and information on your website, it seems to me that the E-Cat NGU, is similar in the way it behaves to the E-Cat SKLep. Could you confirm the following.

1. The EC NGU operates in self-sustain mode, requiring no input power from an external source
2. The EC NGU produces DC electricity
3. The EC NGU has a projected operating time of 100,000 hours
4. The EC NGU will be offered for sale in units of 10 W and 100 W
5. The EC NGU includes additional components that were not in the EC SKLep, making the units larger and heavier.
6. These additional components are necessary to prevent the failure encountered in October.

Many thanks,

Frank Acland

• Dear Andrea,
The song “Tintarella di luna” of “Mina”, from 1959, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ti9h_gIwPtA

The lyrics suit well to the solar panel/NGU theme. Also cats are mentioned.

Did you hear a lot this song as a child/teenager?
regards, /pekka

• Andrea Rossi

Ron Stringer:
Thank you for your attention to the work of our Team.
1- yes
2- yes
3- depends on the specific situations, I already explained here the COP issue
4- yes
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Ron Stringer

Dr. Rossi, I left some questions here last night but they seem to have been missed somehow.
I will ask again, more briefly.
1) will the NGU act as a straightforward generator, as the SKLep did?
2) does the combination of solar panel and NGU give a higher output than the NGU ALONE?
3) If (2) is yes, what is the ratio of solar panel power rating to NGU rating that will give maximum efficiency? The answer would be x watts solar panel: y watts NGU, please. If it is not that simple, could you give a brief explanation?
4) can this amplification effect be extended also to other power sources, for example a) wind turbines, b) batteries, c) DC generators, d) AC generators?
Ron

• Andrea Rossi

Cathy Johnson:
We have already contacts with contractors organizations, besides with our instructions manual every certified contractor that has already installed the existing solar system would be able to install the Ecats, with also the help of a tutoring video that we will put in our website, together with a link to contact us directly for help. Probably will be born problems, surely we will resolve them as soon as they will pop up.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Cathy Johnson

Dear Dr. Rossi,

let’s say you will have a nice demo of the Photovoltaic system with E-Cat NGU with some publicity. As a result of the nice demo, 80,000 households with an existing PV system will order 20 E-Cat NGUs each.

The question is: Do you really want to contact 2260 certified local installers 80,000 times or will people be able to buy the E-Cat NGU directly?

Have A Nice Day

Cathy

• WaltC

Steven Nicholes Karels,

To be apples-to-apples, I’d expect you’d want to compare the PV’s 25-year warranty interval kwh/USD calculation to the SKLep NGU’s 3-year warranty interval kwh/USD calculation.

(Yes, I’ve done that calculation & was wondering if you had. It points in the direction of initially wanting hybrid systems to leverage the best strengths of each device.)
W.

• Andrea Rossi

Ruedi:
1- we will contact local certified installers
2- the total generation will not change
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Ruedi

Dear Dr. Rossi
if also your ecat ngu for use with PV is in the market:
1- Who will install it to the PV? Will there be installers from Leonardo or will you work together with already existing solar technicians and companies?
As you wrote, there have to be 20 pieces of ecat ngu 100W needed for the inverter of the PV.
2- What happens in the night when PV produce nothing, will it produce at least 2 KW (20×0,1KW)?
Best regards
Ruedi

• Andrea Rossi

Daniel Zavela:
That’s is a quantum of solace for me: I failed so many times in my life…
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Jorge:
Good question.
I calculated the COP based on the ratio between the irradiation of the sun ( 1 kW/m^2 ) and the energy generated ( 200 W/m^2 ).
With the application of the ECAT SKLep NGU the generation would be 30 times higher. This is what I intend by COP 30 in this kind of application.
This is the target we are aiming to. Maybe it will be less, we’ll see, but theoretically we should reach this target. In reality we will settle with what we’ll get.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Jorge

Dr Rossi,
You said that the expected COP of the NGU connected to a solar system is around 30: can you explain how this this value is calculated ?
COP can be intended in various modes,
Best
Jorge

• Dear Dr. Rossi,

“A man is not great because he has not failed; a man is great because failure has not stopped him.” Confucius

Wishing you the best of good days.

Best Regards,

Daniel G. Zavela

• Steven Nicholes Karels

WaltC,

You posted “Have you also calculated the “total kWh output per USD” of each device over the device’s rated warranty interval?”

No. But to do so we would need to assume the following:

a. PV Solar Panel – 25-year lifetime with a linear decrease in output to about 80%.
b. SKLep NGU – an 11-year lifetime or a 25-year lifetime? Unspecified decrease in output? If 11-year lifetime, then add the changeout costs.

• Andrea Rossi

Steve Albers:
Sorry, I do not understand exactly your question: can you rephrase it more clearly ? I do not understand which sense could have a comparision between a battery and a solar panel: they are two completely different things, although complementary; a solar panel generates electricity, while a battery discharges electricity that has been charged in it from an electricity generator.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Cathy Johnson:
There are many possible configurations whose choice depends on the specific situations. Both your hypothesis should be applicable.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

It will be a substantial supplement, that will work 24/7, also when the sun will be latitant…
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Harry

Hello Dr Rossi,
I note the word ‘amplification’ used to describe the working principle of the E-Cat. Is energy amplification even possible or does it supplement power to existing systems.
Good luck with your ongoing work,

Harry R

• WaltC

Steven Nicholes Karels,
Have you also calculated the “total kWh output per USD” of each device over the device’s rated warranty interval?
W.

• Cathy Johnson

Dear Dr. Rossi,

I would like to ask about connecting E-Cat SKLep NGU to the photovoltaic system:

1) The cable (string) leading from the photovoltaic panels will be connected to the E-Cat SKLep NGU and the cable from the E-Cat SKLep NGU will then be connected to the inverter?

or

2) Will the PV panels remain connected to the inverter as they are so far and the E-Cat SKLep NGU will be connected to the free DC input (MPPT) in the inverter?

Have A Nice Weekend

Cathy

• Greetings Andrea,

If I may pose a followup to recent questions about E-cat amplification: How would the system power output compare between using a solar panel versus a battery supplying the same amount of electricity as the solar panel would have?

Thanks much and best luck with your development,

Steve