Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,497 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • strat

    Le principali testate online dedicano spazio all’esperimento del CERN che avrebbe rilevato una velocità dei neutrini superiore a quella della luce e non si parla ancora della fusione fredda senza timore di essere considerati ciarlatani.
    Forse perchè quello che prima poteva essere considerato fantascienza, superare la velocità della luce, non tocca gli interessi dei comuni mortali.
    A pochi automobilisti interesserà sapere che i neutrini superano i fotoni di 60 nanosecondi, mentre se non occorresse più spendere denaro in carburanti fossili sono certo che tutti tirerebbero su le orecchie.
    Comunque è assai strano che il mondo accademico sia più possibilista su un qualcosa che distruggerebbe la maggior parte delle certezze della fisica moderna piuttosto che sulla possibilità che il nichel si trasformi in rame.
    Vada avanti Sig. Rossi e dimostri al mondo intero che l’uomo non ha intenzione di fermarsi al 1945, sono ormai troppi anni che l’umanità è ferma sulle proprie certezze e al di la di rimpicciolire e rendere più efficiente quello che c’era già da anni non ha fatto.
    Saluti

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivan:
    I have been helped from about one hundred of persons, each specialized in his field.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ivan

    Mr Rossi,

    I am amazed to see the level of engineering, from your prototype in January to the redesigned ecat to the 1MW plant- in 9 months! This would be quite an achievement even for a fairly large corporation.

    Do you mind saying how many people, besides yourself and prof Focardi, have assisted?

    Ivan Idso

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Oscar:
    I cannot supply further information regarding the reactor. Please check former answers on this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Oscar

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The issue of the internal volume of the individual reactor chambers of the new model of E-Cat is a little confusing to me.

    The previous E-Cat reactors, had an internal volume of 50 cubic centimeters, and a rated output of 2.5 kilowatts.

    1) Is it correct that each of the individual reactors in the new model of E-Cat has an internal volume of 30 centiliters (300 cubic centimeters)? To rephrase this question, is 30 centiliters (300 cubic centimeters) the internal volume of one individual reactor core, or is it the total volume of *all* the reactor cores?

    2) If 300 cubic centimeters is the volume of one individual reactor, it seems the volume of each reactor has increased (from 50cc to 300cc), but the rated power output has dropped (from 2.5 kW to 1 kW). Is the reason for this power density decrease, to stabilize the reactors during self sustain mode?

    3) If the reason for the power density decrease is due to keeping the reactor stable during self sustain mode, what is the power output of one of these reactors when not in self-sustain mode (but with a constant drive)?

    Thanks.

  • raul heining

    “The boiling water reactors at Fukushima have – or had – a power density of 40 kW/liter”

    Joseph, you have to specify if it is per liter of uranium in the fuel units or per liter of the reactor vessel which is much bigger, and then compare this last one with that of the ecat volume or, otherwise compare the volume of nickel powder with the one of uranium in the fuel rods.
    Regards.
    raul

  • tj

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    It is really a joy to read your blog each day,

    Ignor the snakes.

    There are Terawatts of positive Karma out here pulling for your success.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine:
    Actually I said that the volume of the reactors is 30 centiliters (not cubic centimeters), but a reactor has a power of at least 5 kW.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Maurizio W.:
    Steam quality has been the war horse of snakes, now it turned into a Troy Horse inside their citadel, after our new measurement system based on the gauge of the energy given to a secondary circuit has confirmed the results. I left them talk to get more and more the Troy Horse inside, knowing what was arriving. Somebody is still thinking it is a war horse, warriors didn’t exit to fight, yet…to get their “success”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • MaurizioW

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I ask you to build a FAQ for peoples that doesn’t take the time to inform themselves before commenting.

    It’s more and more a pleasure to read your advancements in this project directly from your words,
    but these recurring, “ad nauseam”, requests for best demonstrations and vapor quality questions, really annoys all people already accustomed to your technology/setups.

    May I ask this to you,
    may I eventually help you,
    I know you are very near to success, but I see how much time you devote, over and over, to ansver the same questions.

    Best regards,
    Maurizio.

  • Joseph Fine

    A.R.

    You commented to John Salinger (Sept 21 @ 8:35 AM) that the volume of the reactors is 30 centiliters/kw. (Or 1 kW/30 centiliters.) Is that the same as a power density of 3.33 kW/Liter? So 3 liters would be 10 kW. Is that correct?

    The boiling water reactors at Fukushima have – or had – a power density of 40 kW/liter.

    So, if I did this correctly, you are seeing a power density of about a tenth that of a typical nuclear reactor. (And if you meant 30 cc instead of 30 centiliters, you have
    another factor of 10.)

    Sorry to bother you with trivialities.

