Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,497 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi:

    If the High(er) Temperature Reactor is similar in size to the original one, does that mean it produces more power? I think so, but asked to be sure.
    For example, instead of 1 Megawatt, the reactor might produce 1.1 MW or more.
    (Or 40 kW could be produced instead of 30 kW.)

    Can a ‘newer’ 1 MW plant, therefore, be made physically smaller than previously announced?

    Also, if the reactor operates at a higher temperature, electricity can be generated more efficiently. (Carnot Theory)

    Did you realize when you started this that there would be one innovation after another?

    If you work 12 hours a day, that’s just a half-day’s work! Try to take some rest, when you can.

    Best wishes,

    Joseph Fine

  • Carlo Salvi

    Dear Mr Rossi, I understand your priority in high temperature systems, and I have a great hope for your success.
    What I try to imagine, for a car application is a “battery recharger” based on a E-cat that produce electricity, connected to the battery of a electric car, not a “steam” engine.
    I know this is not the most efficient system to use e-cat (heat to electricity means 30% of efficiency as we know) but this could be the first step to integrate the e-cat into the current first generation of electric cars.

    Maybe the next generation of cars (after the electric engine) could use directly an E-cat “steam” engine that would be more efficient than the ecat-battery-electric engine that I suggest.
    I hope this could happens before 20 years, we need soon an alternative to oil.
    Warm Regards, Carlo Salvi.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Good for you. Anyway, what I wanted to say is that we must prioritize targets we can hit in short and middle term. Nevertheless, we are now working on a high temperature reactor that, if confirmed in his validity, will open interesting applications for the Sterling Engine.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    In its reply concerning the development to auto You has said:
    “Before a technology like this can be accepted and certified for cars it will take up to 20 years.”
    Beautiful hope for me that time of year i have 61!!!
    Warm Regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pekka Janhunen:
    Exactly,
    Warm RFegards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi, Carlo Salvi:
    Concerning cars, I want to predict: After the home E-cat is on market, it takes less than two years before someone builds a prototype car, perhaps a technical high school. Certified production is another matter though.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    I cannot give this information.
    Cara Antonella: non posso dare questa informazione.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Salvi:
    As I said, the applications to cars are very far away, for many reasons. Before a technology like this can be accepted and certified for cars it will take up to 20 years. This is why we are focusing on other targets.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Carlo Salvi

    Caro Signor Rossi, seguo da tempo l’evoluzione del suo ecat e stavo pensando ad un altro modo per sfruttarlo in ambito non domestico.
    Tempo fa lei diceva che ci vorranno molti anni prima di poter vedere automobili alimentate tramite la fusione fredda. Prendendo spunto da auto come ad esempio la Opel Ampera, che utilizzano un motore elettrico abbinato ad un motore a combustione tradizionale che ricarica le batterie , mi chiedevo se non sia possibile abbinare ad un auto elettrica un e-cat che generi in maniera continua l’elettricità necessaria alla ricarica della batteria. Credo che potrebbe essere un inizio per utilizzare in maniera efficiente le auto elettriche che stanno iniziando ad affermarsi sul mercato. Il grosso limite dell’ auto elettrica è dato dalla scarsa autonomia e dai lunghi tempi di ricarica; un E-cat (magari di dimensioni ridotte rispetto al generatore da 3kw) collegato alla batteria permetterebbe autonomia illimitata, perchè produrrebbe energia elettrica anche ad auto spenta, fino a disattivarsi una volta terminata la carica. Durante il normale utilizzo dell’ auto l’ e-cat potrebbe riattivarsi sotto una certa soglia di utilizzo della batteria.
    Zero costi di carburante, zero emissioni, automobili piu’ leggere, autonomia infinita e non necessarie colonnine di ricarica. perchè non pensa ad una collaborazione con qualche casa automobilistica ?
    Grazie della sua cortese attenzione, Carlo Salvi

    Dear Mr. Rossi, I follow the long evolution of your ECAT and I was thinking of another way to use it in non-domestic way.
    Some time ago you said that it will take many years before we can see cars powered by cold fusion. Inspired by such cars as the Opel Ampera, which use an electric motor combined with a conventional combustion engine that recharges the batteries, I was wondering if it is possible to combine an electric car and a e-cat-that creates the continuously electricity needed to recharge the battery. I think it might be a start efficient way to use electric cars that are beginning to penetrate the market. The major limitation of electric car is given by the lack of autonomy and long recharge times, an E-CAT (maybe small compared to the generator 3kw) connected to the battery would allow unlimited autonomy, because they also would produce electricity with car turned off, until turn off when charging is terminated. During normal use ‘the e-cat’ and could recharge below a certain threshold of use of the battery.
    Zero fuel costs, zero emissions cars more lightweight ,autonomy endless and unnecessary charging stations. why do not you think a collaboration with some car company?
    Thanks for your consideration.
    Carlo Salvi

  • Antonella

    Caro Andrea,

    ho ragionato sulle tue affermazioni:
    1.il Cliente è americano
    2.il Cliente è militare
    3.distribution is overseas

    Credo la soluzione sia: l’impianto è in una base americana in Europa.

