# United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

### 40,876 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

• Andrea Rossi

Steven Nicholes Karels:
Thank you for your insight, but your math needs a double check, considering, among other considerations, that:
1- 400 W of solar panel power is the max power you can reach in a day, and the time per day average across the 4 seasons around the planet is a couple of hours;
2- a solar plant is not limited to the panel, but is a complex system with many components;
3- the 25 years of lifetime are contingent with serious maintenance issues, whose costs depend on the specific situations…etc
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Jan Srajer:
Absolutely !
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Steven Nicholes Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

you posted:

“You should compare the cost/kWh, not the cost/kW 24 h/day, 365 days/year in the timespan of 10 years; so far we are not able to know if our cost/kW will decrease; it will depend mainly on the economy scale.
Warm Regards,
A.R.”

Analysis
Time period: 10 years = 87,600 hours = 3,650 days.

NGU: Assume 100% usage, 300W of power output, cost is \$750.
NGU produced power is 300W * 87,600 hours = 26,280 kW-hrs
Or
35.04 kw-hr/\$ or 2.83 cents per kW-hr.

Solar Panel:
Assume 400W capable, gives an average of 300W per 10-hour day. No output during the other 14 hours per day. 400W solar panel costs \$200. Lifetime of 25 years.
Energy produced = 300W * 10 hrs/day * 3,650 days = 10,950 kW-hrs
Or
10.950 kW-hrs/\$200 = 54.75 kW-hrs /\$ or 1.83 cents per kW-hr.

Note: The solar panel has a warranty of 25 years.

• Jan Šrajer

Mr.Rossi
Congratulations. The Florida Panthers won. A good example to follow.
All the Best. J.Š.

• Andrea Rossi

Steven Nicholes Karels:
You should compare the cost/kWh, not the cost/kW 24 h/day, 365 days/year in the timespan of 10 years; so far we are not able to know if our cost/kW will decrease; it will depend mainly on the economy scale.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Steven Nicholes Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

Solar panels are now priced at about \$200USD for a 300W solar panel. Depending on the location, they provide power for about 1/3 of a day (over a period of 24 hours). So, the average cost per Watt of electrical power is about \$2USD per Watt – averaged over a 24-hour period of operation.

Your current price is \$2.50USD per Watt for the NGU technology.

Do you foresee your price decreasing as the cost of solar panels decreases?

• Andrea Rossi

Steven Nicholes Karels:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Steven Nicholes Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

Yet another application for NGU Technology – Canoe/boat trolling motor

A typical trolling motor, that could attach to the side of a canoe or fishing boat, requires 12VDC and up to 50Amps. There are commercially available mounting adapters, batteries, and electric trolling motors.

How about using 6 100W NGUs to power a canoe or small fishing boat?

I did, several years ago, an overnight canoe trip by oar. A long duration trolling motor would have made the journey so much more enjoyable.

Thoughts?

• Andrea Rossi

Anonymous:
Yes,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Anonymous

Dr Rossi,
Are you still collaborating with Physics Professors ?

• Andrea Rossi

Steven Nicholes Karels:
Thank you for the suggestion,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Steven Nicholes Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

On the 3kW units, I suggest that you allow the option for increasing the output voltage of the 3kW unit so that the current is reduced below 15Amps. If this is done, then the 3kW unit can directly interface with many inverters, which typically have a maximum current limitation of 15 Amps (or greater).

• Andrea Rossi

Germana:
No,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Emil Growatt:
Strange question: the Ecat generates electricity and any kind lamp ( with exception of candles ) are powered by means of electricity; as a consequence of this fact, obviously the Ecat SKLep NGU can light any lamp ( with exception of candles ),
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Emil Growatt

Dear Dr. Rossi,

is there any power version of the ECAT NGU capable of lighting (without using LED)?

If yes, which version?

If no version of ECAT NGU is able to light (without using LED), please simply write/admit it.

Best Regards

Emil

• Germana

Dr Rossi,
will you make the Ecat NGU demo at the same time and place of the Ecat-powered EV demo ?

• Andrea Rossi

Jan Srajer:
I am not able to answer,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Jan Šrajer

Mr.Rossi
If a vacuum is not needed to initiate ZPE, then in the future it will be possible to obtain energy from materials other than nickel and lithium. Am I right?

Warm regards J.Š.

• Andrea Rossi

Jan Srajer:
Yes,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Jan Šrajer

Mr.Rossi
Do you think it is possible to get ZPE energy without using a vacuum?

Warm regards J.Š.

• Andrea Rossi

Jean Paul Renoir:
Yes, the reverse difference of Entropy, not to violate the Third principle of Thermodynamics, needs a “creative” act to start a series of ceosequent evolutions, in the case of the Ecat System represented by the dV/dT induced to the electrons to start the formation of coherent charge clusters, as explained in the paper you cited,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Jean Paul Renoir

Dr Rossi,
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
the zero point energy derives from a reverse difference of entropy, is that correct ?
Best
JPR

• Andrea Rossi

Steven Nicholes Karels:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Steven Nicholes Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

An Application for the 3kW NGU device – direct supplemental 3-Phase Power Generation

Assumption – The 3kW NGU unit can output 60VDC at up to 50Amps.