    J.F.
    ( 30 centiliters = 300 cubic centimeters. ) Sorry to bother you with trivialities

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greven Grevesson:
    Please read carefully the new testing circuit, described in an answer of mine to a today’s comment. The reactors are designed to make steam, but the measurements of energy are taken from the secondary circuit, which heats water without making steam.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Will Hurley:
    That’s what we do.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Will Hurley

    Mr. Rossi,

    As an old Startup/Test Engineer from golden years of nuclear, we would use two separate instruments of measurement and calibrate before and after the test. We would then look at the error, if any, to compare to the acceptance criteria for approval. Just a thought.
    We have complete faith in your success. Enjoy the ride. We are.
    Regards,
    Hurley

  • Greven Grevesson

    Drar Mr. Rossi

    Why don’t you just increase the pump frequency for the October test so that you don’t generate steam (just heats water) – than the effect would be real easy to calculate and you get rid of all critical discussions around the quality of the steam etc.?

    BR
    Greven

  • arian

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    this is link of book.
    you must install a djvu reader program for book.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John M.:
    1- yes
    2- not necessarily
    3- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Salinger:
    1- Yes for the modules, impossible for the 1 MW
    2- Yes, recovering the liquid water at the output and subtracting it from the amount of treated water, which gives us a penalty, because the liquid water is also made by condensed water after the vaporization, but we can accept this conservative issue
    3- the apparatus is smaller than before: the volume is occupied from the heat exchanger. We will allow the Scientists to open the envelope which contains the heat exchangers to see that the reactors are very small. The volume of the reactors is about 30 centiliters/kW.
    After 1 hour any possibility of elevtrochemical energy source is over, no batteries exist anywhere able to produce 1 kWh of energy in 1 hour in a volume of 30 cl (centiliters).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter Heckert:
    I cannot give information regarding the reactor operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Arian,
    The link to your book is welcome if you send it to the Journal in a comment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chris Johnson:
    I cannot give information about the reactor operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chris Johnson

    Mr. Rossi,

    Have you considered using a phase change material as a temperature moderator for your device? If you used a phase change material around the core that melts at a temperature that allows the reactor to remain well controlled, you could store energy in the phase change and then use it later when there was sufficient demand. The phase change could act like a thermal battery so that the reactor would only have to support an average load instead of a peak load, and there would be no startup delay when heat was required. You would need a heat exchange between the external heat sink and the phase change material.

    There is a company called PCM Products that has an extensive inventory of phase change materials that work at various temperatures and also lots of applications information. See http://www.pcmproducts.net/ .

    There is another company called Microtek Labs ( http://www.microteklabs.com ) that specializes in encapsulation of PCM materials so that they can be suspended in another liquid. You could perhaps even have a range of materials encapsulated so that you absorbed different amounts of energy at different temperatures, perhaps aiding in the control of the reaction.

    In general, there are many companies that manufacture and encapsulate phase changes materials, the above are only a small example.

    Phase change materials might be useful in a second generation reactor design.

    Regards,

    Chris Johnson

  • arian

    hello Mr Rossi
    congratulations for your success.
    I’m very interested in cold fusion topics and follow this topics for years.i was very surprised when i find out about your invention, because of similarity process in e-cat reactor and a theory that predict this process 10 years ago .theory predicted using nickel as catalyst can make electron in hydrogen atom lose their ground state and form new hydrogen atom with electron under ground state, maybe this theory can explain e-cat process,if you are interested i can send you link of this book.

  • Dear Mr Rossi
    I hold my breath and hope all goes well.
    My heart beats fast as I contemplate what awaits.
    I remember the feeling of elation off 20 years ago.
    The announcement of cold Fusion bought to my soul.
    What will another twenty years Bring?
    Ad Astra.
    Twobob

  • Peter Heckert

    Mr. Rossi,

    could it be possible to improve the reaction time and electrical efficiency, if the reactor core is not indirectly heated by resistors, but directly heated, e.g. by inductive heating? This could avoid to heat the water by the resistor band heater.

  • Peter Heckert

    Enrico Billi:

    I am most interested in the swedish test.
    The problem is, if I could buy an e-cat I dont know if it really will pay off for me in my situation.

    My gas boiler can do 10 kW, but this is the peak load. Average load is much much lower. In 90 or 80% of time in a single year it is unused and does not produce heat or produces much less than 10kW. Service and maintentance costs are very low and reliability is very high. I switch it on and it reacts immediately and it is immediately off, when no hot water or heating is needed.
    Electricity costs are almost zero.
    So the low energy costs of e-cat would possibly not pay off for me, if the device costs 2000$ per kilowatt.
    Best,

    Peter

  • John Salinger

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    1. You claim to have successfully measured the delta T of entering and exiting water of a secondary circuit on the 1 MW plant already, producing results in line with what has been observed earlier. Is this also the manner in which the test for the October demonstration will be conducted?
    2. If not, are you however planning for an “idiot-proof” system that leaves no room for speculation as to the reliability of the method for calculating the overall energy, i.e., something other than calorimetry with steam?
    3. Considering that the apparatus is now larger than before, how long does the test have to be run to exclude any chemical reaction?