    Ho indovinato?

  • Hughd

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Correction to 2,200 sq ft house for E-cat cost.

    I did not correct for the difference in the natural gas furnace and E-cat efficiency. The E-cat is 100% efficient having no stack heat loss. The efficiency of the natural gas furnace is around 85% efficient. The E-cat would only need to supply about 383 therms for the 4 coldest months.

    At an E-cat cost of US 16.6 cents for 34,130 BTU results in a cost of $186 for the 383 therms or US 6.25 cents per hour down from the previous US 7 cents per hour given.

    Best regards,
    Hughd

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gediminas,
    Our Licensees have attended demos of our E-Cat in operation.
    Nice motto you got, very fit for our situation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rosssi ,

    Recently You mentioned that in October list of Your company representavives (distributors) will be placed in internet . Will these all representatives will have posibility to see working prototipe of 10 KW before October ? Or maybe it will be 1 MW plant from non military customer ?
    P.S Recently I got photo from partners stand in motoshow , theyr anotation will be very suitable for Your company naysayers “Those who say it can’t be done, should not disturb those who are doing it !”

    Good luck !
    Gediminas

  • Paul C

    eCat will be the proof-of-principle demonstration – The revelations of cold fusion will rejuvenate the rest of physics when people realize
    the experts are wrong and we do not know everything after all, here is the quick read of what Cold Fusion holds for Humanity:
    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/RothwellJcomparison.pdf

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine, Anatoly:
    Exactly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Anatoliy, A.R.,

    Perhaps a word was left out or misplaced: My understanding is….”We will give (more) information after the test campaign we are making is adjourned/(has been completed).

    A month-long test is in progress. Let’s wait and see.

    Joseph

  • Anatoliy V. Sermyagin

    Dear Andrea Rossi, you wrote:

    “May 8th, 2012 at 3:56 PM
    Dear Mario P.:
    http://www.ecat.com
    is the right site, as long as this blog, to get our news. About the new high temperature reactors ( which will be only for industrial use) we will give adjournments after the test campaign we are making.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.”

    Perhaps, “adjournments” is a typo; is it correctly to read “adjudgment” instead of it?

    Best Regards,
    Anatoliy V. Sermyagin

  • Hughd

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You asked for some math for heating a 2,200 square foot house for US 6 cents per hour in the coldest 4 winter months. Please note that I was referring to the cost per hour for the 10 kW E-cat to provide the heat in my previous post.

    First the home is set to 70 degrees F from 6 AM to 11 PM each day. From 11 PM to 6 AM it is set to 55 degrees F. The home is well insulated.

    The coldest months are December 2011, January 2012, February 2012 and March 2012 with an average temperature of 33 F, 35 F, 31 F and 45 F respectively (the average temperature is computed by adding the high and low for the day and dividing by 2).

    The home is presently heated by a 95,000 BTU forced air natural gas furnace. The energy required to heat the home is 110, 127, 132, 70, therms respectively for December thru March (1 therm = 100,000 BTU) or a total of 439 therms for the 4 months. The cost of the natural gas is $325 or US 74 cents per therm. The cost per hour to heat the home with natural gas averages US 10.9 cents per hour.

    Now for the E-cat: The 10 kW E-cat has a linear heat control to allow the unit to provide heat at the rate of 1 kW to 10 kW (3413 BTU/hr to 34,130 BTU/hr). At full output the E-cat would provide 8 therms in a 24 hour period. The max requirement is 4 therms per day. The E-cat should be able to provide enough heat for the E-cat to keep up on the coldest day.

    When at full output of 34,130 BTU/hr, the E-cat with a COP of 6 is using 1.66 kW of electrical power which costs US 16.6 cents to generate 34,130 BTU(1 kWh costs US 10 cents here in Colorado) . For the 4 months the E-cat will need to provide 439 therms which will cost $213.47 or US 7 cents per hour average for the 4 coldest months (electric power costs for the forced air fans are not included).