Enphase has developed a 3-phase microinverter – IQ8P-3P-72-E-US. In single quantities it has a price of \$165.50USD. Up to 12 such units may be connected to run in parallel using a 3-Phase 20Amp breaker. The unit has a CEC efficiency of 97.5%. It is Grid Safe.

Consider using two 3kW NGU units. Each 3kW NGU units will power 6 microinverters. A string of 12 such inverters will feed a 20Amp 3-phase circuit breaker. I selected a Square D EGB34020 3-Phase circuit breaker with a cost of \$357.94USD. This subsystem would produce 5.7 kW of power to flow into the electrical grid.

Duplicate this ten times and you can output 200Amp 3-phase power to a grid transformer to convert the energy to high voltage transmission power with a continuous production of 57kW.

Do the above same 18 times and you have 1MW of 3-phase power, synchronized to the electrical grid.

Microinverter cooling is by natural convective cooling.

This could easily be added to a substation. Adding remotely controlled switching would allow controlling the amount of power flowing into the electrical grid.

For each generated MW of power, 2,160 3kW units would be needed.

Instead of a large GW power generation complex, each substation could have its own generation capability – subject to grid power being available to voltage and phase synchronize the generated power.

Thoughts?

• Andrea Rossi

Jan Srajer:
Thank you for your attention to the work of our Team,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Jan Šrajer

Mr.Rossi
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
It is just the beginning, or so I think, of looking at a new model of the atom. There will certainly be new theories in this area. Niels Bohr said that eventually the most fantastic theory will prove to be correct.
In your case, this will happen when the world sees your invention in action.
Today we can only guess what the consequences will be.
All the best.J.Š

• Andrea Rossi

Roberto:
Thanks God all my periodical control visits show a good situation, probably a legacy of my agonistic career when I was young.
Yes, I still play tennis regularly with my wife: in general, while growing differently young through the passing time, the quality of tennis decreases, but in my case this doesn’t happen, because my tennis can’t get any worse…
Warm Regards
A.R.

• Roberto

Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
I imagine you are continuing twenty years since to be under strong pressure, so, due to the importance of your work, can we know how is presently your health ?
Are you still playng tennis now and again ?
All the best,
Roberto

• Andrea Rossi

Steven Nicholes Karels:
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Emil Growatt:
The basic module is the 100 W; everybody can pre-order a multiple of 100 modules to cover his power needs; the price/W is the same, whatever the version; when we will be ready to deliver we will contact the Clients for the details and the possible optionals, and the order confirmation ( or cancellation, depending on the Client’s will ).
As you know, no money is requested at the pre-order phase, and if the Client, whatever the reason, will cancel the pre-order , no money will change place.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Steven Nicholes Karels

A Theoretical Point Design for a Solar Farm in Saudi Arabia

Assumptions

Assume LG 400W Bifacial solar panels, tied in a string series manner.
Assume an EG4 18KPV-12LV hybrid inverter is used.
Standard Temperature Conditions (STC): 20 degC. 1,000 W/m2 solar

Saudia Arabia

Minimum Temperature: -12 degC
Maximum Temperature: +52 degC

Solar Panel Characteristics

Nominal Power output under STC: 400W
STC Bifacial Power Output: 450W
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) @ STC: 49.7 Volts
Maximum Current – Bifacial: 8.65Amps
Temperature Coefficient – Voltage: -0.26 %/degC

EG4 Hybrid Inverter Characteristics

Full Power MPPT Voltage Range: 120 to 500V
Nominal MPPT Voltage: 360V
Maximum input current per MPPT: 2 MPPTs of 12.5Amps; 2 MPPTs of 15Amps
Maximum number MPPS inputs: 4
Maximum Utilized Solar Power: 18kW
Recommended Maximum Solar Panel Power: 21kW

Point Design

1. Determine maximum number of solar panels in a string. The string voltage must never exceed the inverter’s maximum voltage.

Determine worst case solar panel output voltage:
Vmax = 49.7V + (-2.6 * 49.7V / 100) * (-12degC – 20degC) = 91.05V
Maximum number of solar panels in series = 500V / 91.05V = 5.49 => 5 solar panels in series.
Note: MPPT current limitation does not allow solar panel strings in parallel.

2. Maximum power per solar panel string = 5 * 450W = 2.25kW (bifacial)

Nominal string voltage = 5 * 49.7V = 248.5V
Assume 2 strings input to one EG4 18KPV-12LV power: 2 * 2.25 kW = 4.5 kW
Note: Inverter can accept up to 21 kW of PV power but is can use only 18kW of solar power. Maximum solar panel power only occurs during daylight hours, maybe 6 – 10 hours per day. Assume 6 hours per day in this analysis.

3. Solar Panel Supplementation – 8 kW per inverter.

2 strings with 5 solar panels per string = 10 solar panels per inverter.
NGU supplementation of 800W electrical per solar panel or 8 each 100W NGU s per solar panel. Each string will have a total of 5 x 8 NGUs at 12V per NGU = an NGU string voltage of 480V, which is lower than the 500V inverter limit. Each NGU string will have a current of 8.33 Amps.