    Best Regards,

    ~John

  • John M

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Not sure if these questions have already been asked/answered ?

    – Is it possible to make larger capacity ecats using ‘multi-core reactors’? These which should be more cost effective to produce since the lead shielding would be used for multiple reactors ? There would also be space savings, less cabling, less piping, etc, and also a level of unit internal redundancy, as a failure of one internal reactor would only reduce output by a certain percentage.

    – Are you planning to use e-cats in self sustaining mode in the 1MW plant ? This would be useful as it would reduce the need for ~150kw of continuous grid supply into the plant. Having a small input power requirement would make the product able to be installed more readily without having to upgrade the grid to the customer premesis. You could start the ecats up (eg:) at 4 at a time in a controlled manner to limit the input current.

    Kind regards and west wishes,
    John M

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bhagirath Joshi:
    Let me inform our Readers that your paper will be published on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics in December.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Richichi:
    Good, let me know when you will be ready with a proposal.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco,
    Thanks: I will remember, in case.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enrico Billi:
    The Swedish test will be very important, bacause we will make the primary circuit of steam produced by the reactor exchange heat with a secondary water circuit, while the steam will be condensed and the condensed water will be recycled to the reactor. The measure of energy will be made on the base of the delta T between the water that exits from the heat exchanger and the water that enters in the same heat exchanger, so that the energy is calculated indipendently from the steam circuit. Of course the heat exchanger heats the water in countercurrent with the steam. The delta T will be datalogged and the water flow will be measured by means of a flowmeter. We are already making this test on the modules of the 1 MW plant, and the results are the same as before. This system is ready for household application, because this is, basically, a water boiler.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    (No lidele, lavolale, lavolale!)

  • Enrico Billi

    I read the swedish will test the 10KW module. My friends don’t want a test result from scientists, they wanna buy and “test” by theirselves ehehheh
    best Regards
    Enrico Billi

  • Martin Fallon

    I think everyone should give Mr Rossi some space the man is handing the world probaly the best invention to hit this planet and he needs it to be perfect to silence the critics for once and for all, therefore i think he needs time to get everything right before his launch, its cheering him on we need to be doing, not driving him up the walls with questions it reminds me of my kids before i open a box of choclates.Go Rossi Your the Man !

  • Marco

    Per Andrea Rossi.
    Salve ho seguito con entusiasmo e passione tutte le notizie.
    Lei è geniale.Congratulazioni.
    Se mai avesse bisogno di un meccanico, mi metto a sua disposizione.
    (per sciogliere un cristallo di sale occorrono 4000°… con l’acqua tutto diventa semplice ne bastano pochi)
    credo che queste parole bastano a capire in che direzione bisogna andare

    Marco faggioli Firenze.

  • Francesco RICHICHI

    Egregio ingegner ROSSI
    Mi chiamo Fr.sco RICHICHI e volevo dirLe che sono in corso di brevettazione con una pompa motore a bassa entalpia che riuscirebbe a lavorare tranquillamente sino a 190° di vapore.. Spero Le interessi perchè a mio giudizio implementerebbe tantissimo il valore del suo lavoro.. Mi potrebbe ricontattare al 3927921685
    Grazie
    Fr.sco RICHICHI

  • Simon Knight

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Referring to my posting form yesterday:
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=510&cpage=11#comment-74603
    I would like to give links to the full temperature diagram from the September 7 demo:
    http://i.imgur.com/lU42G.png
    and also a link to an Excel with the corresponding data:
    http://www.nyteknik.se/incoming/article3264365.ece/BINARY/Report+E-cat+test+September+7+%28pdf%29

    Kind regards, Simon

  • To Don Sprague:

    1 KW = 3414.43 btu/hr so 10 KW = 34,144.3 btu/hr

    regards

    Eng Newell

  • D Absher

    Dear Mr. Rossi: Regarding the comment from GG Khalsa on Sept. 19 regarding the naming of the operation of your E-Cat, I point out an example of American’s fears of the word nuclear. Modern computerized medical imaging now known as MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, was originally known as NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance. Apparently, public confusion and fear caused the name change within, I believe, about a year of introduction. I agree with Mr. Khalsa’s comment. The name Energy Catalyzer is perfectly OK, but the method of operation needs a new name. I suggest just calling it a nickel-hydrogen reaction. Other readers with more experience in the advertising world may have better suggestions.