    On my previous calculation, I either used a different 4 month period or was a bit biased toward the E-cat when I came up with US 6 cents per hour.

    If the COP was 10, the cost for 34,130 BTU would be US 10 cents and the heating cost for the E-cat would only be US 4.3 cents per hour average in this example.

    Best regards,
    Hughd

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mario P.:
    http://www.ecat.com
    is the right site, as long as this blog, to get our news. About the new high temperature reactors ( which will be only for industrial use) we will give adjournments after the test campaign we are making.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    That makes more sense…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mario P.

    Dear Andrea,

    On your website http://www.ecat.com is mentioned,
    “Be the first to know. Get on ECAT.com’s Newsletter”
    You can fill in your name and email address.
    But from the start of the site i did not receive a newsletter.

    You say often in this blog “we are making important improvements.”

    On the website ww.ecat.com is a lot of information.
    But no information on the ‘improvements’ that you often mention you have made.
    Can you tell us some improvements? (of course only improvements outside the ecat)
    Maybe you can mention them in this newsletter. (When i get one!)

    Excuse me for bothering you with this question.
    Yours sincerely,
    Mario P.

  • Joseph Fine

    A.R.

    That’s what Hughd expects he will spend, in the future, when he has an E-Cat, not what he spends now!!!

    If heat costs from 0.5 to 1 cent per kilowatt hour from the E-Cat, he needs the E-Cat to provide 6 to 12 (or 12 to 6) kilowatts of heat per hour. That’s more likely.

    He almost certainly spends much more than that now. Electricity costs about 9 cents per kilowatt-hr in Colorado (more or less).

    Best regards,

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hughd:
    You are very lucky! I would like to understand with some math how you heat up a 2,200 sq ft house in Winter in Colorado with a mere 6 cents/h.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hughd

    Dear Robert Curto

    You have not added in the cost of the electricity required for a COP of 6.

    Here in the 4 coldest months of Colorado the E-cat will cost about 6 cents per hour to heat a 2,200 sq ft house.

    Best regards
    Hughd

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mario P.:
    I do not understand. Can you explain?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mario P.

    Dear Andrea,

    when the first newsletter will be sent to the readers of your website ecat.com.
    Hopefully there are a few of your improvements listed.

    Warm Regards,
    Mario P.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandevalle:
    We are working 16 hours per day to make it real. And in these days we are making important improvements.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Downs:
    Thanks,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea
    Thanks for your reply.

    If the basis of your E-cat process is to charge nickel powders with atomic hydrogen then it is possible that formate solutions will do a better and safer job than pressurised hydrogen gas – and at quite moderate temperatures. For more info on formate solutions as reliable hydrogen storage and charging/delivery sources read :

    1) Albert Boddien, Felix Gärtner, Christopher Federsel, Peter Sponholz, Dörthe Mellmann, Ralf Jackstell, Henrik Junge, and Matthias Beller (2011): “CO2-Neutral Hydrogen Storage Based on Bicarbonates and Formates”, Angewandte Chemie International Edition doi: 10.1002/anie.201101995

    2) B. Zaidman, H. Weiner and Y. Sasson (1986) : ” Formate salts as chemical carriers in hydrogen storage and transportation “, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol 11, pages 341-347

    3) H. Weiner, B. Zaidman and Y. Sasson (1989): ” Storage of energy by solutions of alkali formate salts”, Solar Energy, Vol 43, pages 291-296

    If formates happen to work in your system I would recommend that you rent them out with the E-cat units and provide a recovery and regeneration service for the spent solutions.

    best regards
    John

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    The revolution in the revolution. That is nice.
    Means lots of improvements at once. Again.
    It would have been a mistake to release the secret earlier, with still a revolution available inside. I do not want to imagine what could have happened if a buyer of one domestic e-cat, or a spy of the competition had this new insight. You would have done 99% of the job, but he would call it “his invention”. We all know and use lots of products that were invented long time ago, and we learn from our teachers, ennemies and friends, but when it comes to money, some believe we can own knowledge, which in fact is mostly (99,99percent) a free gift from our ancestors, and which is spread because of a good-working society. There is not much science in communities that struggle for food, safety and shelter.
    So I really hope that your e-cat technology can protect us from a collapsing society. The sooner the better.

    Keep it moving !

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Robert Curto:
    Yes, the domestic E-Cat can have a good economy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Rossi, I don’t know if this information is correct.
    But I read this on the Internet.
    A man in Massachusetts said he heats his 1,600 square foot home, with Fuel Oil at a cost of $1,800 a year.
    He said he keeps it at 70 because he is home all day.