4. Power analysis: Each inverter can provide up to 12kW electrical power.

In one day, the total NGU-provided output power will be 8 kW * 24 hours = 192 kW-hrs. Assuming 6 hours of full solar panel output = 6 hours * 4.5kW = 27 kW-hrs from solar power. Combined power = 192 kW-hrs + 27 kw-Hrs = 219 kW-hrs per day. During mid-day, the inverter can output 11.5 kW of power. In the evening hours, the inverter would provide 8kW of power.

5. Implementation

While the solar panel power would be supplemented by the NGUs in this point design, the NGU power would run to the inverter on separate power lines from the solar panel string power lines.

Alternatively, if the NGU power were to directly add to the solar panel power using the same conductors, this could be done in multiple different designs, consistent with the limitations imposed by the inverter input requirements. Each possible design would need to go through a similar analysis.

• Emil Growatt

Dear Dr. Rossi,

how can photovoltaic installation companies understand and decide which version of E-CAT to pre-order ?

Best Regards

Emil Growatt

• Manuel Cilia

Dear Dr Rossi will you be creating 19 inch rack version of the Ecat unit so we can slide them into standard cabinets or will that be up to us to make.

Thanks

• Andrea Rossi

Jimmy Hunt:
Yes. We have patents granted also in Asia, Africa and Australia, and we have important contacts in the making.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Jimmy Hunt

Dr Rossi,
You wrote here that your manufacturing centers are in the USA and Europe. Are you planning to manufacture also in Asia, Africa and Australia ?
Best,
Jimmy

• Andrea Rossi

Udo:
You are not wrong,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Steven Nicholes Karels:
Thank you for the information,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Steven Nicholes Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

Bifacial solar panels are used to collect sunlight energy from both the front and the rear of the solar panel. This might be a ground array with the front side pointed the average elevation angle of the sun (based on latitude). It could also be mounted vertically, like in a fence, with the side pointed south and with alternating, adjacent, solar panels with the front side alternating. This has the advantage of picking up energy during diffuse light conditions such as clouds or snow on the ground.

The NGU supplementation device should be able to be mounted beneath the bifacial solar panel so as to not cast a shadow on adjacent solar panels.

Thoughts?

• Udo

Dr Rossi,
reading the paragraphs 5,6 and the experiment description of
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
I think I have understood how the Ecat works. I think the plasma is still the source, am I wrong ?
Thank you for your immense work,
Udo

• Andrea Rossi

Steven Nicholes Karels:
Thank you for the suggestion,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Prof:
Thank you for the update,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Steven Nicholes Karels

Dear Andrea Rossi,

One application that you might incorporate into your PV solar panel supplementation is to use excess power to cool the augmented solar panel.

The efficiency of any solar panel decreases as it heats up. Also, you are limited by the downstream electronics as to how much voltage and power the electronics can accept. When the sun is high and greatly illuminating the PV solar panel, it will increase its temperature, cause both by the surrounding environment and the solar radiation. Diverting some of the NGU output power to direct air on the underside of the PV solar panel will help reduce the PV solar panel’s temperature. This will result in improve PV solar panel lifetime and increased output power.

You would need to study this further, but it might make sense to use excess power to cool the air directed at the PV solar panel.

Thoughts?

• Prof

Dr Rossi,
Here are the stats of your papers on Researchgate I found today on
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
Total Readings: 142000 (of which 130090 only for “Ecat SK and long range particle interactions), more than the 99% of 1.5 millions of publications on Researchgate
Research Interest Score Index: 2905, higher than the 99% of 1.5 million publications on Researchgate
Recommendations: 11244, more that the 99% of 1.5 million publications on Researchgate
Most Reads by Cathegories: Chemical Engineers, Electronic Engineers, Theoretical Physicists, Researchers
Most Reads by Seniority: PhD Students, Professors, Seniors
Most Reads by Geographic Areas: USA, Europe, Asia
And counting…
Prof

• Andrea Rossi

I made 2 important corrections in the comment with my answer to Keith T !
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Stephen:
Yes, the comment of KeithT was important,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Andrea Rossi

Jitse:
OK
Warm Regards,
A.R.

• Jitse

Dear Andrea Rossi,
I had a problem with my apple the screen has a technical problem, half works normally the other part doesn’t.
My new on use my email was to old I only can read them, can jou change it in ijtsmabv1@gmail.com

• Stephen

Hi

Ahh I now see Donald Chandler posted it below.

Ivv bc should check more carefully

It’s interesting article I think

Thanks

Stephen

• Stephen

Dear Rossi and Kieth T,

I was yesterday wondering if this recent article article in Phys org could be important:

https://phys.org/news/2024-06-interact-extreme-intensities-schwinger-limit.amp

Was it already raised here ? Its an interesting coincidence if not.

Best Regards

Stephen

• Andrea Rossi

KeithT:
I agree with your comment: it is another confirmation of the Zitterbewegung electron model.