  • Bhagirath Joshi

    This article is very interesting. Opens up completely new field of “Solid Sate Nuclear Physics”. Similar to the behaviour of electrons in solids and as greatly investigated by Solid State Physicists, This nuclear phenomena of free neutrons, protons and proton neutron pairs needs to be investigated and understood. There are accepted concepts and empirical formulas to experimentally calculate the half life of element, but there is no theoretical framework which can predict the half life of elements or compounds and what will be the nature of the decay particle.

    I think the field of “Solid state nuclear physics” will provide a deeper understanding of nuclei and the behaviour.

    My model of “Excess neutron shell model of nuclei ” when applied correctly predicts the spin of elements across the board for all elements. Also it predicts that low energy neutrons in the range of 41 kev can really disrupt the nuclei and make it unstable.

    Thus my theory applied to “solid state nuclear physics” will be able to explain many of these daunting puzzles of nature.

    Good work

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bruce Fast:
    Congratulations, your blog id interesting.
    About the commercialization of the E-Cats: contact me in November.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I watched the video by Mats Lewan “See the E-cat run in self-sustained mode.” That was impressive, breathtaking! Where the Steve Krivit video did produce doubts, this video produces confidence in your technology.

    Thanks also for releasing pictures of the 1mw plant prior to your promise of the end of September.

    I live in northern Canada. As such we have a significant heating season. I can heat my home with a boiler. How can I become one of the first purchasers of your consumer grade heater?

    Lastly, I have been running a blog, nickelpower.org that explores the technical, economic and social ramifications of your technology. I know you are an extremely busy person, but I would love it if you poked your nose into the blog — maybe leave a comment. I would recommend starting with the lead post, “Energy is obsolete!”.

    You have created exciting times! Because of your technology I am looking forward to the buzz of the next few years.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob K:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear K. Dobrolecki:
    It’s not that simple.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear David Roberson:
    We will give the commercial available data of the ! MW plant after its start up.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Don Sprague:
    We will give all these data in due time, when we will be ready for commercialization. We are working on this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Don Sprague

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Many of us here in the northeast (Maine and other New England states) are interested in your E-Cat as replacement for furnace boiler.

    Can you give us equivalent output in btu’s for a 10kw E-Cat reactor?

    Also cost (to heat 1500 sq ft building) comparison vs modern oil fired burner.

    Best regards, Don

  • Gunnar Londberg

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    When you start the public test of the one MW power plant by pushing a red button, you must say something for the world to remember.

    I have two suggestions.
    If you are very confident: One small push for man; one giant leap for mankind.
    If not: May the power be with me.

    I whish you very good luck!
    Yours sincerely
    Gunnar Lindberg

  • David Roberson

    The system engineering associated with the new ECAT power container is interesting in many ways. I noted that each module can be removed independently of the others when service is needed. A valve is placed in both the water inlet as well as the water outlet lines. I assume a second valve at the inlet is near the back of the unit, but I was not able to discern that from the video produced by Mats Lewan. This valve would allow a technician to cut off the input water stream and then open the second valve attached to the ECAT to drain out any hot water remaining after it has been powered down. This process would make the unit 30 kilograms lighter for service access.

    Each power connection is reachable from the front of the unit and thus easily disconnected when needed. The same is true of the signal inputs.

    I am sure that Mr. Rossi has made allowances for ECATS which fail during operation. The test of the sustaining unit performed by Mats pointed toward some form of output valve protection. It makes perfect sense to have a check valve near the output to prevent leakage of the main system steam in the case of a pipe or ECAT failure. Also, it is entirely possible that another thermal or electrically activated valve system results in increased pressure and boiling temperature within the device. The elevated temperature of 133 degrees suggests this strongly. A second operation associated with this elevated pressure is evident during the sustaining operation when it is used to push the water from the ECAT after shutoff. This constitutes a most convenient way to empty the device for service. Also, it does not surprise me to see elevated output pressure and temperature in order to perform well in real world applications. Pressure losses within the output lines and devices needs to be compensated for and it is then possible to vent the residual water as required.

    When I see these practical engineering provisions being made by Mr. Rossi, I feel confident that the ECAT is real and not a scam. It would be beyond belief for him to construct such a large and complex system with these common sense attachments just for a few of us engineering types to enjoy. His design is practical and carefully considered.

    Mr. Rossi, is it possible for you to supply us with a hydraulic schematic showing the valves external to the actual core of the device? I understand that you would not want to reveal the details of the ECAT internal catalyzer, but it would be most interesting to see how you control the water flow.

  • K.Dobrolecki

    Dir Mr. Rossi

    Most often we can see in the discussion about E-Cats;- 50cc capacity of the reactors. Why it can not be bigger like 500cc or one liter.
    The more kilowatts from one reactor, the less number of the reactors is needed in bigger “megawatts” units.
    KD.

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