    If two E-Cats will do this at a fuel cost of less then $10 a month per E-Cat, total cost of $240 per year.

    If all this is true, I don’t know
    how you are going to keep up with the demand in the USA alone, not to mention the other 200 Countries.

    On top of all that
    the Electric E-Cat
    will be right behind, electricity for about one cent a kWh.
    The average electric cost in the US is 11 cents
    a kWh.(30 cents in
    Hawaii)

    Robert
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    In October we will make a convention of all our Licensees and their list will be put in our website.
    For now we are just organizing the network. It is also premature to talk of prices, since the prices for the domestic E-Cats will be set after the certification, which is in course. Only the price for the 1 MW plants is fixed, and the 1 MW plants are the sole item that Leonardo Corp can sell now.
    To have more information, please go to
    http://www.ecat.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Antonella

    caro Andrea,

    è ancora presto per conoscere i licenziatari? sono molto curiosa su questo punto, e per me le piccole scoperte fatte dai fan, come ad esempio il link riportato ieri da Andrew, danno altro succo alla trama di E-Cat Story :)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Downs:
    Interesting considerations. As you know, I can’t give information when it goes inside the reactor.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea – Your E-Cat reactors may run better using potassium formate or cesium formate solutions (i.e. water-based liquids) as the source of hydrogen. Both of these formate solutions are known to inject (charge) nickel with atomic hydrogen when heated, and will generate a steady flow of hydrogen into the nickel powder in the E-Cat. The rate of hydrogen insertion into the nickel can be controlled by the temperature, and any excess hydrogen produced in the reactor will raise the pressure and move the reaction equilibrium back towards formate. You could rent out (lease) the formate solutions to your E-cat users ( I guess you are leasing out your E-cat reactors too, like a car rental business ?) and take them back for regeneration after a certain amount of time/depletion. This could be a much better, simpler and safer process than messing around with pressurised hydrogen. The formate solutions are non-hazardous, “green”, safe to handle and available in kilotonne quantities. I am a formate specialist. For further information about formate solutions, and their use as safe liquid sources of hydrogen, contact : john@formatebrine.co

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lenr4you:
    I mean that with these temperatures theoretically is possible to apply a Sterling Engine, but it is a supposition. We are still on the test bench with this new reactor. For sure we will try to couple it with a Sterling engine.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • lenr4you

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    you wrote:
    “Andrea Rossi
    May 5th, 2012 at 5:46 PM
    Dear Francesco:
    Yes. Sterling Engine.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.”

    1. What did you mean with “Yes. Sterling Engine” a Stirling Engine?
    2. Do you use a Stirling Engine to produce electricity?
    3. and if yes: The Rossi-Reactor is inside or outside of the Stirling Engine?

    I wish you and your team the best.

    LENR4you@googlemail.com

  • Joseph Fine

    Robert Curto,

    I approve.

    :-))

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Yes. Sterling Engine.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Robert Tanhaus: yes, for the industrial applications.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hergen:
    No, for the domestic the safety issues are still prohibitive, but for the industrial applications we made a gigantic step forward.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hergen:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear P.G. Sharrow:
    I must thank our military Customer, we are working with them and learning.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    Any technology can be used for any purpose: men decide. A knife can be used to eat a steak or to kill.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Daniel G. Zavela:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • […] he is speaking of a breakthrough in this area. Here are his posts: May […]

  • Dear Dr. Rossi:

    Congratulations on your revolution in a revolution.
    If you can harness a large part of the potential of 3,000 C for a NI-H cell, as measured by Dr. Patterson, then you have clearly advanced the State-of-the-Art for “Cold Fusion”.

    The Japanese will welcome this good news.
    NHK News 5/5/2012
    Japan begins to shut down last online nuke plant
    The operator of Japan’s last operating nuclear power reactor in Hokkaido has begun to shut down the reactor for regular inspections.

    Best of Luck.

    Daniel G. Zavela

  • Robert Curto

    Dr. Joseph Fine, I typed in
    a Smiley Face.
    It was changed to a Symbol.
    I will try again.
    First type :
    next type –
    then type )
    I guess if you put that together, it will be changed to a Smiley Symbol.
    Sorry to have bothered you
    with this.

    Robert
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Robert Curto

    DR. Joseph Fine, I Transplanted the nose on your Smiley.

    :-)

    I hope you approve.

    Robert
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

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